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nonsux asd bov, orkat kortuxrv rRisrrixu works, 





% ^iitral J^ta^t Cranslatbn, 






O dcgli altri poetl onore e lumc, _ 

Vaglinmi 11 lungo studio e U grande auiore, 

Che m* ban fatto oercar lo tuo volume. In/ern. i. 8ti-4. 





Bti. J// 







The object of the foli(m-ing Prose Translation 13 to 
j^ve the real meaning of Dante as literally and briefly 
as possible. No single particle has been wittingly 
left unrepresented in it, for which any equivalent 
coiild be discovered ; and the few words that have 
been added are marked in Italics. English readers, 
it is hoped, will here find a closer, and therefore, 
with all its defects, a wanner version than any that 
has hitherto been published for them. 

The Italian Te.xt, carefully collated from the 
best editions, is printed beneath, in order to jastify 
and sapport the Translation, winch is perhaps too 
literal for standing alone; and likewise to enable 
those who have any knowledge of Italian to mider- 
st&nd the Origmal Itself more easily, and with less 
obstruction enjoy the deep rhythmic force and beauty 
of it, which cannot be transferred into any other 

New Arguments or explanatory introductions, 
intended to diminish the number and burden of in- 
dispensable notes, are prefixed to the Cantos. The 
Noties themselves are either original, or taken directly, 

and in no case witliout accurate reference, from the 
best Italian commentators and historians ; and, above 
' all, from Dante's own ivorks, wherever any thing 
appropriate could be met with. Dlustrative or par- 
allel passages are quoted in them, from the Biblo^ 
and from Vu-gi] and other ancient authors, to shew 
the way in wliich Dante used his materials ; and 
more sparingly from Chaucer and Milton, both of 
whom had read the Divina CommedJa with poetic 
warmth and insight, before producing any of their 
own great works. The endless passages whicli might 
have been quoted from Italian writers, are excluded 
for tile sake of brevity, and as being far less near 
and less interesting to us. 

Finally, the doubtful, dliEcult, or obsolete ivords 
are explained between the notes and the oiiginal 
text, or in the notes themselves. A brief account of 
the most remarkable Editions, Comments, aud Trans- 
lations, ja given at the commencement, together witli 
a sketch of Dante's Hell and his jouniey through it. 
And the volume concludes with a complete Index of 
the Proper Names that are mentioned or alluded to. 

Now this simple statement will sufBciently shew 
that the present undertaking is upon a plan quite 
different from tliat of the other English translations ; 
and tlierefore enters into no competition with tliem, 
and requires no apology. I am persuaded that all 
who know any thing of the manifold significance of 
the Original, or of its old and receut history, will be 
glad to see another faitliful effort made to bring the 


true meaning of it nearer to English readers. Bat, 
for seip-era! purposes, aiid more especially for the 
^idance of younger studeuts, it may be useful to 
state also, ui a few wordfi, the reasons that have gra- 
dually led to this new experiment, and the feelings 
and conrictions under wlucb it was b^un. They are 
as ibilows : 

In the year 1831, being called to Italy by other 
duties, I first studied the Divina Commedia, under 
guidance of the most noted hterary Dilettanti of Korae 
and other plactw. 1 heard them read it with wondrous 
gestures and declamation, and talk of it in the usual 
euperlatires ; learnt by heart the stfiries of Francesco, 
Ugolino, &c., and could speak very fluently about 
them. But, as a wbole, it took little serious hold 
of me at that time. The long, burdensome, inco- 
herent jnrable of contending notes in the Paduau 
edition of l>i22 — reconunended aa the best — had 
helped to darken and perplex everj' part of it that 
jvquired any comment. 

During the seven years which followed, I often 
Btudied it again, at leisure hours, ahmg with the 
other works of Dante; and got intimately acquainted 
■with various Italians of different ranks, who, without 
making any pretensions to literatiu^e, or troubling 
themselves with conflicting commentaries, knew all 
the best parages, and would recite them in a plain, 
sober, quiet tone — now rapid, uow slow, but always 
^^ritli real warmtJi — like peoi)le who felt the mean- 
nagi and were sure of its effect. To iheni the Divina 
ICommedia had become a kind of Bible, and given 

expression and expansion to what was highest in 
their mimls. The difference between tliem and the 
Dilettanti seemed infinite, and was all the more im- ' 
preasive fi'om the gradual way in which it had been 

The contemporary Historians, or Chroniclers, of 
Florence and other parts of Italy were afterwards 
studied, in connexion with Dante and his earlieat 
commentators ; and here the meaning of the great 
Poem first began to unfold itself in detail, and apart 
from its mere literary merits. It became significant 
in proportion as it was felt to be true — to be, in 
fact, the Bincereflt, the strongest, and waimest utter- 
ance that bad ever come from any human heart 
since the time of the old Hebrew Prophets. Dili- 
gent readers of those contemporary historians will 
find that the Poet, amongst other tilings, took the 
real historical facts of Ms age, and took them with 
surprising accuracy and transcendent impartiality, 
extenuating nothing, exaggerating nothing, though of- 
ten rising into very high fervour and indignation. And 
they will also find that there was enough in those 
old times to excite a great, earnest, far-seeing man, 
such as Dante ; and send him into the depths and 
heights of Prophetic Song. Those times had already 
produced Sicilian Vespers, and tragedies enough ; and 
carried within them the seeds of Bartholomew Mas- 
sacres, of Thirty- Years Wars, and French Revolu- 
tions, and the state of things that we now see over 
the whole continent of Europe and elsewhere. They 
were times of transition, like our own — the com- 


mencement of a New Era, big with vast energies 
and element; of change ; and " the straight vray was 
lest." It is only the phraseology, the apparatus, and 
ootward circumstances that are remote and obsolete : 
all else is the same with as as with Dante, Our 
horizon has grown wider than his: our circnm- 
nxvigators do not find that Mount of Purgatory 
on the other aide of the globe; the Continents of 
America stand revealed in his Western Hemisphere 
of Ocean; the Karth is no longer the "fixed and 
stable" Centre of our Univurse: but the great prin- 
ciples of truth and justice remaiji unaltered. And to 
those amongst ourselves, who, with gootl and gene- 
rous intentions, have spoken lightly and unwisely 
concerning Dante, one has to say — not without 
sadness : Study him better. Ilis ideas of Jlcrcy, and 
Humanity, and Christian Freedom, and the means 
of attaining them, are not the same as yours: not 
^e same, but unspeakably larger and sounder. He 
felt the infinite distance between Right and Wrong, 
and had to take that feeling along with him. And 

• those gentle qualities of his, which you praise so 
much, lie at die root of hia other heroic qualities, and 
are inseparable from them. All anger and indigna- 
tion, it may safely be said, were much more painful 
to him than they can be to you. The Dante you have 
criticised ia not the real Dante, but a mere scare- 
crow — seen through the unhealthy mist of your 
ksentimen tali ems. Why do you keep preaching your 
impracticable humanities, and saying, Peace, peace; 
vrhea there is no peace t Is there nothing within 

your own daily observance or experience to 
you seek for surer footing, and prevent you fron 
trying to heal the foulest ulcers by merely hidinf^ 
them, and talking mildly about them 1 Have yon 
not this very year beheld the whole of a great nutioi^ 
franticly, and with a world-wide re-echo, proclaiming 
univei'sal Brotherhood, and Freedom, and Equality, 
on hollow grounds ; and then, within four ehott, 
months, as a natural and ine^-itable consequence 
slaughtering each other by thousands? Tlie humanest 
men of all countries are beginning to grow sick and 
wearj- of such expensive sham humanities. 

But to return. Having thns acquired a clearer 
idea of the Poem, and got fairly beneath the thick 
encumbrances of Dilettantism and other encum- 
brances, wliich hide its meaning, I began to be con- 
vinced that tlie quantity of commentarj, nccessaiy 
to make the substance and teslure of it intelligible^ 
might be compressed into a much smaller space than 
bad been anticipated ; and this conviction was con- 
firmed by a minuter examination of the most cele- 
brated modem commentators, sucli as Venturi, Lom- 
bard!, Biagioli, &c., from whom those notes in the 
Paduan edition, above mentioned, are chiefly taken. 
A practical commentator, whoso main desire is to 
say nothing superfluous, has got to study them all in 
the way of duty ; and then feels it to be an equally 
clear duty to pass over the greater part of what they 
have written in perfect silence. All of us want to 
know something of Dante; but not one in a thousand 
could endure to read long discussions which generally 

d in nothiug, and which surely ought to be allowed 
to die a natural death as rapidly as possible. 

It was under such impressions as these that I 
t thought of pubiisliing a correct edition of the 
)ri^nal Text, with English Arguments, and Notes 
Bxplaining all the difficult passages, allusions, &c. 
But tills plan, 1 was told by the best authonties I 
lad an opportunity of consulting, would "make a 
liebald, monstrous Book, such as has not been seen in 
a country;" and therefore, not wthout rehictance 
nd misgiving, I resolved to attempt the Literal Prose 
translation at the same time, and send forth this 
t volume — complete in itself — by way of experi- 
Qt. The process of breaking in pieces the har- 
lony and (juiet force of the Original, and having 
represent it so helplessly and inadequately in 
pother language, has been found as painfiil as was 
nticipnted, and the notes as hard to compress ; but 
wm beginning to end, all the difBcultles of the 
isk have at least been honestly fronted ; and readers 
rho are aL:«ady familiar with Dante and hb com- 
nentators will be able to estimate the quantity of 
ionr required for the performance of it. 

In concluMon, I have to acknowledge the kindness 
' one highly accomplished friend, whose name I am 
It allowed to mention ; he read over the proofs of 
lie fint eight Oautos, and suggested some useful ad- 
ions and amendments. 

I buve also to thank my printers for the patient 
ligeDce and dexterity witli which they have gone 
iDogb their difficult and complicated task, sub- 


mitting to numerous alterations and corrections in 

the course of it. The common Italian punctuation, 

somewhat different from our own, has been purposely 


J. A. C. 

CheUea, December 1848. 


In this Second Edition the Translation is carefully 
revised, and the Italian Text freed from two or three 
errors of the First Edition. 

The greater part of the Purgatorio had been 
translated when the Inferno was first "sent forth, 
complete in itself, by way of experiment;" and the 
experiment has been successftd in the best sense. 
All strangers as well as friends, for whose opinion 
the Translator has most respect, have urged him to 
complete the translation of the whole. Other occu- 
pations have hitherto stood in the way ; but he now 
hopes to send forth the two remaining volumes, Pur- 
gatorio and Paradise, in regular succession, regretting 
only that all tliree volumes, as he wished, were not 
published at once in 1849. 

J. Aa C« 

September 1867. 


pTn Maimscripts of the Divma Commedia, found in dif- 
} ferant parta of Italy, and described by various Italiou 
■writers wlio had seen or exuramod them, were estimated 
hj Ugo FoBcolo (Edition of 1843-3, tonu iv. p. 49) as 
I amounting in all to some Two Hundred. Our British 
Museuni, our Oxford and other LTmiries public and pri- 
Tate, also contain several that are not mentioned by those 
writere; and donbtloss there are many more in the libra- 
ries of France, Germany, &c. The number of them is 
I indeed very reninrkahle, considering thai printing was in- 
I tooduced into Italy nearly four centuries ago. And valu- 
able readings have been obtained from some of them ; but 
none of ours have aa yet been thoroughly examined ; and 
the terms in which most of the Italians speak of theirs 
) extmvagnnt, vague, and incredible, as Foscolo justly 
h observw : so that one is foiled to wait for further evj- 
I d«nce, before giving any opinion on the subject of theb 
I relative merits. The second volume of the Bihlioffrafia 
I J)ante»ca} of M. de Batines, if it equals the first, will 

> BiBLiOQEAFU DAlrTBBOA, osaia Catalogo delle Ediziant, 

T^adozioni, Codidi Manoscritti e Comenti ddla Divinn Commedia 

• Opere Miaorl dl Dknte, seguilo dalla Beria de' Blograii di 

I Inl, eompUats d&l Shj. I'mivh/h Gtlomb ge- Bat'iHo. Traduzione 

L ItalUoB, f»tta ml Mnnogcrltto Franoeee delt' autore. Totn. i. W^, 

I pp. T69. Pnlo, 181ii-G. I have qaated the title of thte vcrf useful 


fiimiflh thp sober awl accurate acconnt of tliem which is 
still wanted. 

Tho number of Editions hitherto published is upwards 
of Two Hundretl and Fifty. Of these, at least fifteen 
authentic i-ditionB, besides five of doubtful aiithi'nticity, 
were printed within tho last thirty yeais of the fifteenth 
century; forty-two in the sixteenth; four in the eevon- 
toenth, or poorest century of Italian literature ; forty In 
tho eighteenth ; and, in the present century, more than 
onu hundred and fifty. Ample details, concerning all of 
them that were published before the year ISi."), will be 
found in the work of M. de Batines. Only a few of the 
most remarkable can b« mentioned here — in the order of 
their dates. 

1472. Tho earliest edition is that of lohanni Kunids- 
t«r, printed at Fnligno in 1472, with very brief arguments 
and no comment. It is printwl in clear typo, and upon 
strong paper ; uot paged or numbered. Them are almost 
110 points ; and no capital lettere, except at the commence- 
ment of the Teraine, and in a very small number of tha 
proper names. In the British Museum there is an ex- 
cellent copy of it, to which I have often referred, and not 
always without profit,' when perjilexed by different read- 

and meritoilouc work at fall laugth. The aecoDil volume la still 
anpublUhed. Tho fint, in two parts, coutains an account of the 
Editionii. TraatlHtioiis, and Commeale pilnted nnil unprlnted ; 
and lbrout[hoiit tlie irholo of It, the author carefully di^ClDguiehes 
what he has himself seen froui what it reported l>7 otbera, 

■ TboB, in canto I. ver. 48, 1 toaod : Si eke parea che laere ne 
TKKUABSS, though FoHcolo sajTB " all tho printed copies" hare ie- 
XKSeE; and, in cimto xvll. ver. \St: Et niili pel cA" <i"/trKDKA 
Atranti, instead of Fowolo's cdia dimnti I fiud tbexesse 
alw in the very ran Keapolilan edition, priet«il about 147S. Ao 




All tlie Bibliograjiliera ajieak of it, and also of two 
otlifir editions that were printed later in the eaniB year. 
In particular, the account which M. do Batiuee gives of it 
is very accurate I shall content nijBelf with quoting one 
or two passages, to show tha curious way in which the 
words flow tugt^ther, without points or capitals, more espe- 
cially when the line threatens to be long. Thus ; 

Penile elQB ncllocipta dolente 
perme siua Deleterao dolors 
periue GiuB Irn taperduta gente 

I^iferiio, iii. 1.3, 
Come dnatuimo seleuan leCoglie 
luoB BpreBso dellaltrn Onoliol nuno 
reudalla terra tutte luauo apoglie 

IK4. ill. H2-4. 
Kol legi^Buamo un^orno perdlletto 
dHaJciolotto conm amor lostrinEo 
soli erBoamo et eeoieBlouii BOepetto 

JM. y. 127-9. 

1477. The next remarkable edition that I have had 
I. opjMirt unities of examining, alao in the Museum, is that 
B 4)f Tendolin da Spira, printed at Venice in 1477. M. do 
FSatinoii gives to it tlie title of ia DrviHA Commttlta, ap- 
intly tlirough inadvertency, as he also does to editions 
1 1473, 1484, 1487, and 1491. The epithet 
^DtTiHA occurs in no edition of the fifteenth century ; but 
( the end of this of Venilelin, in some vehement helpless 
we find the expression, ijjolito et Diuo ilanle 
tBet/hicn Ft'orentin pwta ; and later editions si>eak of the 


A roprioC of the Fuligno editioD, idch the diSercnt readings 

if Iho olhor carlivst edttioQs, would he ver; acceptable; and tlie 

■a good copies ol thcnt all. 


tino, long T>efoTe they begin to apply the title' of DivifrB 
to the poem itaelf. The te-xt ia iu general more accnrata 
than that of Xiuneister ; and is accompimied by a long 
commeut, which the title — faJwhj as we shall see — at- 
tributes to BL-nvenuto da Iiuola. I shall give one spe- 
cimen. The initial letters of the Terzine stand wide apart 
from the lines, thus : 

A mor ohftDuIlo lunato amar perdona 

loiprese dicoBtui piaccr uifortc 

che come nedi ancor noo mabaDflona 
A mor condusge no! adaoa morta 

oli&iii attends cbe uita oi«peiise 

quexle parole dalor cifur porta 
D aobio iiiteHi lot. 

Inf. V. 103-3. 

> In the Letter to Can Gratide, Dante himself, Bpeaking of the 
Title, BajfB, " Ubri titaliit ett .- Incipit ooMiEniA dantis alla- 


the deriyatioo of the terms Comeilj and Tragedy thiw^ "Omurdia 
dioitui' a K^f 7), rilla, et iH^ quod est pantiu, unde Cvmadia quad 
viilanvt caiittu, . , , Tragirdia a Tpiyn, ijuod est Aitni, et tSSfi 
quasi cantui kireinia, id est fcctldus ad niodum hirci." And 
after adding that Tragcdj " speaks in a stjie elate and suijlime, 
and at the begianing; Is admirable oud qniet, at the end or exit 
fetid and horiihie ;" while " Comedy begins with the tisperity of 
a sabject, and enda proeperoiul;, and ^pealie In a retoiu and 
bamble style ;" he says it will be eas; to sea " why the present 
work is called a Comedy. For if ne consider the subject thereof, 
at the hegtoDing it is horrible and fetid, being Hi^ll ; at the end 
prosperous, de«irable, and grateful, tieiog Paradise. And if wa 
consider the style of speech, that style is remiss and humble, 
being the iiitgar speeoh, in which even the women talk with one 
onotlier. Wherefore it is eTidcnt why the work is called % 
Comedy." Bee also Vulg. Eloq. ii. 1, where Dante again gays : " la 
Tragedy we assume the higher slyle, in Comedy the lower." Sa:. 
The earltett and most other editions of the fifteenth aentnrj 


1478. The Milanese edition of U77-8, called Nido- 
tatine from the name of its editor, is the best of all ths 
riy editions. There, are at least two copies of it in the 

e beautifully priiiteii on parcbnioiit, the otlier 
1 the strong paper of those times, A long commentary, 
nerally attributed to Jacopo della Lana of Bologna, a 

f of Dant«, 'accompanies the text, which runs 

Costai non ciljers terra na peltro 

ma BHpienza Jl aiiiore euirtuto 

e sua nntion snra tra fcltro cfeltro 
Diquella humil italia fia aalule 

per cui mori lauergitw camUla 

aurialo etacno e nieo dlferute 
Quest! lacnccera Ao. 

/»/. L 103-9, 

USL The earliest Florentine edition is 'that of 1481, 

li the comment of Landino. It is magnificent both In ' 

e and fonn ; hut gniatly inferior to the Milan editiou 

ft point of correctness. In the best copy of the Museum 

(find no fewer than fifteen instances in whiuh verses or 

4io]i} Tendnu are left out, besides other en'ors. In all 

e copies I liave seen, there are at least Two Engravings, 

; the first and second cantos of the poem, while 

e blanJc spaces ore left above all the other cantos ; and 

[I some tare copies as many as Twenty are found, the last 

r eighteen of which seem to be glued npon 

) blank spaces. On the whole, this edition is a de- 

I and very expeosivi.^ failure; but shows the ideas 


Inuul&te the Utle simply : Comincia i. 
_^«aHtBU D 

The Letter to Can Orsnde, u giiren Id the London edition of 

8 Ctom. iii. p. 2G9-84) is mlMrsblf incorrect, and quite ui 
I^Ue, I quote frooi Fraticelli's edition, 


which the Florentmea had leamt to entertain of their 
great Poet. Tho comment of Landino, though reprinted 
more than fifteen times at Venice and elsewhere, was 
never again printed at Florence. It is the last edition 
from which I ehall quote a specimen. The words, as will 
be seen, Isegin t« stand more regularly apart from one 

InooDtliieDte intesi et oerto fut 
ohe qaeatera la secta de taiptiul 
ft die Bpiftcenti et aniuiloi suoi 
QiieBti Boiugurnti che niai non fur uinl 
erono ignndt et stlmolati molUi 
da moBooni et da neBpe cberon fui 

7n/.iil. el-fi. 

WOS. After these folio editions of the 15th century 
comes tho first Aldinc, printed in 1502 ; and one is glad 
to see so perfect a little viduma It hears the simple title 
of Le Teiize Rime di Dakte, in front ; and, on the reverse, 
Lo 'nferno b 'l Purgatorio e 'l Paradibo di Danth 
Alaohieri. The text is said to have been taken from 
"a manuscript copy of Cardinal Bembo, now in the 
Vatican." Saline*, torn. i. p. 60. — The second Aldine 
edition, Dante col Sito et Forua dell' Isi'krno tratta 

VAUA ISTESBA DE8CR1TTI0XE 1>EL PoETA, printed in 1515, 

b of tho same aire oiid form in every respect, page for 
page; and has woodcuts nt the cud, representing the 
poeition and shape of the Inferno. I have had these 
two editions constantly at hand, and have found the lust 
of them even more correct than tho other. 

Ifi06. The second Florentine edition, Commedia di 
Dante insiehe con us Dialogo cnicA el Sito Foriu 
ET lIjsrRB DRixo Inferno, pubhshed by Pldlippo di 
Giunta in lf)06, is of the same small octavo Bi2e as the 
Aldiuu, and in similur type; bat is much rorei 


either of them, and has many diiTeront rcodiiiga. It is 
also very w»rrect. My copy contMiiB Sei^cn woodcuts, along 
with the Dialogue at the end, thou}(L only Six are spoken 
of by IL de Batines, ]>. 65. 

1607. The ^wxlt oiig^iii ^urinlmii ^islonnbo. vith 
_ Jlie comment of Landmo, printed at Venice in 1507, by 
rB«rt. de Zanni da Portese, is a rare and curious edition 
i witli einguLir woodcuts, but of little practical value, Tha 
I 'mide Bow together in it, as in the editions of the fifteenth 
b fientuiy, though the text seems mainly taken from the 

151B. The first edition with the title of DmsA Corn- 
is said to be the one printed at Youice in 151G, by 
■dino Stagnino de Monfurra. It has become veiy 
«; and I have not been able to get aight of it to verify 
e aissertion. But in the neat and rare Utile Venice edi- 
a of 1555, by Gabriel Giolito di Ferrarii, of which there 
a copy in tho Museum, 1 do liint that title. 
1864. The tliree Venetian editions of 1564, 1578, and 
^96, all in folio, with the comments of Landino and Vel- 
lllo and many useful woodcuts, published by Giovam- 
A SoBsa and his Brothers, are simply and beautifully, 
i on the whole very correctly printed. They are cidlod 
ct'tffH dfl Gatto, from the printei's mark of a Cat with 
', at each imporiiant stage of tho work ; and then of 
lave lanfer Cat, sitting at the end of it : or Ediziimi del 
1 Naeo, from the striking portrait of Dante on the 
Tho t«xt of them is very nearly the same as 
tlie Aliline, only a tittle modernised in spelling and punc- 
tuation. I have used the edition of 1578. 

KI69S. In 1595, the Academicians della Cnisca, tak- 
the Aldine edition and comparing it with alwut one 
iltud difletent Manuscripts, gave out their Text of the 


CommedJa, m a somewhat shabby aud tcij incorrect little 

Two of the four incorrect editions pnblJBhed in the 17th 
century have the title ; La Visione, Poeina d! Dunle, fee. 

1727. The Usxt given by the Cruscan Academy wm 
first thorougldy corwsctod in 1726-7, by G. A. Volpi, pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Padua; and the edition of that 
date, Gnpenntended by him, and printed at Padua by 
Giuseppe Comino (heuce called Edixione Comlniana), is 
much and doservoiUy noted for its accuracy, and has been 
more frequently reprinted than any other. 

1757. Zatta's large Venetian edition of 1757-8, rather 
celebrated in this country, takes the text of Volpi with 
more or less fidelity. It is gaudy, pretentious, and on the 
whole decidedly ugly " with abundant engrovingB." 

1791. No eilition of the Divina Commedia had been 
permitted at Bomo, till Lombardi's appeared in 1791, con 
licenm de' Superivri. It is in three volume* quarto, with 
long comment j aud is a good, fuithfid, honest etiition, thfl 
result of many yeuta' labour. The test of it is taken from 
the Nidobeatine of 1477-8 ; or rather, the Cruscan text, 
as given by Volpi in the Etli-amie Cominiaiia, ia altered on 
the authority of the Nidobeatine, and of various iiss. to 
which Lomburdi had access in the Vatican and other libr&- 
riea at Home. The worthy Friar gives only his initials, 
F. B, L M. C. {Fm Balttaemre Lombardi, mitwr conventwale) 
on the title-page. 

1796. TIio niagiiificcnt folio edition of Bodoni, edited 
by G. F. Dionisi — a learned, but perverse aud quarrel- 
some, admirer of Dante — was printed at Parma in 1795. 

1807. The Logbom oilition by Gaetano Poggiali {Li- 
Vffmo, Tomvin^, Ma«i <-t C, 1807-13, 4 vols. 8~) is in con- 
aiderable esteem for its correctnuas. It gives various read- 


■fi ftom a parehmoat ua. — of tlio year 1330, as Pnggiali 

f believes and asserts — iind has a commentary, oi 

raphrasis of the text, in sepomto Tohimes. 

1817i " La Divina Coiiuuedia cou tavole in rame," 

mlilubed at riorenee, in four laij^fi folio Tolnmes, and 

cated toConova, in 1617-19, is [lertiapa the mostsplen- 

il edition of Dante, though the plates ate not all in gi>od 

The last volume contains a very judicious and Ufle- 

fol selection of brief notes, many of them taken from the 

old manuscript commentaries which aru not generally ac- 

ceaaiMe. In truth, it is the best selection that has hitherto 

a made ; and well deserves to lie reprinted in a sepa- 

o and more accessible form. 

1820-2. The text and comment of Lomhardi are given 

k the Roman editions of 1815 tmd 16204, and in the 

a of 1822, with numerous additional notes, readings, 

" iUnstt&tions" — fomung avast jungle, from which 

e most experienced readers of Dante may well find it 

I to extricate themselves. The two last of these edi- 
, however, are indispensably necessary for any one 

) undertakes to meet the difficidties of explaining or 
diting the Divinu Commedia, though tliey are probably 
Hut woret that could be recommended tu any serious stu- 
dent of it. 

1842. " La Commodia di Dante Allighieri, illiistrata 
ft Ugo FOBColo," London, 1842-3, i vols. 8", is the last 

I I shall mention. It is very valuable on account of 
B number of accurate rcforuncos that it contains. Foscolo 

il on the 14th (if September 1827, and lies buried in the 
6 cemetery at Chiswick. He had made many prepara- 
ions for a large and perfect edition of Dante ; and this 
of 1842-3, snperiiitended and corrected by " An Italian" 
well known in this country, is the result of what wbr-. 


found in his manuscripts. The first volume gives tho long 
" Diacorso sul Testo del Poema di Dante" enlm^ed and 
corrwitwl, with a Preface by the Editor, in whieh tho 
mtirito and defects of Foscolo are briefly and candidly 
stilted. English readers vrill dislike the angry, disjointed, 
and acrid style of that Discourse ; and quiet students of 
Dante will be able to point out Tarioua errors, exaggera- 
tions, and anachronisnts ; hut it oujjht to be remembered 
that poor Foscolo had to remove very large quantities of 
deep-settled rubbish, and deal with a class of Ids counttj- 
men upon whom any other style would have produced leas 
effect And though he never got fairly beyond the morbid 
Ldlere di Jaefpo Ortig, and had, aa his Editor says, formed 
a most incomplete idea of Dante, let us at least thank h irn 
for what he did do so zealously oud faithfully. By accurate 
citation of every authority within his reach, he cleared the 
way for finally determining the text of tlie great Poem ; 
and all the editions of it, that have been published since 
the appearance of his, contain many of the readings and 
TMtoratious which he contended for. 

1848. The plan that has lieen oilopted for fixing the 
Text ht-ro given, may be stated very briefly. The beet 
common eilition, that of Felice Le Jfonnier — printed at 
Florence in 1844, and also published in London by Eo- 
londi, with the date of 1845 — was taken and compared 
with the Aldine, Giuntiue, Cruscan, Komon, Paduan, and 
other editions, besides thut of Foscolo, whose notes had 
been all carefully studied ; and only such alterations were 
made us seemed fully warranted. Those notes of Foscolo, 
in various instaucea, faOed to prove the propriety of 
changes he had introduced; and wore sometimes fooud 
defective in their citations. Xo reading has Iwen adopted 
without good authority, as all may ascertain who choose 



to make the same laborions comparisons; and, on the 
Trhole— after what has been done by Foscolo and others — 
there seem sufficient materials for determining the text 
of the great Poem. Would that we had as sure and per- 
fect a text of our own Shakspeare ! 


The number of Essays, Dissertations, and partial or com- 
plete Commentaries on the Divina Commedia, mentioned 
by M. de Batines {Bihl, Dant. tom. i pp. 370-766) amounts 
to no fewer than Twelve Hundred and Forty ; and several 
more have been published within the last three years. 
I refer to his work for an account of them, and shaU here 
notice only a few of the most remarkable. 

The earliest of all comments seems to be that oiJacopo^ 
Dante's son, written in the year 1328. It extends no 
farther than the Inferno, in the only complete ms. of it 
known to exist — a parchment ms. of the 14th century, 
No. 7764 of the Royal or National Library at Paris. The 
Proem begins thus : Per do cite delfruUo universahy novel- 
lamente dato al mondo per lo illustro filosofo e poeta dante 
(dlighieri JiorenttTio, con piu agevolczza »i possa ccmoscere 
. . . . io Jacopo 8U0 figlluolo dimostrare Intendo parte del 
8U0 profondo et autentico intendimentOy &c. And, in the 
explanation of Canto xxi ver. 112, this passage occurs, 
and fixes the date : E corrcvano gli anni dalla nativitade 
del signore mcclxxxxviiijy e oggi corrono mcccxxviij ; perb 
dire si puote che xxvij anni compiuti sieno cl\! elli comincioe 
questa operay^ &c A certain learned advocate, Jacopo 

> To undergtand this quotation, we must recollect that, in 
Dante's time, and for some centuries after, the year commenced 
on the 25th of March, and that questa opera probably means 
« this task or mystic journey,** begun at the very end of the old 



Fetmi of K^ggio, nho bas carefully examineil tbo »9. and 
nuule these extracts iioiu it, iL tie Butines eays, is about 
to publiab tMs old commcat ; and it will certainly be very 
welcome to students of Dante. 

Jaeopo ilclhi Laiut, of Bologna, is the next coimnon- 
tator in point of date. Little is known of liiui, though 
no fewer than fi-fty-tiro different vas., containing the 
'bole or port of hia commentary, still exist. One of 
itheee, a Latin translation, dated 1349, is in the Bodleian 
obtarjr [Mas. Cnnonin. Mhcell. 449) ; and another, also 
M I^tin translation, in the Royal Library of Paris, dated 
ISfil. Both these translations are the Bamo In the Pur- 
gatorio and Farudiso ; and the whole translation in the 
Fomian iib. is by Alberico da Borate, while that of tba 
Inferno in the Oxford us. is by "Don Guillielmus do 
The remaining fifty mbb. are moatly in the 
Italian ; and have been found to correspond with 
lomment which is printed in the Venetian edition of 
'endelin dn Spira (see p. xv.), and falsely attributed to 
Ifienvennto da Imola. And, with the exception of a few 
■Iterations and additions, chieily in the first canto of the 
Inferno, the comment in the Kidobeatino edition (see 
xrii) is also the same. In cases of diilicidty, I have 
jn consulted both, and got little or nothing but what 
to bo had from other sourcog. 
The Ott'nno Conumtn — called also Anonimo, Buona, 
Antieo, before it was rightly known — is a mixed com- 
mentoty of somewhat uncertain date. There are twenty- 
two Mss. of tbo whole or part of it, several of which 
belong to the 14th century. "I, the writer, have heard 

1200 (or in March of our fear 1300), w that only " 2^ r^an 
oompleted" from that time till any earlier month ol the 


Dante e^j" {Inf. x. 85), and each-like phntaes occur in it. 
" Giotto waa, and la, amongst the pidntora tliat men know, 
the highest" {Purg. xL 95) ; anil Giotto diiid on the 8th 
of January 1336-7. Again (In/, niji . 144), the bridge, on 
which stood the ancient eUttuo of Mars, " fell in the night 
of the fourth day of If ovomber one thouaand three hun- 
dred and thirty-three, that is, last yeaji" (compare Vil- 
lani, 3(1 1) ; and then, apparently, Gonio other hand adds : 
" The said statue, fallen into the said rivet Amp, re- 
mained in it for uant tcabs." Thia comment was first 
printed at Pisa in 1827-8, edited l>y Alesaandro Toni. It 
contains long diatussiona, very learned for the time at 
which they were written, but now superfluous and ex- 
tremely wearisome^ In some places, owing to defects of 
the us. and other causes, it is hardly intelligible. Here 
and there it is brief and appropriate, beyond 'any other 
of the old comments, and in reality an Ottimo Comrulo. 
The expreasion, " amongst ua," in the note I have gif ea 
at p. 349, shows that at least cue of the wTitera was a 

The Idtin comment of Pielro Attighieri, Dante's son, 
waa first puhlished at the expense of LoiJ Vernon {Flo- 
rence, 1845), in one thick volume,' edited by Vinceiizo 
Nannjteci. It is written with a striking kind of dignity 
and reserve ; and has more meaning than appears at first 
tdght It gives explanations of the mystic or allegorical 

■ It U Bald that copies of tlus «dlUon " were aeiit jrafu to all 
the meet ooted public litirariea of Euroiic." Might a etrangei 
suggest to Lord Vcraoa the additional bvaclit that would bs 
conferred, by having tome cnpics of the other commeeU, which 
ho U about to publish, printed oa thinner and less uoati; paper, 
for the fake of private students, who cannot alwaja frei^ueat nioh 

cojonsyrs axd tra>:sijltioks. xxvu 

sense, some useful historical details, many quotations of 
])arallel passages, occasional interpietations of the litexal 
meaning ; and yet withal is much briefer than the other 
early comments. And, in spite of the far-fetched subtle- 
ties of Dionisi and others, I see no valid reason for doubt- 
ing that it is justly ascribed to Dante's son. There are 
twelve MS8. of it, some of them from the 14th century, 
and all bearing his name ; and it is expressly mentioned 
in the ^lilanese edition of 1477, and in the Florentine of 
1481. Pietro died in 1364, after ha^-ing practised law, 
and filled the office of Chief Judge, at Verona, for many 
years with good acceptance and success. The phrase {Puiy. 
canto XX. p. 434) " up to this time, namely 1340," esta- 
blishes the date at which the comment was written. 

In August 1373, the republic of Florence resolved to 
set apart an annual sum of one hundred gold llorcns for 
Lectures on Dante; and Boccaccio was the first person 
appointed to deliver them. He began in October of that 
same year, in tlie church of San Stefauo, near the Ponto 
Vecchio ; and continued till the time of his deatli in 
1375. His comment contains the substance of tlioso lec- 
tures, and goes no farther than the 17th verse of canto xvii. 
It is written in his usual lively, pleasant stylo ; and, 
though extremely diffuse, it is a genial and valuable com- 
ment, and gives one the sensation of having parted from a 
good friend when it suddenly ends. The best edition of 
it is that of Moutier {Opere Vohjari di Bore. toni. x-xii. 
Florence, 1831-2), in three octavo volumes. Lord Ycr- 
non is, or has been, getting another comment of the IHh 
century, "/«/6v,7// attributed to Boccaccio," printed at Flo- 

After the commentary of Boccaccio, comes that of his 
pupil and intimate friend, Bcnvenido da Imola, who is 


supposed to have delivered lectures on Dttnte at Bologna 
in 1375; and certainly he himself (It^ertL xv. 110) speaks 
of being there in that year, and of having incurred " the 
mortal hatred and enmity of many" by exposing, to the 
Cariliual Legate of that time, the acandaloua vices of 
" certain worraa (professors) sprung irom the oshes of 
Sodom." He had also been at Rome in 1350 (In/em. 
xviiL 28) ; and witnessed the second great Jubilee, and 
the mode of passing the bridge of St. Angelo dcBcribod by 
Dante. He was one of Petrarch's famihar correspond- 
enta, as may be seen by the letter, addressed Benvcmila 
Imoleji^, Rhefori iwa ; and was author of the Lihvlhit 
Aiigustah'g, or List and brief History of the Emperora 
from Julius Cteaiir to Wence-slatia (1378), the emperor of 
his time — printed along with Petrarch's Latin works, and 
by some attributed to him. The historical part of hia 
commentary was publiaheil by Muratori {Antiq. Ilttl.tom. L), 
who first ascertainwl it to bo quite different from that 
which had been printed in the Vendolino edition of 1477. 

Fratieavo da Buti explained the Divina Commedia 
at Pisa in 1385, and left a long commentary, which la 
still unprinted; but large extracte are given from it in 
the Vocaholario dcUa Crusca. 

Meaner Guini/orte delli Bnrgigi, a lawyer of Bergamo, 
who died about li60, wrote a comment on Dante, by 
order of Filippo Maria Visconte, Dtike of Milan. Only 
tliB part of it which relates to the Inferno has come down 
to ua. This was first published at Marseilles in 1838 — 
not " entire," as IL de Batinea says ; for the editor him- 
self tells na that ho had left out certain tedious theolo- 
gical disquisitions. It is a good, well-arranj 
tary, and, amongst other tliii^s, explains the literal 
with much distinctness. 


Gfirisfojoro Landinn, the cominentator of Virgil, and 
ke of the BUcccBsora of Boccaccio, lectured on riante at 
\ Florence from the ytar H57, with increaaeil annual salary 
I of 300 gold florens. Hia conunont on the Divina Corn- 
media, first published in 1481, and often reputiliahed, 
shews ivhat a weight of speech, in regard to the great 
( Poet, could be borne h^ men in those days. It is very 
\ learned, and often nnspeakahly tedioita ; and has few or 
\ none of those brief appropriate passages which are found 
I in the Ottimo Comento ; but contains many authentic 
I. imd indispensable details respecting the maiincra, and cua- 
I iwns, and families of Florence. 

The briefer commentary of VellvteUo was first printed 
i in 1544 at Venice ; and, liie his conunentary on Petrarch, 
it is dull, and hea\-y, and generally of little practical 

The marginal Annotationa, &e. of Ludin<ko DoUe, in 

the Giolito edition of 1555 (see ji. xix.), have been very 

Jreqnently reprinted. They are good, but far too short. 

The Kotea of Torrjuato Tamo — chiefly relating to 

I words and phrases — were first published complete in the 

I Ojpjere di Tiuuo (torn. xx.i. Pisa, 1831), edited by Prot 


The beat commentary of the 16th century is that of 

emardino Danidlo of Lucca, printed at Venice inl568; 

I and, greatly to the discredit of Italians, never again re- 

I jirinteil. It is brief, clear, and practical, so for as it goes ; 

I And written in a very good style. 

The three Indexes of Volpi, in the celebrated Comi- 

l)^ag edition of 1737, form a sort of commentary, and 

Ban as accurate as they coidd he made at the time. .They 

D ^THQ in many snbsequent editions ; and at last, com- 

] in one general Index, they occupy nearly 300 pages 


of the fourth volume of Foscolo'a edition, puliliahed in 

Tlie comment of Father "Pompeo Veiituri deJIa Com- 
pnffniadi Geaii" came out in ita complete form, at Ve- 
rona in 1749, and at Venice in 1751. It La written in 
the true spirit of a Jesuit, and with lees than the usual 
lenrning ; and has been too frequently reproduced in later 

It is impossihle to mentinn all the other commentaries 
of the ISth century. That of Lotnbanii, which appeared 
in 1791, ia aach as could be written by the honest effort 
of a whole life, amid the " dark wood" of Dilettantism 
produced hy a host of idle writers; and one feels a real 
resppct for the worthy Friar, though at times he is sur- 
prisingly naive, or perhaps dull 

The comment of BlagioK (Paris, 1810) is full of 
granunatini] dtscusaions and far-sought niceties, super- 
fluous prmsea of Dante, and vituperation of Lomhordi 
and others ; hut ia in some respects really useful, and 
evidently written throughout with much zc-al and fidelity. 
The 5936 verees, noted as beautiful by Alfieri in an 
autograph mb. of 1776, which goes no farther than the 
21st canto of the Paradlso, ore all duly registered by 
BiagiolL Ho ought not to have sjMjkcn in such a way 
of Lombardi : no difference of opinion can justify the 
language he nscs. And why should poor Commentatora 
hnt« and abuse each other! Would it not be for wiser 
to meet on some common footing of respect, or at lowest 
of mutual silence 1 la there not enough, and infinitely 
more than enough, for them all in the great Miistera they 
seek Ut elucidate! Only one tiling is nnpaidonablo, and 
tliat is, when commentators become sham communtatore, 
and merely seek to elucidate themselves. 



TIlia account conclades by PBOommending the PiiJiHin 
edition of 1822 to all readers who dtaire to have full 
q>eciiuona of diseorJant conuncntary : they will there find 
abundant, and appaioutly aimless, quotntions from more 
than thirty difi'erent authors. But for the sake of young 
stodenta of Dante, I ehall repeat wliat was written some 
time ago, after a detailed examination of many old and 
recent commentatois : 

" The whole works of Dante, in prose and verse, if 
eepamted &om the unwieldy commentariea and disserta- 
tions that have been accumulating round them ever since 
his death, might be comprised in two moderate volumes. 
The mere hingusge of his Italian works ia not difBcult : 
all the greatest of hia countiymen, ui their sueccssive 
geaemtions, from the commencement of the 14th century, 
have been familiar with its expressive forms, and contri- 
buted to keep them current in the very heart of Italian 
liteintare. Some few words have become obsolete, some 
phrases require explanation ; but on the whole the speech 
of Dante comes wonderfully entire across the live eeni 
ties; and all the most beautiful passages are still qi 
freah and clear. This is more especially true in regard to 
the great Poem, which stands as the mature representative 
of his gemuB, the essence and consummation of all that 
he hod endeavoured and attained. His Minor Poems and 
other works — in which we find the germs of the Divine 
Comedy, and nmny graceful noble preludes to it — are 
wiitt«ii in a stateUer, less familiar style ; and have uevcr 
buen studied with the some universal zeal. 

" The main obstruction, in reading Dante, arises frnm 

oar ignorance of the persous and things amidst which 

lie wrote. Tito whole tirae-liasis of his mighty song has 

dim and cold. The names and events, which 


oncB Btirred and inflamixl tte thonghte of all readore, lie 
jar distant, and have little or no intrinsic interest for 
us. Most of them liave grown 8o dark and sliadowy, 
that they carniot by any effort Ijc made to dwell in our 
memories ; and so, by demanding constant notes and 
references, they Berve only to interrupt our reading, and 
prevent us ftom rising to the full height and warmth of 
the subject. The great Poem, we soon feel, must have 
taken a more direct and earnest hdld of the age from 
■which it comes, than any other poom, ancient or modern ; 
and for that reason alime it stands more in need of 
explanations. But it is likewiBe distinguisheil for its 
intense brevity, its multiform significance ; and can have 
had no supcrfluoUH wonis even for the nearest contem- 
poraries. The language, throughout the whole poem, to 
those who are duly prepared for it, has a tone of plain 
familiarity which comes homo to the subject with mai^ 
vellouB seqiiency and effect. It is like the language of 
a brother, whose position and feelings we are understood 
to know in detail ; and who h.tndlce only the summits 
of tilings with ub, leaving to us all the tiDing-up of cir- 
cumstances, and the minuter shades and ramifications of 

" Ho.'it of the old commentaries on Dante are written 
with a kind of large complacency, and genuine though 
long-winded enthusiasm, which makes them very inter- 
esting at first sight ; but on closer inspection, they are 
found to contain a surprising quantity of worn-out rub- 
bish, and extremely little real information. They may be 
looked into more or less e:(teneively from curiosity, and 
consulted for the sake of minute details of persons and 
things which ore not to be found olsewbeie ; but no man 
in a healthy state of mind can now Kod them without 



Wng foreod to it as a duty. In regard to all public 
eventa of Dante's tirao, the contemporary liiatoriana are 
mucli safer and better guides.' Eonviaauto lia Luola 

' BicoBDANO JIaleshni 18 tho olde*t chronioler of Florence. 
Ue died in 12SI, when Duita was only sixteen jeare of Bge. His 
wort {Jitorut Finn; at ilia) begins with tho current traditions, 
which are gircn in % jwoiewbat loose and straggling ira]-, as in 
the other early histories; but what he writes of his own times, 
down tn 12t<l,hBe a simple unaffected air of life and authenticity, 
and is almost whoU; copied, with slight altoratiooJi of stjte, by 
Villani, In the Sth, eth, uod 7th boolia of hU Chronicle. Tlio 
best ediUoDS of Malespini are tbe Oiuntine of 15i^S and 1 bW. The 
other Florentine edition, of 1T1B, omits Import&nt passages re- 
lating to the Popes and their avarioe and simony. 

OlOVASNi ViLLASi began hia Cronicn, as he himself lelU 
OS (lib. vill. cap. 3fi), immediately after tho great Jubiluo of ttie 
year 1300, to which he had gone as a pilgrim. 'J'he sight of ■' the 
great and ancieot things of the holy city of Itome," together with 
the immense concourso of Christiana, " women as well an men, 
from distant and strange countries, and from far and near," bad 
itlrred up in him a desire to record the eveot* of bis own city and 
time, " as a memorial and example for those that are 1« come." 
HU Chronicle begins with the ancient traditions, and extends to 
the period of bis death in IXiU. It Is writlea in a most aaivc, 
nKji honest style. Villani is known to have been nf the Guelph 
party ; vUilod France and the Netherlands in 1304 ; was one of 
the Prion of Florence in 1398, and tlie Ambassador at Bologna 
in 1S3!) : and, at various other times, he filled high offices in hie 
naUve city. Of the Popes he says all the good be can in honee^ ; 
and lometimes palliates, but never conceals their rices. For 
their nigh Office his reverence U nnlimilvd, but he has to record 
wbaloocver is felt by him to be trne, and has often to speak of 
the "Judgments of God" that come upon them for Ibeir crinit's. 
Next to Dante himself, he is the most impartial and trustworthy 
authority we have ; and looking from di^erent points of view, 
each vrlLh his own peculiar tidelity and earnestness, they mutually 
and onintentionally confirm one another. The best editiuu of 


aeema to have felt this, even in the 14tli centnry ; for, 
tta MuTfktori remarks, he mode diligent use of all the old 
local ohronicloB — mnny of wliicli are now lost — ^in com- 
piliiig his coinnientaiy. 

" Tho more nioJom commentariea and dissertations, 
with eorae few exceptions, are also remarkably diffuse 
and unsiibstantial ; and in general they have a decidedly 
empty tone, and a total want of eamGstnoss, which are 
much more difficult to endure in connexion with the 
works of Dante than the thin enthuBiasm of the old 
commentators. In truth, very few of the hooka that 
have been written on tho subject eoem to have r.ost their 
authors any serious thought at all, or been honestly 
intended for tho purpose of illustrating Dante. Ileal 
difficulties arc passed over in silence, or increnssd by a 
jwmpous repetition of all the ineoherencies that have 
been nttered respecting them. The plainest passages, on 
tho contraiy, are overladen with useless discussions ; and 
fresh conceits are started, and multiplied and pursued 
with an ostentatious and very cheap display of learning. 
Meanwhile the huge vacant bnlk of the comment swells 
into more and more painful contrast with the piercing 
hrevityand compactness of tho text; the reader's patience, 
however obstinate, gets quito exhausted ; and the convic- 
tion grows strong, that if Dante bo nnintclUgihln without 
aueh adds as those, he will for ever remain unintelligible, 
and continue to be the prey of idle men who have nothing 
serious about them. In the whole range of literature, it 

Ttllani U that of rioreDce, published b; Migbeii In I8SS (8 vola. 
8to) ; nnd from it the iiuotstioDe are all taken. 

Thelilnria Fiorenllna diOiai- Gmipagai fs also good, but vory 
fraginenUry ; Knd has been of Uttlo use cotnpared with those of 
Haleapinl and TilUni, 


might porhapa be difficult to find any books so piiinfuUy 
vtad of all thought, and bo loudly diffuse, as the most 
part of those which modem Italians have written cou- 
ceniiiig the greateGt man tlieir country hoe produced. 
Eveiy thing relating to him has been darkened and en- 
tangled with doubts ; his character and works are encum- 
l)ered and overladen with mete rubbish, collected and 
heaped upon them without any juat criticiam or diacri- 
inination. But eince the time of Loiubardi, and more 
especially of Fosculo — whose anger will bo excused by 
thoee who know what he hnd to deal with ^ a better 
Bpirit Beems to have aristm among the counttymcn of 

It only remains for mo to odd, that the comment given 
in thu present volumo is defined and limited by one sim- 
ple rule. In attempting to lessen the difficulties above 
mentioned, and bring the great Poem nearer by explaining 
its nmterial and temporary elements, I have endeavoured 
to imitate the Anthor's own economy of words, as far as 
consistent with prosuiu clearness, and etrictly euppreased 
Trhatcvcr seemed irrelevant. 

The TrtANBLATiosa are also very n 
liesl is in barbarous Latin hexameters, line for line, by 
one M'Ute-i ItoiUo {" Malfiem Romplo"), a Benedictine 
monlc of Venetian parents, who died in 1343. In a kind 
of Elegy, at the enil of the Panwiiso, the good monk 
Bpeoka of the mouniful drudgeries inflicted on liirn for 
having made this translation, which had occupied him 
many years. It ia not without real warmth ; and must 
have been begun at least a very short time after Dante'e 
doath, which took place in 1321. It still exists complete 
In two Mss. ; and in three, imperfect. Specimens of it will 


fee found in the work of M. de Eatiiies. TLe only other 
Latin translation I shall here mention is that of the A blxilo 
dalta Pifuaa, alao in hesaioeters, and without notes — the 
result of some twenty years' labour. The author died at 
Vicenai in 18J4 ; and it was first puhliahoil at Leipzig only 
a few ninntba ago. It is inromparahly the bc«t Latin 
translation, and may safely be commended to all studenta 
of Danto. In the preface, written by Professor C Witte, 
the whole stury of Franceaca ia given from the version of 
Alatteo Konto, and from others of more recent date. 

The Spaniards have but one tmnalation, and tbiit ends 
■with the Inferno. It ia by a certain Don Femntuiez de 
Villegas, archdoaoon of liurgos ; and was published in that 
"viuy twble y ituu lea!" city, on tha 2nd of April 1615. 
A remarkable translation, and tolerably literal, considering 
the complicuUid veree and rhyme in which it is written. 
Kearly the whole comment of Landino is also faithfully 
translated, with many additions explaining tlie exact 
literal sense ; so that the volume swells into a lai^u folio. 
Professor C. "Witte, in the preface mentioned above, gives 
the story of Francesca from it ; and also from two French 
translations of nearly the same date (wsa. in the libraries 
of Turin and Vienna), which seem wonderfully true and 

The first published French translation is that of Gran- 
gier (3 vols. 12—, Paris. 1597), dedicated to Henri IV. 
It is little esteemed, except by ravenous collectore of old 
books. The more modern French tra:ishitions — many in 
number — are, as usual, the worst in Europoj and some 
serious Frenchmen (see Ri-vnc dee Deiue Mondm for 1840, 
&c.) are beginning to feel this, Tlie long-ostablislied fatal 
plan of curtailing, diluting, and altering everything so as 
to Buit the current taste, is followed with Dante too. The 



I jirose tiATialatioQ by Angela Flormtino, an Italian residing 

I ftt Paris, is tli« only exception : it is in general very iaitli- 

ful and literal ; but possus over the difQctdtics too lightly, 

and freiinentiy omits the little words and phrases that are 

iiArdest to translate. It was first published iu' 1840. Tho 

I latest translation (Paris, 1847), hy A. Brlzeux, in a kind 
of dijtlimic prose, unhappily retnma to the old method 
above described ; and is often very feeble and very wide 
of the OriginaL 

The Germans have eight complete tranalations, some 

of them in prose ; and alt, so far as I have seen, remaxk- 

ftbly iaithful. That of K. L. Kanncjii^^er, in the nioaaure 

and rhynie of the Original, went through four editions 

ftom 1814, when it was first published entire, to 1S43. 

Bnt the best and wannest of all translations, known to me, 

a that of " Pkilalet?ic8," or Prince John of Saximi/. It is 

I in blank vcwe — in good, racy, clear German ; and exactly 

I of the same length as the OriginaL The first Ten Cantos 

I of it were privately printed in 1833; and then, in 1839- 

I 4(1, the whole translation of the Inferno and Furgatorio 

published at Leipzig in two quarto volumes. Tho Prince 

tells in his prcince to tho Inferno, how "I'ante had long 

I been one of his favourite authors," and how, amongst 

other things, " tho high moral dignity of tho Divine 

I Comedy had irrisistibly attracted him ;" and finally 

" Btirrod up in liim an iudeBcribablo impulse to reproduce 

the great work in his mother tongue, and that with as 

maeh literal fidelity as the genius of the German language 

' (and not mesely the grammars of it) would permit." A 

I third volume, containing the Paradiso, was announced only 

I a few months ago as being ready for publication. Ano- 

I ther vory remarkable translation (one vol., Berlin, 1842) 

B that of A. Kopisch, a German artist and pout of some 


celebrity, who spent several years in Italy. It is also in 
blank verse, printed line for line along with the Italian 
Text, and is the most literal translation hitherto published. 
The Grerman of it might often be hard to understand with- 
out the Italian, and the verse is of necessity somewhat 
flat and helpless; but no such translation could have 
been made or attempted in any other modem language. 

Of our own Translations it is unnecessary to say much, 
as they are accessible to every one. Boyd's was made in 
the last century, under wants and circumstances which 
no longer exist; and it seems to have become obsolete. 
Gary's is a most excellent translation of its kind : perhaps 
there is none better in our language. But the sort of 
verse in which it is written takes away much of the fami- 
liar and direct tone of the Original ; and here and there 
one finds evidence of a somewhat imperfect acquaintance 
with Italian. Wright's is in many places very spuited; 
and even where the necessities of verse hinder him from 
giving the true sense, you may frequently remark that he 
has thoroughly understood it. The Americans have only 
a translation of the first ten cantos of the Inferno (Boston, 
^ ' 1843) ; and that also is very faithful in its way, and ought 

to be continued. 


f thii brief atetch of tlie Position and Form of Dante'a 
I Hell nod his Journey through it, I avoid the nsual con- 
t jectune, and state nothing but what is waiTnnt*d by Lia 
7 own authority, quoting it for the sake of all faithful atu- 
\ dents, as followa : 

Our Earth rests "forever fixed and stable" in the 
|< Centre of Dante'a imivorae (Conv. Tr. iii. c. 8), nnd the 
I Heavens' with their Planets and Stars go revolving round 

' These Heareoa wilh their inhabitants fonii the proper eah- 

jeet of the Paradiso. But Dante alao eaumemleB them in the 

SBCond Treatiiie and fourth chapter of his Cem-ita, or Banquet; 

■nd mcniiona the order in wbieh thef come — following the 

Ancient AstrouomJcal SjBtem, nhich makes our Earth stand 

motionlBia in the Centre. Tlie Heavens, he tells aa. are Ten in 

number. OF these, the first with re^tard to our Earth is tlie Hea- 

n of the Moon, "which haa the amalteet circlca" (//(/*. il. T8), 

I vr iuoladea the gmalleBt space in ila revolutions, and moves elo«- 

■t; tbetecond, of Uercuiyi the third, of Teaos i the fourth, of 

I ibc Sun, which also is regarded aa a " Planet" (In/, i. 17) ; the 

L fifth, of Mars ; the eixtb, of Jupiter ; the seventh, of Saturn; the 

f eiKbth, of the Stars proper ; the ninth, or Prlmiim MMlc, ia the 

I * Crf stall in e, that is, the diaphanous, or ijuite transparent Hea- 

\ ven, which is not dinoaraible except by the motion it gives" to 

■ fhe other eight Heavens that it includes, Bejond, or " outside of 

l.fttl tliCBe," he addg, " Catholics place the Empyreal Heaven, that 

a to eajr. Heaven of flame, or luminous Heaven ; and repro^ont it 

IS being immoveable." Hcc It is also the " dlviaest Heaven, the 



it. Only a compwatively amall poi'tion of it is Imown to 
be inliatiited in hia time, and that he calls " the uncovered 
part," or "the great diy Inod" {Ih'if. and Iitfem. xxxiv. 
113); and, following the Bihle, ho plAces Jerusalem in 
the centre of it, or ' in the midst of the nations.' 

Immediately below the dry land lies his Hell, as a 
kind of sink into which all Sin and Misery falla. Tlie 
Buccc33t7e generations of men stand aa it were on a thin 
earth-rind, with the Heavenly Stars above them, and ths 
" Dark Valley" (valh- buia) of Hell Ix-neath. Ajid the Crosa 
on Mount Colvarj-, where the Divine Man " was consnnied" 
(In/, xxxiv. 114) for their tranBgressiona, points from tta 
centre of their Temporary Dwelling-place to those same 
"beautiful Stare," wherein the "blessed people" dwell 
forever (In/, i. 120); and to the all-including Empyrean, 
which is the " City and High Seat of that Emperor who 
reigns above, and rules in eveiy part" throughout tha 
universe. And the hollow " Keahn of Sorrow" convei^ea 
beneath (Inf. xxxii. 3), towanis ita " Emperor" Satan, 
who has liis Seat (Inf. xi. 65 ; xxxiv. 28) at the very centre 
of the Earth or lowest ptiint of space. And all light and 

Heaven of rest," or peculiar abode of the Almigbt; : of which 
our own Milton thus speaks : 

■ Hdw bid (In Almtgbt; FiiUiEr trom ulms, 
?roiii Die pons Smpyrfou, where bt ttu 
Blgb ttmiKd alnn all bflghc. bmi •Isvn hii <7e.' An. 

■ Abom Ills 111 iho euuclUH uf Bumm 
. Bhnd lUdi MSOin,' fto. 

lb. Ui. M. 

BeatriM oomei from it, ' from singing Alleluiah' (Inf. xii. 88 ; H. 
63, kc.), nhen she gives Virgil the laission to deliver Dsnie fieia 
Um MVSga l«ut« in Ihe "dark wood." 



^ all irialom, and love, and strength, cornea fiam the 

8 OT HeuTens, and retorus to them ; all cold and dark- 

i, an ignorance, and hatred, and weakness, comes trom 

e £vil One, and alao returns to him. He is planted at 

e hottom of Hell, fixed in eternal Darkness and et«mal 

a (Inf. xxxiv. 4, &c.), his head ^th it« throe emblema* 

: bees pointing to Jerusalem, and his feet tovaids the 

of Pm^tor)', which ia the exact antipodes of 

JernsalenL And Dunfe, not without significance, ends 

each of the three great di\-idiona of his Poem with the 

word Stt'Uf: or " Stars :" a Blessed Spirit trom above, sent 

L lor Divine Mercy, gives hia Guide the power to rescue and 

rconduct him (In/, ii 53-120) ; and he does not visit the 

Bf Dark Valley" of HeU for " sport," diletlo (J/t/. xiL 87), 

■llmt from sore " necessity," and because the road through 

■ it leads lo Heaven — leads to the " Stare." The brief sim- 
Lple words in which ho alludes to all this at the bitterest 
Ratages of the " woody way" (iis in cantos s. 1 29 ; xii. 85 ; 
I XV. 49-55 ; xvi. 61, 83, &c.) will be found very significant 
■fcy readers who rightly anderetaud them. 

TTie Hell itself is an immense, obscure, circular cavern, 
Joming narrower and narrower by euccessive degrees 

■ (/n/. T. 2, &c.) as it goes deeper. The general form is 
■'that of an inverted cone, which bos its base towards the 
K •* great dry land," and its apex at the centre of the Earth. 
VTlie sides of it, on which Dante's road lies, are occupied 
B'tty a series of Horizontal Circles, or circular stages, mostly 
Kveparated &om one another by precipitous descents, and 
K^radnally diminishing in size like the rows of an amphi- 
(thcatro. These Circles are Nine in number, with various 

mbdiviaions in the lowest three of them ; all of which are 
ill; described in their proper places. 
The Soulfl of the " lost people" are sent down to dejitha 



corresponding to their guilt, the greatest sinners falling 
into the lowest and smallest eirculur spaces, nearcBt to 
Lucifer or Sivtnn. Their crijncs, which are instantly > 
fessed when they come into the prasence ol' (linoD tlio 
Infernal Judge, take hold of them, und "weigli them 
down towarils the hottoni" (/«/ v. 1, &c. ; vi. 86) ; twd 
also inflict the iuevitalde and appiMpmte puniehnient, 
irliich of itself reveals the natuic of those crimes. 

Immediately within the entrance comes a " Dnrk 
Plain" (iil 22-130), which ia as it were the Vestibule of 
Bellj and hos like a broad ring all round its mouth. This 
space ia occupied by the mieerablo " caitiffs" or *' captives," 
enttivi or cfcjitivi (see the verses &om Landino's edition, 
p. xviii.}, the worthless crew, " who never were alive," and 
passeil their time on earth thinking only of themselves, and 
taking no part in any thing either for good or for evil. 
The soida of this class are alike " displeasing to God and 
to his enemies;" ami neitlier Heaven nor the deep Hell will 
admit them. Wasps and hornets stiag them forever, and 
moke them hurry round the brim of Hell, pursuing an 
aimle^-giddy flag. " They have no hoi>e of death," or 
even of condemnation ; " and their bliud existence i 
mean that they are envious of every other lot." 

After leaving them and crossing tiie rest of the dark 
plain, Danlo comes to the great river Acheron, or ' Stieom 
of Sorrow,' which flows round the brink of Hell, and 
afterwards descends (siv. 1 13-124) from rock to rook, and 
liecomvs the source of all the other rivers and marshes 
that are met with lower down. Crowds of guilty souls 
ore seen assembling, in mpid succession, upon its shore, 
and Charon is ferrying them over. This scene, as described 
by Dante, Michelangelo has endeavoured to represent 
Ja,f|nlk Sistiua at Boino. 


By supernatural means Dante is transported across the 
Stream. Gazing round, he finds himself upon the very 
" edge of the Abyss," and is led down by his Guide 
(iv. 13, &c.) into the First Circle, or Limbo, "which con- 
tains the Heathen men, women, and children who lived 
without Baptism or Christianity. Virgil delicately rouses 
his attention, as they enter : " Thou askest not what 
spirits are these thou seestf &c. The great ancient 
Poets come forth to meet them, and receive Dante as one 
of their nimiber. And from "a place open, luminous, 
and high," the ancient Heroes and Sages are significantly 
shewn to him, face to face ; and he " is exalted, or grows 
higher, by having seen them." Caesar is there — an Em- 
peror with harness on, and with Mcon eyes ; and Saladin, 
apart and solitary. 

On descending to the Second Circle, Dante finds 
Minos the Infernal Judge stationed at its entrance, for 
the reason given in the Argimient to canto v. This circle 
is the place of Francesca.* 

Dante is carried, again by supernatural agency, from 
the second to tlie Third Circle, where he finds the 
Epicures and Gluttons suiTering appropriate punislunent. 
Canto VL 

Plutus is found on the brink of the next or Fourth 
Circle, wherein the Avaricious and the Prodigal have 

* Foscolo (^Discorso sul Tafto, pp. 307-10, wScc), quoting his- 
tories and commentaries which he had not seen, confounded 
Guide — the friend of Dante — with Guido Vecchio his grand- 
father ; and so made Francesca the daughter, instead of the aunt, 
of that friend. The tragedies of Francesca and Ugolino, as I 
have noted in the Argument to canto xxxiii., probably occurred 
both in the same year ; and no doubt produced a deep impres- 
sion on the young Poet. 



their punislimcnt. Tlio souls of thein are rolling dead 
'weigUta on a dismal plain ; and thus continue sordid and 
dingy to all eternity, bo that not one of them can be 
recognised. Canto vii. 

The descent to the next circle is made, along the edgo 
of a second Stream (vii. 105, &c.), in a dark ravine vLich 
it has worn out for itself. This stream, coming from 
Acheron, forma the Stygian Marsh, or Fifth Circle. In 
its putrid mud, the Wrathful, the Sullen-sour or Gloomy- 
sluggish, and the Vainglorious, have their appr<i]irinte pun- 
ishment. Phlegyaa conveys the Poets across the Marsh; 
and here Dant« first discertts the rod "mos^nes" of the 
City of Dis, or Satan. 

The Sixth Circle is the first that lies within the City, 
and seems to be on a level with the fifth. 

Tho Five Cirolea, through which the Poets have now 
paased, constitute the Upper EeU (viii. 75 ; xi 16, &c.), 
in which the different sins of Incontineucc, such oa Lust, 
Gluttony, Avarice, Prodigality, &c. are punished. 

Tho Low Hell, or City of Dis, consists of Four Cbclea, 
in tho last three of which the different sins that imlicata 
Malice, or Eobellion (sL IG, &c.) against the decrees of 
the Almighty, are punished. 

In the Sixth Circle, the Arch-heretics with thai 
lowers, who deny the immortality of the eoul, " have 
their cemetery." Tho souls of them lie buried in burning 
sepulchres, which shall be all closed tip (x. 10) after the 
Gi«at Judgment: and the lurid flames — emblems, here 
and elsewhere (xxvi 48, &c. ; sxviL 1 3, Ac), of awakened 
consciousness — shall then bo hidden within tho tombs. 
This Sixth Circle is as it were n connecting link (see note, 
p, 127) between the circles of Incontinence and those 
Malice, Sic. 



Pocte, on Gntering the City, turn to the right (ix. 
K-133) ; and go through a portion of tho circle (x. 2, &c), 
ith the citr-wall on their right hand, and the flaming 

bombs on their left ; and after liaving s 

1 enough o 

rthey torn to the left (x. 133), and go across to tho edge 
vf die Seventh Circle. Perhaps they have taken a like 
section or "arc" (vii 128) of each circle ahovo, and then 
crossed it in the same Tray — as many cotnmontatora afiimi 
— but this I leave to conjecture ; for Dante himself affinuB 
no BDch. thing. 

The descent to the Seventh Circle is raoilo on precipi- 
tous shattered rocks ; to the Eighth, by moans of Goryon; 
and to the Nintli, by help of Anta'ua. fho Arguments 
and Xotes, which relate to these circles, tind to their sub- 
dmsions, will make them plain to nil attentive renders ; 
sad for idle readers this book is nuite unsuitable. 

■ In conclusion I may remark, that the great laa<ling 
ideas of this Hell of Dante are not borrowed idcaa ; Imt 
are the result of all that he had learnt, and soon, and 
known. Visions of the future world had indeed boon 
common amongst Heathens and Chriatians before, and 

tvere BtiU common in his own time, as we know from 
many sources ; but those visions are generally of tho ntoet 
incoherwit, dim, and fragmentary description, and could 
■uggest httle or nothing, except that tho minds of seriouii 
men liad long been exercised with such things. Dnnto 
vaa &miliar with all tho materials of the Itliddlo Ages, 
' and also with the worth and wisdom of tho Ancients whom 
he eec8, &ci> to face, in that Limbo of his : and he openly, 
nay pnrposely, takes every document within his roach. 
And it is not so much by what has been loosely called 
InTe&tioD, as by true and clear lecogmUou of the Nature 



of Things in that age of Ma, by unerring discriminatiott 
of what is eigniiicaut from what ia insignificant, and by 
boundless diligence withal, that he constructs an original 
lutd enduring work. In his inmost heart the scattered 
incidontfi gradually cohere, and expand, and become a 
living whole — fit for utterance : the " Sacred Poem for 
many years has made him lean" {Farad, xsv. 3) ; and it 
is upon condition of his not being a "timid iriend to 
Truth" (IbiiL V, 118) that he expects to live amongst 
iiiture generations. He has got infinitely beyond all the 
wretched factions of Guelpbs and Glubellines of his time; 
and seen the very roota of their sin and misery, Tha 
flaming Eoaliti^s of Eternity stand visible on every side of 
him, and have taught Mm the "Straight Way," and given 
him power to measure the dimensions of all Popes and 
Kaisers, and estimate thorn by a Standard which "con- 
quers evety error." And his earthly life too, with all its 
sadness, has thereby become "bright," and "clear," and 
unspeakably precious ; and even in Hell he recognises all 
the g<:iod qualities of those that arc condemned. There ia 
nothing more touching in the whole Poem than the brief 
simple way in whicli he maVcs them allude to the "clear" 
and "beautiful life," the "bright world," the "sweet air, 
gladdened by the Sun," the " beauteous stars," &c. 




Dante finds himself astray in a dark Wood, where he spends a 
night of g^at nusery. He says that 4eath is hardly more 
bitter, than it is to recall what he suffered there ; but that 
he will tell the fearful things he saw, in order that he may 
also tell how he found guidauce, and first began to discern the 
real causes of all misery. He comes to a Hill ; and seeing its 
suomiit already bright with the rays of the Sun, he begins to 
ascend it. The way to it looks quite deserted. He is met by 
a beautiful Leopard, which keeps distracting bis attention 
from the Hill, and makes him turn back several timed. The 
hour of the morning, the season, and the gay outward aspect 
of that animal, give him good hopes at first ; but he is driven 
down and terrified by a Lion and a She- wolf. Virgil comes to 
his aid, and tells him that the Wolf lets none pass her way, 
but entangles and slays every one that tries to get up the 
mountain by the road on which she stands. He says a time 
will come when a swift and strong Greyhound shall clear the 
earth of her, and chase her into Hell. And he offers to con- 
duct Dante by another road; to show him the eternal roots of 
misery and of joy, and leave him with a higher guide that 
will lead him up to Heaven. 




In the middle' of the journey of our life, I found 
myself in a dark wood ;^ for the straight way was 
lost. All! how hard a thing it is to tell what a 
wild, and rough, and stubborn wood this was, which 
in my tliought renews the fear : so bitter is it, that 
scarcely more is death. But to treat of the good 
that I there found, I will relate the other things that 
I discerned. 

Xel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita 
Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, 
Ch6 la diritta via era smarrita. 

Ahi quanto a dir qual era ^ cosa dura 
Questa selva selvaggia ed aspra e forte, 
Che nel pensier rinnova la paura ! 

Tanto e amara, che poco e piii morte : 
Ma per trattar del ben ch' ivi trovai, 
Dir6 dell' altre cose, ch' io v' ho scorto. 


^ The action of the poem be- 
gins on Goo<l Friday of the year 
1300, as we learn from canto xxL 
112, &c. ; and Dante was at that 
time 35 years of age. The Bible, 
with which he was wcU acquaint- 
ed, says : "The days of our years 
are threescore years and ten** 
{Psalm xc. 10). And Dante him- 
self s^ieaks of our life as an arch, 
which we ascend and descend ; 
and in which the highest, or 

middle point, ''is at the 35th 
year in men of perfect constitu- 
tion." Convito, Tr. iv. c 23. 

• In "the erroneous wood of 
this life" (Ih. c. 24) ; in the dark 
battle of those who see not be- 
yond it. ** In the terrors of the 
shadow of death" {Job xxiv. 17) ; 
amongst men who had lost " the 
Way, the truth, and the life." 
John xiv. 6. 

I cannot rjglidy tell how I entered it, so full of 
sleep was I about the moment tliat I left tLo true 
way. But after I had reached tlie foot of a Hill' 
there, where that valley ended, which had pierced 
my heart with fear, I looked up and saw its shoul- 
I ders already clotlied with the rays of the Planet* that 
! leads men straight on every road. Then the fear 
was somewhat* calmed, which had continued in the 
lake* of my heart the night tliat I passed so piteously. 

lo non ao hen ridir com' io v" entrai ; 
Tant' era pien dj sonno in sn quel pnnto, 
Che la verace via abbandond. 

Ma poi oh' io fui al pi6 d' un coUo giunto, 
Li ove terminaTa quella valle, 
Che in' avea di paura il cor compunto, 

Guardai in alto, e ridi le sae spalle 
Veatite gii de' raggi del pianeta, 
Che ntena dritto altrui per ogni calle, 

Allnr fu la psnra un poco queta, 
Che nel lago del cor m' era dumta 
La notte, ch' io passai con tauta pieta. 


' The ffigh GrounJ ot Chris- 
I tunjty ; the niTstia " holy HUl," 
I b-viinanllyipokenoliii thePmlDU 
ul otbo' put! oF the Scriptorei. 
ho " DelecUble Hountauu" of 
IT own BuDyan. 

' TTiBSun; in Dante'* time re- 
ganleil •* ■ pluivt. "TlioHanof 
rtghleaiunew ihall ulic vitli hcai- 

kbg in hi* wingL" Vui. iv. S: "TLe 
[hkjnpdtig from on high hath vi- 
■itcd m, lo giye light to them that 
til in 'JMt""' aud in the shadow 

ot death, to guide our f oet into the 
way of ppaot." Luke i. 78, 79. 

' He now >oea the briglit eunt- 
mitatthecndoftbat "valley orthv 
■hitilnv of ilvath i" hut 1b itill far 
ftoiii it. and brcathlesB. Un poco 
docnothere mean "alittle while. " 

• The beart waa "tL B abod of the 
*ilal ipirit" ( Fiia JVboiyi, p. 317) i 
and a nort of rowrvoir (hdte), oc 
"reooptaols of tlio hloo.l." before 
tlieeironlatinn became luiown. Soa 
Lontlini Coin, ad locum. 


And as he, who with panting breath has escaped 
from the deep sea to tJie sliore, turns to the dan- 
gerous water and gazos; so my mind, which still 
was fleeing, turned back to see the pass that no one 
ever left alive- 
After I had rested my wearied body, I took the 
way again along tlie desert strand, so that the firm 
foot always was the lower.' And behold, almost at 
the commencement of the steep, a Leopard,' light 
aud very nimble, which was covered witli a spotted 

£ come qaei, cbe con lona afiamiata 
TJscito fiior del pelago alia riva, 
Si vulge all' Bc<iua perigliosa, e guata ; 

CobI 1' animo mio, che ancor fuggiva, 
Si voldc indietro a rimirar lo paaso, 
Che non lascib giammai pisrsona viva, 

Poi ch* ebbi riposato il corpo laaao, 
mpresi via per la pinggia discrta, 
SI che il pie fenao aempre era il piii hm 

Ed ecco, quasi al cominciar dell' erto, 
Una lonza leggiera e presta molto, 
Che di pel maculate era covcrta. 

' It it only wlien walking on 
■ level, UiBt tiiu foot resting on 
thu KroiiuJ U alwDf 1 tlic lomr : 
bat from v<;r*« <SI, it itjipis&n that 
Duite luul alterwiLrili brgon to 
Moend. If il f" Jirmo [liriii, 
■troDg) ain be shown to memi 
" Uie rishi foot," lU wano 
(weuy, weak) mcwu " U^l buid'' 
in ouitu 111. U ; tbea Diatc, in 
""•"■""g Vba hill lUatinK, with , 

its ■Tuumit on hi* left, will luve 
the tight (Jtrmo) foot «Iw« 
WMili till' bu«, or lower thui Uia 
other. Vide Studii Inaiili , 
Danir (IMC), p. 10(1, JIto. 

outiide -, in whkt Speoser o&Ua tli 
" genvml {ntcntion." And Flo- 
rence in puticulAT. that eliuiged 
ita fution* with auoh leri^ uid 
nipidi^. Purad, i.n. 84. 

f skin : Rnii it went not from before my face ; nay, 

, BO impeded my way, that I had often turned to go 

The time was at the beginning of the morning ; 
and the Sun was mounting up with those stars, which 

f were with him when Divine Love first moved those 
&ir tilings :* lio that the gay skin of that animal, the 
hour of time, and the sweet season, were causes to 

I me of good hope ; yet not so, but that I feared at the 
sight, which appeared to me, of a Lion." He seemed 
coming upon me with head erect, and fiirious hun- 

£ non mi si partla ilinRii?! ol volto ; 
Anzi impediva tanto il tdo comiaino, 
Ch' io ftii per ritomar piii volte vGIto. 

Tempo era <lal priiicipio del mattino ; 
£ il Sol montava In au con i^usUo stelle 
CTi' enm con lui, quando 1' Amor Divino 

Mosae da prima ipelle cose telle ; 
S\ che a hene sperar m' eran cayioue 
Di quellu fera la gaietta pelle, 

L' ora del tem|Ki, e la dolce stngione : 
Ma non iX, che paura non mi dosse 
La vista, che m' apj)arv6, d' un leone. 

Qacati porea, che contra me venesse 
Con la testa olta, e con labbiosa fame ; 

Tlw tim in in Aries ; the aetr 
ton quing. And Duile belisved 
Uut ths world hid U'la orented 

kKm ; uiit likewiK that niankinil 
bad bocD ivdDemvd by the death 
of Chriit. Hii "holy Fridaj" 

(inunf) aiiiU>) wu the greatest 
and moit iMred of days. 

' Aiuliitiun or Prido; and, in 
particuliu', the King of France, 
vliu shewed tboH cjualititfi most, 
maintaiiiiD); tyruuiy. Lloodahed, 
uiJ diMord all over Italy. 

ger ; so that tho air seemed to quake tlioroat. Aiid 
a Slie-wolf,' tliat looked full of all cravings in her 
leanness ; and has cro now niado many live in sor- 
row : She brought such heaviness upon mo with the 
terror of lier aspect, that I lost the hope of ascead- 
iiig.* And as one who is eager in gaining, and, 
when the time arrives that makes him lose, weeps ajid 
afflicts himself in all his thoughts ; such that restless 
beast made me, which coming against me, by httle 
and Utile drove me back to where the Sun is silent^ 

SI che porea che l' aer ne tremeaae, 

£d nna lupa, che di tutte biame 

Sombiava cnrca nella sua magiezza, 50 

E molto genti fe' gii river gtaioe. 

Qoeata mi porso tanto di gravezza 
Con la pauro, cbe uscia di sua vista, 
Ch' io pertiei la eperamia dell' alteaa, 

E quale b quei, cbe volentieri acquista, 55 

K giugne il tempo cfae perder lo face, 
Che in tutti i auoi pensier piaiige e s' attrigta ; 

Tol mi fcce la bestia senza pace, 

Che, venendomi incontro, a poco a pouo 

Mi ripingeva 1ft dove il Sol tace. GO 

' Av»rice,worilifpii(thuwurWii 
gooda; uid tbo Court of Raiae ju 
pnrtioulu', "wlioreChri«t is daily 
buuglit uiil Bold." Par. ivii Gl. 

The imigs (if thae threu beuti 
MBDU tob« UlcBD (rum •/CFDlluA 

V. : "A Han out of the lonurt 
ihall ti»j tham, Uld ■ wolf of the 
pT«ning* tbnU ipcul them ; a lev- 

' Literally : " With the (ear 
Eiioh iaftucd frmn hcrr look, that 
loat the hope of the height," 
* loto ths valley vhoM thoie 
no liglit of tho Sun. 

Whilst I was rushing downwards, there appeared 

►efore my eye* one who seemed hoarse' from lon^ 

^lence. When I saw him in the great desert, I 

jried : " Have pity on mo, whate'er thou he, whether 

rshadc or veritable man I" 

Ho answered me: "Not man, a man I once 

was ; and my parents were Lombards, and both of 

r Jlautna by country. I was bom mh Julio, though 

; was late ;* and lived at Home under tlie good 

Augustus, in the time of the false and lying goda. 

Mentre ch' io roviiiava in basso loco, 
Dinana agli occhi mi ai fu offorto 
Chi per luiigo silenzio parea fio«o. 

Quando vidi coatui nol gran diaerto, 
Miaerore di me, gridai a. lui, 
Qual che tu an, od ombra, od uomo certo. 

Eisposemi : Hon uomo, uomo gift ftii, 
E li parenti miei furon Lombardi, 
E Slantovani pet patria ambedaL 

Kacqui imb Julio, ancorch^ fosse tardi, 
E vissi a Bonia aotto il'buono Augiisto, 
M tempo di^U Dei falsi o bugiardi. 

> Alladoa to the long neglmt 
i Vogil'i wodii before Duitc's 
ime. iVocu also meuia " (unt of 
' SoUUtoa: 

m or mote, though ImOcb on 

* TUgfl WIS little mure 

J ft»n of age at tlio 

f JnUoi C^nu'i death ; 

tberofora tiia young (bom too 
lute) fur mukiDg hiuiaelC koowa 
to the gniat Gmtiarcr, whom 
Dnoitc veneruted lU the founder 
oF tlie Kortuui moaarohy. Seo 
hil treatiiu Dt Manatrhia, ami 
fimrihi.Tr. iv. o.'4aiid5. Vireil 
" Uval," ID Duitu'B leoae, or ap- 
plied himself tu hii grout work 
ai a puot, nnder Augustiu. 

8 iNri:KX(). 


A Poet I was ; and sang of that just^ son of An- 
cliises, who came from Troy after proud Dium was 
burnt But thou, why retumest thou to such dis- 
quiet? why ascendest not the delectable mountain, 
which is the beginning and the cause of all glad- 
ness ?" 

"Art tliou then tliat Virgil, and that fountain 
which pours abroad so rich a stream of speech?" I 
answered him, witli bashful front " glory, and 
light of other poets 1 May the long zeal avail me, 
and the great love, that made me search thy volume. 
Thou art my master and my author.^ Tliou alone 

Poeta fui, o cantai di quel giusto 

Figliuol d' Anchise, che venne da Troia, 

Pol che 11 superbo Ilion fu combusto. 75 

Ma tu, perchd ritomi a taiita noia ? 
Perchc non sail 11 dUettoso inonte, 
Ch* e prlucipio e cagion dl tutta gioia ? 

Or so* tu (juel Vlrgillo, e quella fonte, 

Che spaude dl parlar si largo fiunie ? 80 

Elsposl lul ecu voigoguosa fronte. 

degli altri poetl onore e lume, 

Vagliainl 11 lungo studio e U gronde amore, 
Che m* han fatto cercar lo tuo volume. 

Tu se' lo mlo maestro, e 11 mlo autore : 85 

^ ^fUneas, quo justior alter nee 
pictat€fuit, kc JEaeitL L 544, 5. 

s Dante says that, in one sense, 
the term "Author u applied 
solely to poets, who with musaic 
art (art of the Muses) bind words 

together.** And in another sense, 
" Author signifies any person 
worthy of being bolieyod and 
obeyed. And from this is de- 
rived the word Authority.** Conv. 
Tr. iv. c 6. 

art he from whom I took tlie good style that hath 

done me honour. See tho beast from wliieh I tumoil 

L Imck. Help me fi-om her, thou famous sage ; for she 

ikes my veins and pulses tremble." 

"Thou must take another road," ho answered, 

rwhen ho saw me weeping, " if tliou desirest to os- 

l^cspe from this wild place ; because tliU beast, for 

which thou criest, lets not men pass her way, but 

■«o entangles that she slays them ; and has a nature 

Wto perverse and vicious, that she never satiates her 

craving appetite ; and after feeding, she is htmgrier 

than before. The animals to which she weds' ber- 

Tn Be' solo coliu, da cui lo tolsl 

Lo bcllo stile, che m' ha fntto onore. 

Veli la beatia, per cui io mi volsi : 
Aiutami da lei, famoso soggio, 
Ch' ella mi fa tremar le vono o i polsi. 

A te convien tcncre altro vin^io, 
Bispose, poi eho lagrimar rai vide, 
So vaoi compar d' esto loco selvaggio : 

Chh quoata bestia, per la qual tu gride, 
Non lascia altrai pasaar per la sua via, 
Ma tanto lo impedisce, che 1' nccide : 

£ ha uatum si matv^ia e ria, 

Che mfU non ecipie la bramosa voglia, 
£ dopo il paslo ha piii fame che pria. , 

Uolti son gli animiUi, a cui a' ammoglia, 


the Eviuigelist utw oommitttug 
fornication with tlio kings :"tiie 
woman on the nArlet bviut, 
" with Mvea liesdi uid tun 
honu." £n>. xvii, 3, La. 

10 ISFERNO. r*.fTO I. 

solf are many ; and will yet be more, until tlje Grey- 
hound comes, that will make her die with pain. Ha 
wiU not feed on land or jielf, but on wisdom, and love, 
and maiifijlness ; and his nation shaU be between 
Feltro and Feltro.' He shall be tho salvation of that 
low Italy,* for which Camilla tho virgin, Eurj-alus, 

E pifc samnno ancora, infin cite il Veltro 

VerrJi, che la tark morir di dogUa. 
Quest! non ciberit terra n6 pcltro, 

Ma Mpiunza, e amore, e virtute ; 

E sua naiioE eari tra Fultro u Fultro. 105 

Ci quell' lunile Italia Ea solute, 

' Feltro unil Montefeltro ; ob- 
iire plocen, tciutid bf commeii- 
ton in the nurtb-eutorn put 
f Ita);; tbe foi 

of A 

Between tliem Uf the countij of 
Can delU ficala, Lord of Verona, 
a juDUE friend iinil protector of 
Dikiite'*, who aertuDl; did not 
Mil hii heart on " Und or pelf ;" 

■' wlijom, and love, ami nian- 
fulne«." Troy*, in hii V/liro 
AUryurim, ooosidera Ugucoiime 
dell* FaggioU — mother oniinenl 
GbibuUiDe leader, uid known to 
Dante, bnt of muoh more ques- 
tioQablo character than Can— to 
be tbe personage Iiere alludod to ; 
and finda two Fellroa— not towni, 
but moon tain ■□maiita— between 
which lay Ugaotione'a oomitrj. 
One looka in vain for nuuonable 
pToofi of mjuif tbing> that Truya 
uMita in his high - sounding 

book : whole volumea n 

a (nbjeol ate of necemity aome- 
what empty. The passage will 
remain obtenre, na it was even 
to Denle'a conteuipamrieB; hut 
will BuSiciently indicate to ua the 
:iirc of Hnl and longing for 

•ome delivo 
been in Mb n 

■. that 
od wbe 

The old oonimen 

tonaUy, thrnka 

(" hii birth iball be between felt 
and felt," literally} importa that 
thia prondaed deliverei " thall be 
bom of a boioble raoe, ai felt u 
a bumble and mean cloth" (aee 
CumciUi ddT Ollivia, ruL I p. lU). 
Boecacoio alao ivada/c/Cro (felt). 
And it ia to be reooUiHited that 
tho old MSs. and vilitiona of 
tbe OoBunaiia have no cajrital 

* HuiKittn llatiam (.En. iii 
tbe R«ion of Borne, tho Soipirs i 






and Tamus, and Nisus/ died of wonnds. He shall 
chase her through every city, till he have put her 
into Hell again ; from which envy first set her loose. 
"Wherefore 1 think and discern this for thy best, 
that thou follow me. And I will be thy guide, and 
lead thee hence through an eternal place, where 
thou shalt hear the hopeless shrieks, shalt see the 
ancient spirits in pain ; so that each calls for second 
death. And thou shalt see those who are con- 
tented in the fire; for they hope to come, when- 
soever it be, amongst the blessed. Then to these,* 
if thou desirest to ascend, there shall be a Spirit 

Per cui mori la veigine Cammilla, 
Eurialo, e Tumo, e Niso di ferute : 

Questi la caccerk per ogni villa, 

Fin che V avrk rimessa nell* Inferno, 
lit onde invidia prima dipartilla. 

Ond* io per lo tuo me* penso e discemo, 
Che tu mi segui, ed io sar6 tua gnida, 
E trarrotti di qui per luogo etemo, 

Ove udirai le disperate strida, 
Vedrai gli antichi spiriti dolenti, 
Che la seconda mor)^ ciascun grida : 

E vederai color, che son content! 
Kel fuoco, pcrche speran di venire, 
Quando che sia, alle beate genti : 

-cUle quai poi se tu vorrai salire. 





or, " poor degraded Italy," from 
the state into which it had fallen. 
^ Then, as now, friends and 
chief men of all parties faU in 
the wild battle. 

* To the blessed. Virgil pro- 
mises to conduct him through 
HeU and Purgatory only. Bea- 
trice will lead him to Heaven. 


worthier tlmn I to guide thee. Witt her will I 
leava thee at mj parting. For that Emperor who 
reigns above, because I was rcbelh'otis' to his law, 
willa not that I come into his city. In all parts he 
rules ; and there he dwells. There is his city, and 
his high seat, happy whom ho chooses for it 1" 

And I to him : " Poet, I beseech thee by that 
God whom thou knewest npt : in order that I may 
escape tliia ill and worse, lead me where thou now 
hast said, so that I may see the Gate of St. Peter, 
and those whom tlion makest so sad."' 

Then he moved ; and I kept on behind Innu 

Anima fia a cib di me pit degna : 

Con lei ti lastieri nel mio partire ; 
Chi qudlo Impemdor, che lasaii regna, 

Perch' io fiii ritwllante alia sua legge, 135 

Non vuol che in sua citti per me 8i vegna. 
In tutte parti impcra, c quivi regge ; 

Quivi b la sua cittado, e 1' alto seggio : 

felice colui, cui ivi elogge ! 
£d io a lui : Poeta, io ti richieggio 130 

Per quyllo Iddio, che tu non conoscesti, 

A ci^ ch' io fugga qucsto male e peggio, 
Che tu mi meni li dov' or dicesti, 

81 ch' io vegga la porta di San Pietro, 

E color, che tu lai cotunto meetL 135 

Allor ei mosse ; ed io li tenni dietro. 

' Virgi] foreaaw the coming Sa- 
viour; but dung and trnated to 
lili bomui wiadam, accnniing to 
Doste- Soe tliu pmiHgE, Pury. 
iiii. 70-73, whan Statiiu tetli 
Viigil of hif being converted tu 

Chriituiiit; by the Fourth Ec- 

' 0«te cf Poigfttoi?. Tlum 
whom Virgil deaoribe* ai >o ud 
" in the etenial pUca" ere the 
iahaliitaiila of fielL 


End of the first day. Brief invooatioD. Dante is disoouraged at 
the oateet, when he begins seriously to reflect upon what he 
has undertaken. That very day, his own strength has miser- 
ably failed before the Lion and the She-wolf. He bids Virgil 
consider well whether there be sufficient virtue in him, before 
committing him to so dreadful a passage. He recalls the 
great errands of JSneas and of Paul, and the great results of 
their going to the immortal world ; and, comparing himself 
with them, he feels his heart quail, and is ready to turn back. 
Virgil discerns the fear that has come over him ; and in order 
to remove it, tells him how a blessed Spirit has descended from 
Heaven expressly to command the journey. On hearing this, 
Dante immediately casts off all pusillanimity, and at once 
accepts the Freedom and the Mission that are given him. 




CANTO 11. 

■ta day w» departing, »d fte brown .ir >^ 
the animals, that are on earth, from their toils ; and 
I, one alone, was preparing myself to bear the war* 
both of the journey and the pity, which memory, 
that errs not, shall relate. 

Muses, high Genius, now help me I 
Memory, that hast inscribed what I saw, here will 
be shewn thy nobleness. 

1 began: "Poet, who guidest^ me, look if there 
be worth in me sufficient,' before thou trust me to 

Lo giomo 86 n' andava, e 1' aer bruno 

Toglieva gli animai, che sono in terra, 

Dalle fatiche loro ; ed io sol uno 
M* apparecchiava a sostener la guerra 

Si del cammino, e si della pietate, 5 

Che ritrarrii la mente, che non erra. 
^luse, alto ingegno, or m' aiutate : 

mente, che scrivesti ci6 ch* io vidi, 

Qui si parr^ la tua nobilitate. 
Io cominciai : Foeta che mi guidi, 10 

Guarda la mia virtu, s' ella ^ possente, 

Prima che all' alto passo tu mi fidL 

1. Bruno J brown, dark, obscure. 
12. AltOf higli, deep, or difficult ; as in ▼. 142. 

^ The battle with the painful 
road, and with the pity for those 
in Hell. 

• Vii^ represents Human Wis- 
dom or Intelligence ; and we shall 
see who sends him, and gives him 
power to be a guide to Dante. 

' Literally : " Look at (exa- 
mine) my virtue (strength, worth) 
whether it be able (adequate)*' for 
such a journey. It has already 
miserably failed before the Lion 
and the Wolf. 


the ordnous paissage. Thou gayest tliat the father' 
of Sylvias, whilst subject to corruption, went to the 
immortal world, and was tliere in body. But if the 
Adversary of all evi! was propitious, considering tJie 
high effect, and who and what should come imm 
him; it seems not unfitting to an understanding mind. 
For in the empyi-eal heaven, he was chosen to be the 
father of generous Borne, and of her Empire. Both 
these,' to say the truth, were established for the 
holy place, where the Successor of great Peter sita. 
By this journey, for which tliou Iionourest him, he 
learned things that were the causes of his victory, 

Tu dici, Che di Silvio lo pareute, 

CorruttibQe ancoro, ad immortale 

Secolo andb, e fu sensibilmonte. 15 

Perf> Be 1' Aweisario d' ogni male 

CoTtese fu, pensando 1' alto efietto, 

Ch' ttscir dovea di lui, e il chi, e il quale ; 
Non pare iiidegno ad uonio d' intelletto : 

Ch' ei fa dell' alma Roma e di euo impeio 20 

Nell' ejupireo Ciel per padre eletto : 
la quale, e il quale, a voler dir lo vero, 

Fur stabiliti per lo loco eanto, 

IT aiedo il autcessor del maggior Piero. 
For questa audata, oudc gli dai tu vanto, 35 

Iat«sa cose che furon cagione 

Di sua vittoriu e del papale ammauto. 

JEatai. . , . . JSl gui Itnomiav I ^ taqjuilt, Rome ; unil i' flimfc, 
m/tlcCi Sylviut ^neal. .Ca. vi, the Eiupicc. Both otiljuneJ by 
\ Ood. Cpne, Tr. It, o. 0, 


and of the Papal Mantle. Afterwords, the Cliosen 
Vessel' went tliither, to bring ctinfirmation of tliat 
Faith which is the entrance to tlie way of salvation. 
But I, why go ? or who permits it ? I am not ^neae, 
am not Paul : neither myself nor others deem me 
worthy of it. Wherefore, if I resign myself to go, I 
fear my going may prove foolish. Thou art wise, 
and undcrstnndost bettor than I sjwak." 

And as one who nnwilla what ho willed, and 
with now thonghta changes his purpose, so that ho 
wholly quits the tiling commenced,^ such I made 

Audovri poi lo Vas d' elezione, 

Per recarne eonforto a quella Fede, 

Ch' 6 principio alia via di Ralvazioiio. 30 

Ma io, porchi venirvi ? o chi '1 concede 1 

lo non Enea, io non Paolo sono r 

Me degno a cifi nu ifi, ni; altri crede. 
Per che se del venire io m' abbandono, 

Teino che 1b veuuta non sia folio : 35 

So' savio, e intendi me' ch' io non ragiono. 
E quale fe qiiei, che disvuol cib cli' e' voile, 

£ per novi pensier cangia proposta, 

81 che del cominciar tutto si tolle ; 

39. Toitt, toglie [from lollert) : old form, BMrer 
lo the lAtin. Uuit cxunplei of tbU *ort oooar ; 
wLioh we here notioe, onoe for alL 

' PboI, ckUed " Bi cboHD veaser 
(AeU ix. 15) ; "caught up to the 
third heaven ',"uid into Piraitisp, 
where he " heard unipeakable 
mT^"{2C-r.aiAA). Thither, 
i. (^ " to the inmiortal world." 

' Iitcir»ll7 ; '" Chuige* hie pur- 
poTC, M that he takei himielf 
whallf from the hegiiining'' that 
he ha* mule : whollj girea up the 
eDterpnH he had begun. 


myself on that dim coast; for witli thinking I wasted 
the enterprise, that had been so qtiiok in its com- 

" If I have rightly understood tliy words," re- 
plied that shade of the Magnajiinious, "thy soul is 
smit with coward fear, which oftentimes encumbers 
men, so t]iat it tums thom back from fjonoured en- 
terprise; aa false sceuig does a startled beast. To 
free thee from this dread, I will tell thee why I 
came, and what I heard in the first moment when 
I took pity of thee. I was amongst tlieni who are 
suspense ;' and a Lady,' bo fair and blessed that I 

Tul mi fe«' io in quella oscnra costa : 40 

Parch^ ponaaniio consmnai la impreea, 
Che ta Del uominciar cotanto toata. 

Se io ho ben lu tua parola intesa, 

Rispoee del mognanimo quell' ombm, 

L' anima tim ^ la viltode offeaa, 45 

La qual molte fiate 1' uomo ingombm, 
Si cbe d' onrata impresa Io rivolve, 
Come falso veder bestia qaand' ombra. 

I)n queeta tema acciocche tu ti solve, 

Dirotti, percli' io Tcnni, e quel ch' io iutesi, 50 
Sel primo punto che di to nti dolve. 

To era tra color, die son eospeai, 
£ Donna mi cbiam6 beata e bella, 

' [n Lioibo. Canto it. 45, I dam. She iletcemli to Hiuubd 

' Ik-itrice : in Duite'e hatri, Wiidoni io it> Lioiba; eluiI miik(« 

muufiguml into CcUilial Wia- I it guide her "frienit" Bome wikj 


prayed her to connnaiid, called me. Hot eyes 
ehone brighter tliau the Star;' and ahe began soft 
and gentlo to tell mo witJi angelic voieo, in her 
language : ' courteous Mantuan Spirit, whoso 
fame still lasts in the world, and will last as long 
as Time I' My frieud,^ and not of fortune, is so 

Tftl che di comandare io la richieai. 
Lucevan gli occbi suoi piii che la Stella : 55 

E comincionuni a dir aoave e pinna 
., Con angelica voce, in siia fiivella : 
anirnn corteso Mantovana, 

Di cui la fama ancor nel mondo dura, 

E durcr^ qnanto il moto lontnna : GO 

L' amico mio, e non della venture, 

CO. LoBlaiia, naed for [unjrn .- u in Par. n. 49, 

tt pvilrritu (Ariitotle) ; quoted 
by Danto {Cobt. Tt. it. c. 2). and 
tniulatod: "Time, Aocordiiig to 
Arututle in the faurtli (book) of 
liu rhfiica, 15 the number (nun. 
m&tion) of motion with respect to 
fint and after.'* Many oditiana 
read mondo (oroation) ; and p«r- 
hapawjtli oijually good authority, 
' line Bl liai upon lo aevenl 
eat and beat seema the foUowing : 
"My friend, and not tUfrUtulet 
fartnnB ;" he who ii dear to ine, 
though sorely woiuided( Con i-. Tr, i. 
0.3) and driven nbout by fortune. 
AlGeri, who stndinl Dant« with 
great ital, niggeet* another re- 
markable meuiingbyapBHage in 
hiaFilippo, where Perez telliCario 
that be ii Um friend of hii 

towmrdi Heaven. See the Can- 
tone : Vai tht, inlendcndo, U lem, 
eUlmmtUjkc; and Dante'* beau- 
tiful oomment on it, in which be 
tpeulcB of hia Beatrice aa ableueil 
ipirit; and lelli how ho "went 
away &■ if in rapture" when he 
thought of her. Omc Tr. iL o. 

■ The Son. La helta lUOa eh' 
il tempo nmra ("the bcantiful 

irthat n 

tone lii. 1, page 62 of FnticelU'* 
edition, Flor. 18,14. "She fWii- 
doni) ii more beautiful than the 
nin, and above all the order of 
«tan ; being compared with light, 
■he ia found before it. " Witdom 
o/ Sotomim vii, 29. 
' Lih^nUy: "MoUon." Trmpat 

ro n. INFEBKO. 19 

impeded in his yray upon tlie desert shore, that 
he has tomod back for terror. And I fear he 
ma^ already be so far astray, that I have risen 

I too late for his relief, from what I heard of him 
in Heaven- Now go, and with thy ornate speech, 
and with wliat is necessary for his escape, help him 
, that I may be consoled tliereby. I am Beatrice 
who send thee. I come from a place where I desire 
to return. Love moved me, that makes me speak. 
When I shall be before my Lord, I ofl will praise 
thee to him.' 

*' She was silent then, and I began: '0 Lady, 

I Bingle in worth; through whom mankind excels all 

IfellEt diserta piaggia h impodito 

S nel cammin, che vfllto k per paura : 
E t«iiio che non sia gi& sL saianito, 

Ch' io mi aia tardi al soccorso levata, 65 

Per quel ch' io ho di lui no! Ciclo utlito. 
Or muovi, o con la tua parola omata, 

£ con ci&, chc he mcstieri si suo camparo, 

L' uuta si, ch' io ne sia consolnta. 
Io SOD Bontrico, che ti faccio audare : 70 

Vegno di loco, ove tomar diaio ; 

Amor mi mosee, die mi fa parlaro, 
Qoando sar^ dinand al Sij^or mio, 

Si te mi loderi aovente a lui. 

Tacctte allora, e poi cominciai io ; 75 

Donna di vii%h sola, per cui 

kc Jatieoluo... .IfrndiTCKtiira I taton,kdapting it, explain: "My 
fo (MO, Ac (Attn i 10. 4). Bcolod, frienil, (bat or la; cboioe, ud not 
vkI uther Jintmifuiaheil conuneQ- 1 tbatafcliimiw,uoideatoraapri(ia." 


that is contained within tho heaven which hoB the 
eniallost circles I' So gratoftd to mo is thy com- 
mand, tliat my obeying, were it done already, seems 
tardy. It needs not that thou more explain to me 
thy wisli. But tell me tho cause, why thou for- 
bearest not to descend into this centre here below 
from tlie spacious place,' to which thou bumeet to 
return ?' 

" ' Since thou desirest to know thus far, I will 
tell thee briefly,' she replied, ' why I fear not to 
como within this place. Tliose things alone are to be 
feared that have the power of hurting ; the othara 
not, which are not feai'iul. I am made such by God, 

L' uninnii apeiie eccede ogni contento 

Da quel ciel, chc La minori i corchi aui : 
Tanto m' aggmda il tuo iKiiuaiuIamento, 

Che r ubbidir, se giil fosse, m' e tardj ; 

Fid non t' e uopo aprirmi il tuo talento. 
Ma dimmi la cngbn, ohe non ti guardi 

DoUo eceuder quoggiii in qucsto centro 

I>all' anipio loco, ove tomar tu ardi. 
Da cbe tu vuui super cotanto addentro, 

Uirotli brcvomeDte, mi risjKwc, 

Percli' io nou temo di venir qua entro. 
Tomor si ileve sol di ijnelle cose 

Ch' hanno poteuza di fare oltrui male ; 

Dell' altre no, cbo nou son paoroso. 

77. CmlcAtij, 

' Tlw he»ven of the moon ; 
whifli giM« round (contains) oar 
cuih, uiil !■ tlie ueueiit to it 
and nuuller tlum luiy other. 

■ The wMeat circle of pKiuUae ; 
tho EmpjreaJ llcaven, which is 
(jtrtheat from oar earth. See note 
■hove, p. '•"■T 

ro U. ISFEHNO. 21 

his grace, that your misciy does not touch me ; 
sor tha flame of tliis burning aHsail me. There h 
a noble Lady' in Heaven who has auch pity of this 
hindrance, for which I eend thee, that she bi'eaks 
die sharp judgment there oij high. She called 
Lacia,' in her request, and said : ' Now tliy fiiith- 
fiil one liaa need of theo ; and I commend him to 
Ibee.' Lucia, enemy of all cruelty, arose aud came 
to the place where I was sitting with the ancient 
Bachol.' She said : ' Beatrice, true praise of God ; 
why helpest tliou not hlui who loved thee so, tliat 

lo eon fatta da Dio, sua merc^, tale, 

Che la vostia miseiia non mi tango, 

Ni fiamma d' eato incendio non m' assale. 
Doima c- gcntil nel Ciel, clie ei compittnge 

Di quealo impeiUmento, ov' io ti manJo, 95 

S\ che dnro giudicio- laastt fiunge. 
Questa chicse Luck iu suo dimaudo, 

£ dieae : Or abtiisogna il tuo fedele 

Ili to, ed io a t« Iu raccomando, 
LdcK niniica di ciascun crudele, 100 

8i moBse, o vunne al luco dov* iu era, 

Che mi aedaa eon l' antica Rachole. 
Disse : Beatrice, loda di Dio vera, 

Che nou soccorri quei clio t' ami) tan to, 

' Divine Merer. 

* Divine enligliteiuiig Orace. 

Lucia, the Virgin Martyr ; ■ reiU 

I. buuSgnreil like Beatrice. 

Vattta finda bn- in rnrailiK, canto 

u. \''u\a alio Fury. 

' ContompUtion. Tliie Purff. 
uvii. 1(M. Cuntofflplntion of tiod 
uul his warlu, "which williout 
anj mittnre ii the a» of our 
higheat fBDult^i" but " uuuiot be 
fall; iiKuue<1 ill tlui life" Cifflv. 
Tx. it. 0.22. 

22 ■ DfFEIUIO. UNTO n. 

for theo lie left the vulgar crowd? Hearest thoa 
not the miseiy of his plaint? Seest thou not the 
death which oorabats htm upon the river, that swell- 
ctH not the sea?'' None on earth were over swift 
to seek their good, or flee their hurt, as I to oomu, 
afl«r these words were utt«red, from my blessed seat ; 
oonHding in thy noble speech, wliich honours thee, 
and them who have heard iL' 

*' After saying this to me, she tiuTied away her 
bright eyes weeping ; by which she made me hasten 
more to come. And thus I came to thee, as she 
desired ; took thee from before that savage beast, 
which berofl thee of the short way to the beautiful 

Clie uBcio per to della volgare ecMera I 1 05 

Non odi tu k pieta del suo pianto 1 

Non vedi tii la morte che il comlw,tte 

Su la fiumana, ove il mar non ha vanto 1 
Al mondo non far tnai persono ratte 

A &r lor pro, n6 a fiiggir lor danno, 110 

Com' io, dopo cotai iiarolo fattu, 
Venn! quaggrd dal mio beoto scanno, 

Fidandomi nel tuo parlare onesto, 

Cho onora to, e quei che udlto 1' lianno. 
FoBcia cho m' obhe n^ionato questo, 115 

Gli occhi lucent! lagrimando yolse ; 

Per che mi fece del venir pifi preeto : 
E veuni a te coal, com' ella volse ; 

Dinamd a qaella fiera ti levai, 

Che dol bol monto il corto andar ti tolae. 1 20 

DiDimtaiti. Wlmt is it then ? Why, why linltest 

Why lodgest in thy heart such coward fear ? 

Tiy art thou not bold and free, when throo such 

Uessed Ladies' care for thee in the conrt of Heaven, 

t&nd my words promise thee so much good?" 

As flowereta, by the nightly ehillness bended 
Pdown and closed, erect themselves all open on tlieir 
Btema when the aim whitens them ;* thus I did, 
with my fainting courage. And so much good dar- 
inir ran into my heart,' that I began as one set 

r: '* oompasaionato she, who succoui'ed me I 
Danqne cLe i t perclie, pcrcht ristai 1 
Venhk tantn vilt^ nel cuore allutt« 1 
Perchi ardire e ftanobeaia non hai 1 
Poscia che tai tre Donne benedette 

Conn di te netta corta del Cielo, 125 

£ il mio pailar tanto ben t' impromette 1 
Qaale i fioretti dal nottnmo gelo 

Chinati e chiusi, poi cLe il 8ot gl' imlnanca, 
Si drizKin tutti aporti in loro Dtelo ; 
Tttl mi fee' io, di mia virtute stanca : 130 

£ tanto buono ardire al ciior mi cors^ 
Ch' io cominciai come persona franca : 
O pictosa colei ctte mi aouuorae, 

1S7. ^utU, oseil like Virgil's Qualr lopor faiit, 

• Divine Mercy, Onuso, »nd 
■ But right u Barrrt* Ihtnogh Itw 


* Prr tna eueurrit 

T liiDd omrv bT 



And courteous thou, who quickly didst obey the 
true words that she gave thee ! Thou hast dis- 
posed my heart with such desire to go, by what 
thou sayest, that I have returned to my first pur- 
pose. Now go ; for both have one will : Thou guide, 
thou lord and master." 

Thus I spake to him ; and he moving, I entered 
on the arduous and savage way. 

E tu cortese, ch' ubbidisti tosto 

Alle vers parole che ti porse ! 135 

Tu m' hai con desiderio 11 cuor disposto 

Si al venir, con le parole tue, 

Ch' io son tomato nel prime proposto. 
Or va, chfe un sol volere h d* ambedue : 

Tu duca, tu signore, e tu maestro. 140 

Cosi gli dissi ; e poich& mosso fue, 
Entrai per lo cammino alto e silvestro. 


IiiBcriptiaii OT«r flie Gate of HdO, and tihe impfOEiaB it fumlam 
upon Dante. Viigfl takes him bj tiie hamd, and leadi him in. 
The disnal aoonds make bim bant iafto tean^ Hisbeadisqaite 
bewildered. TJpoo a Dark Haia (Jhrim emmpafmrn^ vbith goes 
nmnd the confinei, be sees a Tart auihitDde of fpirifti 
behind a flag in great haste and eonfoBOB, aiged am bj 
mgpB and honietib Ibew are the nnhapp^ people, who 
were alire — ^never awakened to take anj part ehber in gocd 
or evil, to care for anything but themselTes. Tber are mixed 
with a similar class of fsDen angds. After passng throo^ 
the crowd of them^ the POets come to a great EiTer. which 
flows round the brim of HeU ; and then descends to fonn the 
other riyers, the marshes, and the ice that we shall meet with. 
It is the river Acheron ; and on its Shore all tiiat die under the 
wrath of God assemble from ererr coantry to be ferried over 
by the demon Charon. He makes them enter his boat by 
glaring on them with his homing eyes. Having seen these, 
and being refused a passage by Charon, Dante is suddenly 
stunned by a violent trembling of the ground, accompanied 
with wind and lightning, and falls down in a state of in- 



^^^^^ 2(j INFKRSO. CABTo ra. 

^^ CANTO m. 

Through mo is the way into tlie tlolefiil city; 

through me the way into tJio ctomal pain j through 

me the way among the people lost Justice moved 

my High Maker : Divine Power made me, Wisdom 

Supreme, and Primal Love.' Before me were no 

things created, hut eternal; and eternal I endure. 

Leave all hope, yo tbat enter. 

These words, of colour obscure, saw I written 

above a gate. Whereat I : " Master, their meaning 

to me is hard."* 

Pbb me si va nclla citti dolonte : 

Per me ai va nell' eterao dolore : 

Per me ri va tm la perduta gcnte. 

GiuBtina nioaae il mio alto Fattore : 

FecBmi la divina Potentate, 5 

La floniiua Sapienai e il priiuo Amore, 

Dinanid a mo non fur cobo create, 

Se Hon et«nie, ed lo etenio duro : 

Queste parole di colore oacuio 10 

Vid' io Bcritte al sommo d' una porta ; 

Pel eh' io : Maestro, il senso lor m' I (Inro. 

1 Eternia Powm niid WUdom, 

»re poMible withoot JiuUre. Tu 

liini the grvBt TiiDit;u not <t mem 

hwuy. but > Uvlng raalitr. 

foriiu. Remurk hao Duile, un- 

* Bitter, faufnl to me. The _ 

HcU of Duto «omea apon hiia J 

clmiwliHi-G, ulWB ja luelt that do iu- 

u ■ vei? nd uid pusful tiung H 

finite Love, or WiMlom, oi I'gver, 

^ J 


^^M And he to me, as one experlonced : " Here magt 
^^■sU distrust be left; all cowardice must here be dead. 
^^VWe are come to the place where I told thee thou 
^H sbouldfit Bee the wretched people, who have lost the 
^H good of the intellect."' And placing his Iiand on 
mine, witli a cheerful countenance that comforted 
me, he led me into the secret things. Hero tiighs, 
1 plaintB, and deep wailinga resounded through the 
I starless air : it made me weep at first. Strange 
I tongues, horrible outcries, words of pain, tones of 
■ RDger, voices deep and hoarse, and sound of hands 
mongfit them, made a tumult, which turns itself 

Ed egU a. me, come persona accorta : 

Qui ei convicn ksuiare ogiii eoapetto ; 

Ogni vOti convien che qui aia morta. 15 

Koi sent penuti al luogo ov' io t' ho detto 

Che tn vednu le genti dolorose, 

Ch' hamio perJuto il ban dello intelletto. 
E poich i) la sua mano alia mia pose, 

Con lieto volto, end' io mi confortai, 20 

Mi miHe dentro alle aegrete cose. 
Quivi sospiri, pianti, e aiti guai 

Eiaonavan p«r 1' aer aanza stelle. 

Per ch' io al comincior ne logrimai. 
Dtveise linguc, orriLili favellc, 

Faniln ili dolore, accenti il' ira, 

Yoci alto fiocho, o suou tli man c< 
Facevano uu tomulto, il qual 


a agpra 

le. Sera, si 

1 Th« knowled^ ot God, vhere- 
Id alunt Urn iulilluot fiudi cleu- 

:- I Tr. ii 

iDil Etcmul BDlvatl 

unceasing in that air for ever dyed,' as sand when 
the whirlwind breathes. 

And I, my head begirt with error,' said : " Mas- 
ter, what is this tliat I hear? and who are these that 
seem so overcome witli pain ?" 

And lie to me : " Tliis miserable mode the dreary 
sonls of those sustain, who lived witliout blame, and 
without praise. They are mixed with that caitiff 
choir of tlic angels, who were not rebellious, nor were 
faithful to God ; but were for tlieni solves. Heaven 
chased them forth to keep its beauty from impair ;' 
and tho deep Hell receives them not, for the wicked 
would have some glory over tliem." 

Sempre in quell' aria senza tempo tinta, 

Come la rona quanJo il turlw spira. 
Ed io, ch' avua il' error la testa cinta, 

Diasi : Maestro, liiie (i ijuel ch' i' odo 1 

E che gente i, die par nel duol ^ vinta I 
Ed Bgli a me : Qneeto misero modo 

Tongon 1' anime triste di colore, 

Che visaei eenxa infomia o seuza lodo. 
Misebiatc sono a quel cattivo cnro 

Degli angoli che non fiiron ribelli, 

N^ fiir fedoli a Dio, ma per si foro. 
CacciSrli i ciel per non easer men belli, 

Nh lo ptofondo inferno gli riceve, 

Ch6 alcuaa gloria i rei avrebber d' ellL 

1 " Vnthout time, at etenuUy 
dyed, ac Btnine-l" with daiknesi, 

" Lit. ; •' Who bad my he»a 
begirt," &e. SoniB editioui nnd 

orrar (hoivor) In Hue 31, Uiit«ad 
' Lit, ! " in order to be not leu 


t> m. DJFEsyo. 29 

And I : " Maator, what ig so gripvous to them, 
that makes them lament thus bitterly?" 

He answered : " I will tcU it to thee very briefly. 
Those have no hope of death ; and their blind life is 
so moan, that tliey are envious of every other lot. 
Report of them the world permits not to exist. 
Merey and Judgment disdains them. Let us not 
speak of them ; but look, and pass." 

And I, who looked, saw an ensign, which whirl- 
ing ran so quickly that it seemed to scorn oil pause,' 
And behind it came bo long a train of people, that 
I should never have believed death had undone so 

Zd io : llaeatro, che li tanto greve 

A lor, che lamenlar gU fa el forte t 

Hiapose : Dicerolti molto breve. 45 

Qoeeti non banno speranm di mort"?, 

E la lor cieca vita 6 tanto bassa, 
, Che invidiosi son d' ogni altra aorte. 

Fania di loro il moudo esser non lassa, 

Misericordia e Otustim gli sdegna : 50 

Non ragioniam di lor, ma guanli e passa. 
£d io, che riguanlai, vidi on' icaegiio, 

Che giiando correva tanto ratta, 

Che d' ogni posa mi pareva indegna : 
£ dietro le venia el limga tratta 55 

Di gente, cli' io non avrei raai crwluto, 

Che morte tonta n' avesso disfatta. 

le. Dieemiti, tel diiA : Litt. d 


' Or, "»e«nied iinwortfir of all 

■weeping ruoiiil the confiim of 

Hill, nnworth; and unnblo U 
enter it. and tLe gi'Mj &ag ii 

tlwir onl; nuuk and Euidc. 


m&Dj. After I had recognised Bome amongst them, 
I looked and saw tlie shadow of him' who from 
cowardice made the great refusal. Forthwith I un- 
derstood and felt assured, tiiat tliia was the crew of 
caitiffs, hateful to God and to his enemies. These 
unfortunate, who never were alive, were naked, and 
sorely goaded by hornets and by wasps that were 
there : these made their faces stream with blood, 
which mixed with tears was gathered at their feet by 
loathsome worms. 

Foscia ch' to V ebbi alcim riconosciuto, 
Guardai, e vidi 1' ombro di oolui 
Che fecB per yiltate il gran rifiuto. 

Incontanente inteai, e certo liii, 
Clie quest' era la setta dei oattivi, 
A Dio spiaoenti ed a' nemiei em. 

Questi aciftuiati, che mai non fur vivi, 
Erauo ignudi e stimolati niotto 
Da moaconi e da veapo ch' eran ivL 

EUb rigavan lor di sangue il volto, 
Che mischiato di lagrime, a' lor piodi 
Da fastidiosi vermi era ricolto. 

> It il uiuertein to trlioiu the 
puat klladM in tlili place. Celea- 
tlna y. ndgned tbe ptj-ui power 
in I3H, mud wu (uUowed b; 
Bonifue VIII. ; but be lijul Snt 
tried it for mora tlum five uiontbi 
(Villani, lib. viiL c. S). Hu hud 
lived u a mont to thn age of 
MTtmty-lwu, mid wm auddeiilj 
elwtal at Perugia, after the papal 
aluit had b«e& kept Tuont lot 

mom Chan two jean bj the wild 
DoQtests of tbe cordina!*. He died 
aoon after hia reu^uatioa, and wu 
ouionUod in 1.113, eight yoon be- 
fore Dnnle's death. Tbe line often 
quoted {In/emo, canto uviL 106) 
prove* nothing, oieept that Dante 
kuev about Celmtine — n thing 
that Dwdod no proof. Each com- 
nicntator maj contiuue to wieot 
for Dante tbs ponoo moat pro- 

a great 

looked onwards, 1 1 
Wliereat I 

7 people 

what u 

V grant that I may know who these 
ready to p 

; and 

makes them e 

1 seem e 

I discern bj the faint light" 

And he : " The things shall be told Uiee, when we 

stay our steps upon tijo joyless strand of Acheron." 

Then, witli eyes ashamed and downcast, fearing 

Rmy words might have offended him, I kept myself 

Wfrom speaking till we reached the stream. And lo \ 

a old man, white with ancient hair, comes towards us 

a a bark, shouting : " Woe to you, depraved spirits ! 

Hope not ever to see Heaven, I come to lead you to 

E poi che a riguardare oltre mi diedi, . 
Villi gcnte alia riva d' un gran fiume : 
Perch' io iliRsi : lUestro, or mi conccdi, 

Ch' io sappia i^uali sono, e qiuil costume 
Le fa paret di trapasaar A pronte. 
Com' io diflcemo per lo fioco luma 

Ed egli a me ; Le tose ti fien conte. 
Qoando noi fennerem li nostri pasai 
Sulla triata riviera d' Acheronte. 

Allor con gli ooclii vorgognosi e hassi, 
Temendo no '1 mio dir gli fiissc grave, 
Infino al fiume dal pai'kr mi trassi. 

Ed ecco verso noi venir per nave 
Tin vecchio liianco per anlico pelo, 
Gridando : Guai a voi, aniuie prave ! 

2fon isperato mai veder lo Cielo : 
1' vegno per menarvi all' allra riva. 


^^^^^rtJTI^ n imiTj 

"great rofiunU" ianll tget. 

die other shore ; into the eternal darkness ; into fire 
and into ice. And thou, who art there alive, depart 
thee from these who are dea<L" But when he saw 
that I departed not, lie said : " By other ways, by 
other ferries; not here shalt thou pass' over. A 
lighter' boat ninst can'y thcc," 

And my guide to him : " Charon, vex not thyself. 
Thus it is willed there,* whore wliat is willed can be 
done: and ask no more." Thou tlio woolly cheeks 
were quiet of the steersman on the livid marsh, who 
round his eyes had wheels of flame. But those spirits, 
who were forewom and naked, changed colour and 
chattered with their teeth, soon as they heard the 

Kelle tenebre etcnie, in caldo e in gdo. 

£ tu cho sei cost), aninut vivo, 

' Partiti da cotosti, che eon mortL 

Ma poi oh' ei vide, ch' io non mi portiva, 

Diase : Per altre vie, per altri port! 
Verrai a piaggio, non qui, per passare : 
Piii lieve l^no convien che ti porti. 

£ il Duca a lui : Caron, non ti crucciore : 
VuoUd cosi coli, dove ei paote 
Ci6 che ai vitole ; e piCi non dimandaic. 

Qninci fur queto le lanose goto 
AJ nocchier della livida poJude, 
Che intorno agli occhi avea di fianune rote. 

Ma quell' anime, ch' eran lattac e nude, 
Cangiar colore e dibattero i denti, 
Batto che inteiser le parole crude. 

■ lit ! " alult ihon come to fAe I 
iliore^Dotb«Te,iiitM'<lert«i>Mi." I 



bitter words. They blaspliemed God and tlieir pa- 
rents ; the human kind ; tho place, tiio time, find 
orig^ of their seed, and of their birth. Tlien all of 
them together, sorely weeping, drew to tlie ni;ciireed 
shore, which awaits every man that fears not God. 
Charon tlio demon, with eyes of glowing coal, beck- 
oning them, collects them alt; smites with his oar 
■whoever hngers. As the lea\'es of autumn fail off 
' one aJW the other, till tlie branch sees all its spoils 
' upon the ground; so one by one the evil seed of 
Adam cast themselves from that shore at signals, as 
the bird at ita call. Thus they depart on the brown 
water ; and ero they have landed on the other shore, 
again a fresh crowd collects on this. 
Besteiummvano IJdio e i lor parent!, 
L' umano specie, il luogo, il tempo, e il seme 
Di lor semeoza e di lor nascimenti. 105 

Foi si ritrasser tutte quante iDBieme, 
Forte piaugendo, alia riva malvagia, 
Che attende ciaacun aom, che Dio non teme. 
CoTon dimonio, cou ocelli di bnigia 

Loro occemiaudo, tutt« ic raccoglie; 110 

Batt« col remo ipalunque s' adagia. 
Come d' autuimo ai levaa lo foglie 

L' una appresso Jell' oltrn, mfin che il ramo 
Vede alia terra tutte le sue epoglie ; 
Similcmente il mal seme d' Adamo : 115 

Gittansi di quel lito ad una ad una, 
Per cenni, come augcl per suo richiamo. 
Coal aen vauno su per I' ouda briii\a, 
Ed avanti die sian di lit dlsceee, 
Anche di qua nova at^hiera s' aduno. 120 


*' My son," said the cnurteoua Master, " those 
who (lie under God's wTath, all assemble here from 
every coantiy. And they are prompt to pass tlie 
river, for Divine Justice spurs them so, tJiat fear is 
changed into desire. By this way no good 8[)irit over 
passes ; and hence, if Charon complains of tliee, thon 
oasOy now niayest know the import of hia words." 

When he had ended, the dusky champaign trem- 
bled so violently, that the remembrance of my terror 
bathes roe still with sweat, Tlio toarfiil ground gave 
out wind, and flashed with a crimson light, which 
conquered all my senses : and I fell, like one who is 
seized with sleep, 

Figliuol mio, diaee il JTaeatrn rortese, 

Quelli, cha muoiou ncU' ira di Dio, 

Tutti coQvegnon qui d' ogni jiaese : 
E pronti sono a tntpossor Id rio, 

Chfc la diviua GiuBtiria li spronft 12,5 

SH, cho la teiua ei volgo in disio. 
Qninci noa passa mai anima huona : 

E per& se Coron di te ai lagna, 

Ben puoi saper omai, che il ano dir suooa. 
Finite questo, la buia camp^na 1 30 

Tiemd si forte, che delJo apaveuto 

La mente di eudore ancor mi ba({na. 
Jji terra lagrimoaa diede vonto, 

E baleii6 d' una luce venniglia. 

La qual mi vinao ciascmi sentiineiito ; 135 

£ caddi, come 1' uom, cui somio piglio. 


Dante is roused by a heavy thunder, and finds hunself on the 
brink of the Abyas. Not in his own strength has he crossed 
the disznal river. Yirgil conducts hun into Limbo, which is 
the First Circle of HeU, and contains the spirits of those who 
lived without Baptism or Christianity. The only pain they 
suffer is, that they live in the desire and without the hope 
of seeing God. Their sighs cause the eternal air to tremble, 
and there is no other audible lamentation amongst them. As 
Dante and Yirgil go on, they reach a hemisphere of light amid 
the darkness, and are met by Homer and other Poets, and 
conducted into a Noble Castle, in which they see the most dis- 
tinguished of the Heathen women, statesmen, sages, and war- 
riors. Homer and the other Poets quit them ; and they go on 
to a place of total darkness. 


A HEAVY thunder broke Uie deep sleep in my 
head ; bo that I started like one who is awaked by 
force. And, ha\-ing risen erect, I moved my rested 
eyes around, and looked stedfastly to know the place 
in which I was. True is it, that I found myself npon 
the brink of the dolorous Valley of the Abyss, which 
gathers thunder of endless wailings.' It was so dark, 
profound, and cloudy, that, with fixing my look upon 
the bottom, I tbcre discerned nothing. 

" Now lot us descend into the blind world here 
below," began the Poet all pale: "I will be first, 
and thou shall be second." 

BiJFPEMi r alto Eonno nella testa 

Un greve tuouo, s\ ch' io mi riscossd, 

Come porsona che per foiza h deata ; 
£ 1' occhio riposato intomo mosBJ, 

Dritto levato, e Sao riguardai 

Per couoacer lo loco ilov' io fosau 
Vero k; che in su la proda mi trovai 

Sella vallo d' abieso dolorosa, 

Che tuono accoglie d' infiniti guai. 
Oacmn, profonda era, e nobubsa, 

Tauto che, per ficcar lo tiso al fondo, 

Io non vi diaceruea veruna coso. 
Or discendiam qiioggili nol cieco mondo, 

Incominci^ il Poeta tutto amorto ; 

Io sarf) primo, e tu sarai secondo. 

' CoUeoti iota odd thundor the l Btcmil tnimpot, aow tluil lii 
iD*n]t*o>u"l>o'"'(^ Likesliuge 1 i> fully avnkancd to it. 


And I, who had remarked his colour, said: "How 
[•sbull I come, when thoa fearest, who art wont to be 
I mj strength in doubt?" 

And ho to mo: "The anguish of the people who 

sre here below, on my face depaints that pity, which 

f thou takest for fear. Let us go ; for the length of 

way impels us." Thus he entered,' and made me 

enter, into the first circle that girds the abyss. Here 

there was no plaint, that could be hoard,^ except of 

Bigha, which caused the eteruol air to tremble. And 

I this aroae from the saibiess, witlioirt torment, of the 

I crowds that were many and great, both of cliildren, 

] Bnd of women and men. 

Ed io, che del color mi fui uccorto, 

Diaai : Come veiri, se tu paventi 

Che snoli al mio duiibiare easer conforto 1 
£d egli a me : L' angoscia delle genti, 

Che son quaggii, nel vise mi dipinge 20 

Quella pietit, che tu per tema sentt. 
Amliam, chh la via lunga ne soepinge. 

Cod si mise, e coal mi fe' entrare 

Sel primo cerchio cbo 1' abisso cinge, 
Qaivi, secondo cbe per ascoltare, 25 

Non avea pianto, ma' cbe di eoapiri, 

Cbe r aura etema facevan tivmare : 
E ci6 awenifl di duol aenza martin, 

Cb' avean le tnrbe, cb' eran molte e grandi, 

E d' iafanti e di fcmmine e di viri. 30 

2G. Ma-cht,!! 

'e Uum : Lat. na/jii qaam. 

I lit. : " put Iiinitelf , uid made l 

e, wKdrding to mg 

38 IKFEBKO. cuno IT. 

The good Master to me : " Thon askest not what 

epirita are these tliou aeest? I wish thee to know, 
before thou goest farther, tliat they sinned not And 
though they have merit, it sufRees not ; for they had 
not Baptism, which is the portal of the Faith that 
thou believcst. And seeing thoy were before Chris- 
tianity, they worshipped not (Jod aright. And of 
these am I myself. For such defects,' and for no 
other fault, are we lost ; and only in so far afflicted, 
that without hope we live in desire."' 

Great sadness took mo at the heart on hearing 
this ; because I knew men of much worth, who in 
Lo buon Maestro a me : Tu non dimandi 
Che spiriti eon iiuesti, cbe tu vedi 1 
Or to' che sappi, innanzi ehe pid audi, 
Ch' ei non pecearo : e b" egli hanno mijrcedi, 

Non baata, perch' ei non cliher battiwmo, 35 

Ch' i porta (lelln Feile che tu cradi ; 
£ se iiiron diuaitzi ol Oriatianesmo, 
Non adorer dobitamente Dio : 
E di questi cotai sen io medesmo. 
Per toi difetti, o non per altro rio, 40 

Semo perduti, e sol di tanto offeei, 
' Che seam spome vivemo in dlisio. 
Gran dnol mi preae a.\ cuor, quando lo inteai, 
Poiocchf' gente di molto valore 
4a Bio, redtJ. Purg. vii. 7. 
' Duite uft: JVrnui, quantum- Chriifo audirtriL Mnnarob. li 
euBurae mtrrulilrtit ci inMlerlaali' iL p. 96. 
ftuj ii'rtu/iitu, tl ttcundaia hahi- 
(um tl tecunduti oprratioHm ptr- 
ftelut, abfqut fide talvari potat .- 
(folo, giwl HunputM a/itfHu^ dt 


t Limbo' were suspense. " Tell me, Master ; tell 
, Sir," I began, desiring to be assured of that 
I Fiuth which conquers every error ; " did ever any, 
I ty hifl own merit, or- by otliers', go out from hence, 
f ibst aftorwarda was blessed ?" 

And he, imderstanding my covert speech, re- 

I plied 1 " I was new in this condition, when I saw a 

Mighty One' come to us, crowned with sign of vic- 

torj'. He took away irom us the shade of om- First 

, Parent, of Abel his son, and that of Noah; of Moses 

the Legislator, and obedient Abraham the Patriarch ; 

1 David the King ; Israel with liis father and his ohil- 

Conobbi, ohe in quel limbo eran sospesi. 45 

Bimmi, Maestro mlo, dimmi, Signore, 

Coiaiuciai io, per voler esaer oerto 

Di qiielk fede che vince ogni errore : 
Uecinne moi alcuso, o por suo tuorto, 

per altrui, che poi foaso beato 1 50 

E quel, che int«Be il mio parlar ooverto, 
KisposB : Id era nuovo in questo stato, 

Quando ci Wdi venire un Fossente 

Con segno di vittoria incoronata 
Trasseci 1' ombia del Primo Partrnte, 55 

D' Abel suo figlio, e queUa di No6, 

iJi Mi)iii^ Legists, e ubbidieute 
Abnuun Patriarctt, e David Re, 

Israel con suo padre, e co' suoi nati, 

' limba, from IM. Limbun, | wLdhi name Dante, out of revei 
xjei. eoce, refnuns from uttering i 

* Tha Highty One is Chrut, | tliin plaee. 

40 IKTEBSO. CA-fTO rr. 

dren, snd Raclie], for whom he did so much ;' and 
many others, and made them blessed. And I wish 
thee to know, that, before these, no human souls 
were saved." 

We ceased not to go, though lie was sj^aking; 
but passed the wood meanwliile, tlie wood,^ I say, 
of crowded Spirits. Our way was not yet far within 
the topmost part, -when I saw a fire, which conquered 
a hemisphere of the darkness.* We were still a little 
distant from it; yet not so distant, that I did not in 

E con Eachelo, per cui tanto fe', 
£d altii moiti ; e fecegli beati : 

£ vo' che sappi che, dinana ad essi, 

Spiriti umani non oraa salvati. 
Ken hiBciavam 1' andar, perch' ei dicessi, 

Ma poasavam la sclya tuttavia, 

Ia selva dice di spiiiti spessL 
2fon era lungi aucor la nostra via 

Di qua dal sommo, quand' io vidi nn foco, 

Ch' emisperio di t«nubre vincio. 
Di lungi v' emvamo aucora un poco, 

Ma Don al, ch' io non disceniesBi in jiarte, 

69. Vinc'vt, vinoai in liroae. from Lit. vincfrt. 

' Served LtbnD 14 fe&n. 

' Tho luiiliitinguigbed multi- 
tad», that crowd the d&rk outer 
put* of limbo, KTO hero called u 
" wood" of Bpiritfl ; uid prolAblj 
Dot without (oiue relfttiol] to the 
"duk wimhI" of the fint cuto. 
Tliere Dimte u» tlie myiliB UUl, 

iightvd by the Sim : uul here he 
findi B Noble Cuntte. lighted tf 
oil that wu liiglieit amoDgit the 

> Dluminntcd a hemirpliere at 
the dukiiea) "comiuered" it, 
uound and above, with nifi of 


part disccru what lionourablo people occupied that 

" thou, tliat honourest every science and art; 
who ore tliese, who have such honour, that it sepa- 
ratea tliem from t]ie manner of the rest?" 

And be to me : " The honoured name, which 
sounds of them, up in that life of thine, gains favour 
in heaven wliich thus advances thorn." 

Meanwhile a voice wns heard by me : " Honour 
tlie great Poet I His shade returns that was departed." 

After the voice had paused, and was silent, I gaw 
four great shadows come to us. Tlioy had an aspect 
neither sad nor joyful. Tlie good Master began 
to speak : " Mark him with that sword in hand, 

Che orrevol gente possedea quel loco. 
tu, ube onori ogni scionza ed arte, 

Questi chi sou, cb' honno cotaata oimuza, 

Cho dal modo degli altri li diparte t 
E quegU a roe : L' onrata nominanza, 

Che di lor snona bu nella tua vita, 

Graxia acqnieta nel ciel cho si gli avonza. 
lotanto voce fu per me udila : 

Onorate V altissimo Poota ; 

L' ombra sua toma, eh' era dipartita. 
Poichri la voce fu restata o queta, 

Villi quattro grand' ombre a noi venire : 

Scnibianzn avevan nb trista n^ lieta. 
Lo buon Maoatro comincii a dire ; 

Mita colui con quella spada in mano, 

TZ, Orrtfol, onimTole ; *nd errmaa, ononim. 

42 IKTEBNO. curro iv. 

who comes before the three as their lord. That, is 
Homer, tlie Bovereign Poet. The uext who comes 
is Horace the satirist Ovid is the third ; and the 
last is Luoan. Bocatise each agi*ees with me in the 
namo,' which the oue voice soimdod,' they do me 
honour; and therein they do welL" 

Tlius J saw assembled the goodly school of that 
lord of highest song, who, like an eagle, soars above 
the rest. After they had talked a space together, 
they turned to me with sign of salutation •' and my 
Master smiled thereat. Ajid greatly more besides 

Cho vien ilinnim a' tre el come sire. 
Qaegli 6 Omero poeta aovrano : 

L' altro i Orazio satiro, che viene ; 

Ovidio k il terao, e 1' ultimo 6 Lucono. 
Peri che ciascun meco si conviene 

If el nome, che soufi la voce sola ; 

Fftnnoini onore, e di ci() fmino bene. 
Cosl vidi adiinar la bella scuola 

Di quel fdgnor dell' altissimo canto, 

Che sovra gli altri, cois' aqiiila, vols. 
Da ch' cbber rogioiiato iusieme alquanto, 

Volsersi a me con salutevol cenno : 

£ il mio Maestro Horriso di tanto, 
£ piti d' ouore ancora assai mi fenno, 

' The nune of Poet, uttered by 
the united T(ii«nDftlierour(v.8(l), 
when thoy uw Virgil return. 

r«umi IT. INFERNO. 43 

they honoured me ; for tliey made me of their nmn- 
ber, 80 that I was a sixtli amid auch intelligences.' 
Tha» we wont onwards to tlie light, spealdng 
|.fliit)g§ which it ia well to pass in silence, as it was 
Lvell to speak tliei-e where I was. We came to the 
I foot of a Noble Castle, seven times circled witli lofty 
f Walla, defended round by a fair BivulcL' This wo 
r passed as solid land. Throngh seven gates I entered 
lirith those sages. We reaahod a meadow of fresh 
f iTerdare. On it were people with eyes slow and grave, 
f of great authority in their appearance. They spoke 

Cb' eesi mi fecer della lore Bchiera, 

SI ch' io tut sesto tra cotanto eenuo. 
CoM n' andammo infino alia lumiera 

Parlando cose, che il t.Tcero e bello, 

SI com' era il parlur cola dov' eta. 105 

Tenimmo a] pic d' im nobile caatello, 

Sette volte ccrcluato d' altc niuia, 

Difeeo intomo d' un bt! liuiujcello, 
QuBEto paaaamwo come terra dura ; 

Per setU) poite intrai uon queati aavi ; 1 10 

Giuguemmo in ptato di freaca verdura. 
Genti v" eron con occbi tardi o gravi, 

Di grande autorilk ne' lor sembianti : 

' lit, : "iunidBucb>eDM;''taoh 
■tTBIlfftb of fanilty, or iristlum. 
" OnB of tliB »ii ;" not the riitli, 

• Thii Rlmlcl is nuilonrtood to 
FfpnMDt Bluqiiensc.orelocutian-, 
mndlhowTen luftjWalla, theVii- 

IBM irfjutloe, tenporaiue, uig- 

■unmiity, kc The atreun is very 
beautifti] ; and bindeni the nuue- 
leu apiriti of Limbo horn eoter- 
ing. But tlie Poetn Sad it (mull 
aud ahullav ; and \nt» on, lUi if it 
were not there, to ex&miiio wliat 
is contiuueil ud the grueu Ucighta 
of tha isteiior. 


eeldom, with miJd voioea. Thus we retired on one 
of the sidee; into a place open, luminous, and high, 
BO that they could all he seen. There direct,' upon 
tlie green enamel, were shewn to me the great 
Bpirit-s whom I glory witliin myself in having seen.* 
1 aaw Electi-a' with many companioni^ : amongst 
whom I know hoth Hector and JEneas; Csnsar armed, 
witli the fidcon eyes. I saw Camilla and Ponthesilea. 
On Uie ntlier hand T saw the Latian king, sitting with 
Lavinia his daughter. I saw that Brutus who ex- 

Parlavan mdo, con Toci sonvi. 

Traemmoci cosi dull' un do' eajiti 
In luogo apertjj, luminoso, ed alto, 
61 dhe Tedcr ai potean tutti t^uauti. 

Coli diritto, sopra il verde smalto, 
Mi far moatrati gli apiriti mogni, 
Clie di vederli in me atosso m' esalt o. 

lo vidi Elcttra con molti compngni, 
Tra' quai conobbi ed Ettoro, od Enen, 
Ceeare armato con gli occhi grifagni- 

Tidi Cammilk e la Fentesilea. 
Dall' altia parte ridi il re Ljttino, 
Clie con lAvinia Bim figlia sedeo. 

Vidi quel Eruto, che caccib Tarquino, 

' Dinet in froat, face to face 
before hipi. 

' Or : " inw»rdly eialt mywlf, 
grow higher, for hariog Been." 

> ElectiB, mother o( Diinluiiia, 
tha founder of Troj. She i> with 

whom Dimte mtkoni C*aaT, tbe 
Head of hu ideal Hoiurehr. The 
great Emperor hu hit hanieu 
on; and aeei with hi* " bkok and 
lively ejM" iocvlii nispis vtffrtu- 
9tw), of which Snetdikiaa Bp 
Fil. Caiar. c 45. 


polled the Tarquin ; Liicretia, Julia, Mnrtia, and 
Cornelia. And by himself apart, I saw the Sala- 

When I raised ray eyelids a little higher, I saw 
the Master" of those tliat know, aitting amid a phJIo- 
Bophic femily. All regard him; alJ do him honour. 
Hero I saw Socrates and Plato, who hefore the rest 
I nearest to liim ; Democritusj who ast-ribL'S the 
I to chance;' Diogenes, Anaxagoras, and Tlialos; 
sdooles, Heraclitus, and Zeno. And I saw the 
good coUector of tlie qualities,' Dioaeorides I moan ; 

Lucrezia, Julia, Marziu e Cotniglia, 

£ solo in parte yidi il Salndino. 
Poi che innalzai un poco pill le ciglia, 130 

Yidi il Maestro di color che sanno. 

Seder tra filoeofica famjglia. 
Tntti lo tniran, tutti onor gli fauno. 

Qiiivi vid' io e Socrate e I'latoue, 

Cbc innnnzi agli altri pid preaso gli staano, 135 
DcQtocrito, che il niundo a caso pone, 

Diogenes, Anassagora e Tale, 

Empudocles, Eiaclito o Zonone : 
E villi il huono accoglitor del ijuale, 

139. Oual* for quOiti. 

' DaniDoritus of AbJcra, who 
attributed the origin of things to 

■ Tha SnUdin, 

* AlutoUe ! " th»l jlorion. P!ii- 

kwpluT.'^u Duitc elterhcn cnlla 

; "to vhom nutaie opetisd 

ik«r»Mrel«;" tlmfJlMter 

I Mul Guid« of hamiui reasou." 

I (am*.Tr.ii. cfi,a 

B fori 


' DiMooriJeB, who eollerteil anil 
mxle 'exiivrimeDts on the virtutn 
uid qualitiea of lierha, im. 




and saw Orpheus, Tully, Livy, and Seneca the mo- 
ralist; Euclid the geometer, and Ptolemaeus; Hip- 
pocrates, Avicenna, and Galen ; Averrhoes,^ who 
made the great comment I may not paint them 
all in full; for the long theme so chases me, that 
many times the word comes short of the reaUty. 

The company of six diminishes to two. By ano- 
ther road the sago guide leads me, out of the quiet, 
into the trembling^ air ; and I como to a part where 
there is nought that shines. 

Dioscoride dice :* e vidi Orfeo, 
TuUio, 8 Livio, e Seneca morale : 

Euclide gcomotra, e Tolommeo, 
Ippocrate, Avicenna o Galieno, 
Averrois che il gran comento feo. 

lo non posse ritrar di tutti appiono ; 
Verb che si mi caccia il lungo tema, 
Che molte volte al fatto il dir vien meno. 

La sesta compagnia in duo si scema : 
Per altra via mi mena il savio Duca, 
Fuor della queta, nell* aura che trema ; 

E vengo in parte, ovo non o che luca. 




^ Averrhoi^ translated the 
works of Aristotle into Arabic, 
in the 12th century, and wrote a 
comment on them. 

• Lit. : "out of the quiet air, 
into the air that trembles." The 
inhabitants of the noble castle 
are neither sad nor joyful (v. 84) ; 
and dweU apart, on their green 

Heights, in bright serenity. In 
aU other parts of Limbo, the air 
trembles (v. 27) with sighs of 
sadness. When Viiigil and Dante 
leave the other four poets, they 
have stiU some way to go, among 
the obscure spirits, ere they reach 
the storms and darkness of the 
Second Circle. 


The Second Circle, or proper commencement of Hell ; and Minos, 
the Infernal Judge, at its entrance. It contains the souls 
of Carnal sinners; and their punishment consists in being 
driven about incessantly, in total darkness, by fierce winds. 
First amongst them comes Semiramis, the Babylonian queen. 
Dido, Cleopatra, Helena, Achilles, Paris, and a great multi- 
tude of others, pass in succession. Dante is overcome and 
bewildered with pity at the sight of them, when his attention 
is suddenly attracted to two Spirits that keep together, and 
seem strangely light upon the wind. He is unable to speak 
for some time, after finding that it is Francesca of Rimini, with 
her lover Paolo ; and falls to the ground, as if dead, when he 
has heard their painful story. 

Francesca was the daughter of Guido Vecchio da Polenta, lord of 
Ravenna, and was given in marriage to Gianclotto, or Giovanni 
Sciancato (John the lame, or hipshot), eldest son of Malatesta 
Vecchio, lord or tyrant of Rimini. Paolo, her lover, was a 
younger son of Malatesta. They were surprised and slain to- 
gether by the husband, about the year 1288 ; and buried in the 
same grave. Guido Novello, the true and generous friend, with 
whom Dante resided at Ravenna, was the son of Francesca's 
brother, Ostagio da Polenta. 


Tnra I descended from the first cii-clo down into 
the second, wliteh eiicompasses less space,' and so 
much greater pain, that it stings to wailing. There 
Minos sits horrific, and grius :' exarainea the crimes 
upon the entrance ; judges, and sends according as 
he girds himself. I say, that wljon the ill-born 
spirit comes before lilm, it confesses all ; and that 
sin-discern or sees what place in hell is for it, and 
with his tail makes as many circles round himself 
as the degrees* he will have it to descend. Always 

Cosl discesi del cerchio priniaio 

Gih nal secondo, che men loco cinghia, 
E tanto piii dolor, che pugne a, guaio. 

Stowj Mmos orriTjilmente, e riugliia : 

Esaiaina le colpe noU' entmta, 5 

Giudica e nianda, eecondo che ByiHiigliia. 

Dico, cho quondo 1' anima mal nata 
Li vien dinanzi, tutta si confessa ; 
£ quel conoseitor dello peccata 

Vede qiial loco d' infcmo b da essa ; 10 

Cigiicsi cglLi eodn tante volte, 
Quautimque gradi vuol che giii sia messn. 

4. JlingMa htaa I^t, rdtffirt. 

1 Euh laooeaiiTs ciroU ti I umoM ntvet: itlr tilmtilia Can- 
•nuUer u we dewend. nYinrngiK vocal, tUatqut ti cn- 

• Lit : " «it« them horribly, nunn Jijirtl. £n. vi 432. 
■nil ihewB his leath," like > dog » Nntnboc of jthIm or ditlo*. 
leitdy to bite. QiuHitor jfinoi I 


MW ». INFERNO. 49 

before him stands a crowd of thorn. Tbey go oaeh 

in its turn to judgmeiit: tliey tell, and hear; and 

then are whirled doivn. 

" thou who comoat to the abode of pain 1" said 

Minos to me, leaving the act of that great office when 

he saw me ; " look how thou entercat, and in whom 

thou truHteat. liet not tho wideneaa' of tlie entrance 

dweiro thee." 

And my guide to him : " AVhy crioat thou too ? 

Hinder not his fated going. Thus it la willed tliere 

where what is willed can be done : and ask no 


Now begin the doleful notes to reach mo ;* now 

Sempre dinanzi a M ne Btanno molte : 

Vanno a, vieenda cinscuna al giudizio; 

Dicono e odono, e poi son gifi volte. 15 

tu, clie vieni al doloroBO osptzio, 

Disse Mmoe a me, quando mi vide, 

Laaciando 1' atto di cotanto ufizio, 

Guarda com' entri, e di cni in ti fide : 

Non t' inganni 1' ampie^^a dell' entrare. 20 

E il Duca mio a lai : Perehi pur gride 1 

Non impodir lo suo fotole andare : 

Vuolai cod coli, dove ai puote 

Cib che si vuole, e piU non dimandare. 

Ora incomincian le dolcnti note 25 

A farmisi aentire : or son venuto 

>PaeaUdi,fv««uiAmmi:yM. I ih«.t l™1eth to liestruction." 

la «!4ru dia pout <Un j«n»a 

Halt. viL 13. ^m 

t>Mt,ke. .£d. itiae. Pcrh>[ui 

' Lit, ; •' to make tLduiselvcB ^H 

.iM with aUtuJon to: "Wide u 

bo heard by mc" ^1 

^^_ Iha gate, ud hnnttl it thu vaj 





am I come where much lamenting strikes me. I 
came iiito a place' void of all light, which hollows 
like the sea in tempest, when it ia combated by war- 
ring" winds, Tlie hellish storm, which ne\er rests, 
leads the epirita with its sweep ; whirling, and smit- 
ing it vexes them. When they arrive before the 
ruin,^ there the shrieks, tlie moanings, and the la- 
mentation ; tlicre they blaspheme the divine power. 

I Icamt that to such torment were doomed the 
carnal sinners, who subject reason to lust. And as 
their wings hear along tho starlings,* at the cold 

li dovo molto pianto mi percuote. 
lo venni in loco d' ogni luco muto, 

Che mugghia, come fa mai per tempesta, 

So da contrari venti 6 corobattuto. 30 

La bufera infernal, uhe mai non reata, 

Mena gli spirti con la sua rapina ; 

Voltando e percotendo li molesta. 
Quando giungon daranti alia ruina, 

Quivi le strida, il compianto e il lamento ; 35 

Best«iiiiiiian qiiivi la virtfi divina. 
Intesi, che a coal fatto tormcnto 

Kran dannati i peccatoi carnal!, 

CUo la ragion aommettono al talento. 
E come gli stornci no portan 1' all, 

' Ut,: "Mnts of aU light;" 
utterly and ctemaJlj dark. See 
in eulti i. 60, tbe want of lun- 
lijht odIt : and in maUi iii. 75, 
the "taint light" of Hell's oon- 
tne*. In Hell itaolf tlicn i> total 
darkneiu and blindaeu. 
'Wfntl. GMitnt7 to eooh other. 


' The precipitoua, shattereil 
rocki wbich bannd the oirale*. 

' The itaiUiige Hy togetber in 
great floclu ; ihootiug up, and 
thcD turning their outapreail 
wiDKi to tbe wind ; riiiiig and 
falling tortuoDil;, m if uppoeiti) 
gnati ven diiftiag them. 

INFKnSO. 51 

season, in large and crowded troop ; so that blast, 
the evil spirits. Hither, tliither, down, up, it leads 
them. No hope ever eomforta them, not of rest but 
eten of less pain. And as die cranes go chanting 
their lays, making a long streak of themselves in 
the air j Bu I saw the shadows come, uttering waila, 
borne by that strife' of vfiiids. Whereat I said : 
" Master, who are those people, whom the black air 
thus lasbes ?" 

"The first of thoee concerning whom thou seek- 
est to know," he then replied, " was Empress' of 
many tongues. With tlio vice of luxury alie was 

Nel freddo tempo, ft schiera larga o pieiia ; 

Coal quel fiato gli spiriti niaU : 
Di qua, di li, di gii, di hu gU raena. 

Kulla sperauzu gii coufoTta luoi, 

ffoa clie Ji posa, loa di inlnor pena. 45 

£ come i gru van cnutaudo lor Jai, 

Facendo iu acr di st lunga riga; 

Com vid' io venir, traendo guai, 
Ombre porta te dalla delta brign : 

Per eh' io dissi ; Moeatro, chi son quellu 50 

Genti, die 1' oer nero s\ gustiga 1 
La prima di color, di cui novello 

Tu vuoi saper, mi diase quegli allotta, 

Fq ituperatrice di molto favelle. 
A viilo Ji lussuria fa A rotta, 05 

1 ■' Vrb«rewithii] a tnikD aiiinethi i Tlie ■torm find dorkncii ; the 
by thtBiDO iilea nliiUl lie be [lan- I puuoiu, UDrBstrained b; uloudmi 


eo broken, tliat she made lust and law alike in her 
decree,' to take away the blame she had incurred. 
She is Scmiramis, of whom we read that she suc- 
ceeded Niiius,' and was his spouse. She held the 
land which the Soldan rules. That other is she who 
dew hoi-self in love,^ and broke faltli to the ashes of 
Sichseus. Next comes luxurious Cleopatra." 

Helena I saw, for whom so long a time of ill 

Che libito fo' licilo in sua legge 
Per toire il htusmo, in che era conJotta. 
, Ell' b Semiramis, di cui ai legge, 

Che suceedetto a Nino, e fu sua sposa : 

Tenne la terra, che il Soldan corrogge. 60 

L' altta h colei, che a' ancise amoroso, 
E mppe fedo al cener di Sichco ; 
Foi k Cleopatras lussurioea. 

Elona vidi, per cui tanto reo 

67. Torre, t 

' lit. : "tho Ihinff liked ihe 
nmde legal bjber deoreo." 

' The rewliug : Clie tuggrr dtl- 
te a Sinn, t /u ran tpovi, {'" who 
gare raek to Ntoiu, uid wiu bis 
■pouie"'), though often «u(!|{eil«d, 
b not jurtifiod bj any Ms. or teit 
of the Com-mtdia; and doea not 
•aeord wdl witb the babita of 
Dmte. He h«a already detoritHHl 
the licraiUoniDcea of Scminoiii 
(t. 8B-7) "ith hii urasl brevity 
and Mmpleteneea. And bcaidei, 
both JuiUn (Ub. L o. 2) and Oro- 
■ioa (Ub.l C.4), vhoae wurluDaate 

^□ewand foUoved (iViHUinA. lib. 
iL p. 70). mentioD that Semin- 
iiii< " >ucec«ded Kiniu," ooDtnii^ 
to the cnit«in and lava of the 
Aiiyiiana, by aaauniing the drea 
of & nj&n, and pBiaing for bcr 
■ou Ninyaa, vhom >he thought 
loo young and feeble for the (fO- 


I revol^'ed ; and I saw the great Acliillcs,' who fought 
at last with love. I saw Paris, Tristan. And more 
than a tlioiuand shades he shewed to rae, and pohU- 
inff with his finger, named them, whom lovo had 
parted from our life. After I had heird my teachei' 
name the olden dames a:id cavaliers, pity conquered 
me, and I was as if bewildorcd. 

I began : " Poet, willingly would I speak witli 
\ those two that go together, and seem so light upon 
' the wind." 

And he to me : " Tliou shalt see when they are 
arer to ns ; and do thon tlien entreat them by that 
lo^-e, which leads them ; and they will ebme," 

Soon as the wind bends them to us, I raise my 

Tempo si volse ; e vidi il grands Achille, Go 

Che con amore al fine (wmbatteo. 
Vidi Paris, Triatono ; e piti di millo 

Ombre mostrommi, c nominulle a, dito, 

Ch" amor di nostra rita lUpartille. 
Poscia ch' io ebbi il mio Dottoro udilo 70 

Xomor le donne antiche e i cavalieri, 
^ Pistil mi vinse, e fui quasi emarrito. 
Io cominnini : Fo«ta, volentieri 

Parlerei a ijue' duo, che insieme vanno, 

£ jiaion si al vento essor leggieri. 75 

Ed egli a me : Vedrai, quando saranno ^ 

Pii presao a noi ; e tu nllor li preg-i 

Per queir amor clio i mena ; e quoi vemmno. 
SI tosto cume il vcnto a noi li pieijo, 

I Achillea vm slsia in the I «how nater, PnlTiena, be h*il 
I T<ta|>lB of Apollo, thniagli tlie been induiied to leuve the Qreniita 
Puiii, far lore ut I cumji. 


voice : " wearied souls I come to speak with us, 
if none' denies it." 

As doves called by desire, widi open and steady 
wiiiga fly tlirougli the air to their loved neat, borne 
by their will ; so those spirits issued from the band 
where Dido* ia, coming to us through the malignant 
air. Bucli was tlie force of my aflPectuous cry, 

" living creature, gi-aeious and benign ! that 
goest through tlie black^ air, visiting us who stained 

Muovo la voce : anime afihnnate, 80 

Tenite a noi parlar, a' altri nol niega. 
Qooli colombe, dal disio cbiamate, 

Con 1' all apcrte e ferum al dolce nido 

Volan yier V aor dal voler portate ; 
Cotoli uscir dolla achiera ov" 6 Dido, 85 

A noi veuendo per 1' aer maligno, 

SI forte fu r alfettiioaa grido. 
animal gruzioeo e bcniguo, 

Che visitando vaj per 1' aer perso 

Noi che tignauimo il mondo dl xanguigno : 00 

I lit.; "If otbetdunisaitnot." 

Id Qm old Italian, <i/lW uid altrui 
fmjueiitlf ujcjui "tome luiierior 
Power," Al riamiiUs ot tbia, 
see oanto iivt 141 ; und Pitrg. 
cutoi. 133. 

' Flam the b&Dd of Dido, "vho 
broke rutli,"&«.; thu< iniliratillg 
the crimH of wLi4:h the^ tuul been 
([Uiltf. CoQuupD^ton uvi iat- 
toriiuu t«ll ii> of tba defonnitiei 
Uld hatofulocuof Giwioiotto, tlia 
giMeful qualitiuaf Fuolo, uid the 

nnfair mMiu b; irltioli the uar- 
riage vu brought about. Danta 
tee\t thnt be lia* to tska the nukeil 
facti. Item Uld bitter u thejrwe 
to liim, in nil tbcir aimplicitj-. 

' Lit. : "iwisB »ir," Duite 
hijiuol/ dcfioes thiA vexed Tord 
vtry cleulf : " p«ne ii n o< 
tniiud of porplb uid btitflk, but 
tbebUok prevniU." Cobb, Tr. 
0. 20. U u oftua lued by Mm, 
Uld nba oooun ia out 


tlie cartli with blood. If tlio King of tLe Universe 
were our friend, we would pray liim for thy peace 
seeing tliat tliou hast pity of our perverse misfortune. 
Of that which it pleases thee to hear and to sj 
we will hear and speak with you, wliilst the wind, 
as now, IB silent. 

"The town,' where I waa horn, sits on tlio shore, 
where Po descends to rest with his attendant streams. 
I Love, which is quickly caught in gentle heart, took 
hJTtl with the fair body of which I was bereft ;^ and 
tlio mauner sttll afflicts me. Love, which to no loved 
one permits excuse for loving,^ took me go Btrongly 

Se foeae amico il Ee dell' univereo, 
Koi pregheremmo lui per la tua pace, 
I^oi ohe hoi pieti del noatro mat ]>erveKO. 

Di quel che udiro e che parlar ti piace 

Noi udiremo e parleremo a vui, 95 

Mentreuhfe 11 vento, come fa, si tace. 

Siede la terra, dove nata fui, 

Su la marina dove il Po discende 
Per aver pace co' Hegcaci suL 

Amor, che al cor gentil ratto s' apprendo, 100 

Preoe coetiu della bella persona 
Che mi fh tolta, e il modo ancor m' offende. 

Amor, che a nullo umato amur pcnlona. 
Mi prese del costui piacer si forte, 

WT. Trrra, town, city, fortrew. 

Lit, : "Whidi was taton from 
" uid iu B way tlut oontiuUDa 

' RkTenna ; on tbe cowt of 
Uut uk, ta vhicb tlie Po, witb 
•n fail ativuiiB Imia Alp9 and 
Apmninw, deuenda to n»t 

' Lit.: "piirdooorTenuti kiv- 


with delight in him,' tliat, as t]iou seest, even now it 
leaves me not Love led us to one death. Caina* 
waits for him who quenched our life." These words 
fi-om them were (iffuretl to us. 

After I Lad heard those wounded souls, I bowed 
my face, and held it low until the Poet said to me : 
" What art thou thinking of?" 

When I answered, I began : " Ah me 1 what 
sweet thoughts, what longing led them to the wofiil 
pass !" 

Tlion I turned again to them ; and I spoke, and 
began : " Franceses, thy torments make me weep 
with grief and pity. But tell me : m the time of 

Che, come vedi, nncoi' non m' abbandona. 105 

Amor condusee noi ad una niorte : 

Caina attends chi vita ci spense. 

Queste parole da lor ci fur porte. 
Da che io intesi quelle animo olfonse, 

Chioai il viso, e taato il tcnul baaao, 110 

Finchfi il Poeta mi disse : Che pense t 
Quando lisposi, cominciai : lasso ! 

Quauti dolci peUBier, quauto diaio 

Me&6 coBtoro al doloroao paaso 1 
Poi mi rivoisi a loro, e patUi io, 115 

£ coroinciai : Franceaca, i tuoi martin 

A lagrimar mi fanno tristo e pio. 
Ua dimmi : al tempo de' dolci sospiri, 

106. Parte from jxrrscrt. 

< Or: "ititbpl«uiiighini,"&a. | loveat drcls of Hull, occuirieil tif 

* Cwiu, Cain'* iHnee id tlio I ftatricidos, kc Cituto xiui. 


the sweet sighs, hy what and how love granted you 
to koow the dubious desires ?" 

And she to me : " Tfiere is no greater pain tlian 

to recall a happy time in wretchedness; and tins 

thy teacher knows.' But if tliou ha^t such desire to 

leiarn the first root of our love, I will do like one 

r who weeps mid telk 

" One day, for pastime, we read of Lancelot,' 
how love conittrainod him. We were alone, and 
without all suspicion. Several times tliat reading 

A che, e come conccdette amore, 

Che conosceste i dubbiosi desirif 130 

Ed elJa a me : Nessun maggior dolors, 

Cbe ricordarai del tempo felice 

^'ella mieeria ; e ci& sa il tuo dottore. 
Ma ae a coaoscer la prima mdice 

I)cl aoatro amor tn Imi cotanto aBotto, 125 

Fari> come colui che piange e dice. 
Koi leggtivamo un giomo por diletto 

Di Lancillotto, come amor lo strinse ; 

Soli eravaiiio e senza alcuii sospetto. 
Per pih fiate gU occM ci sospinso 130 

130. BotpinK from miipingere. 

' Tii^a Sea thii /Vnnrfmn, 

rv^^nii, ke, of JEatmt, when lie 

u reotU the Imt glorica uf 

Traj {Tr^anat at ojia, ke,); 

aad b^m: Sed ti tanlut anirr 

tarn* Mffnoimv lualroii, ke. Am 

F^mnocas hora dooi. 

* L*neolot of tbu Luke, in the 

1 old BomoncM of the Round Tnble, 

[ fa dMdribadu'' the greaCeat knight 

at all the world ;" anil hi« love for 
QoeeD Guenever, or OineTni, is 
inOnite. Gileotto, Gnllehaut, or 
SirCaUhftd ia he. who given imoh 
■ iletuleddeoliintioDofLuicelDt'a 
love totheQueen ; uiil ui to them, 
in tho romimce. what the book one! 
ita aathor me here lo FraueeBca 

58 INFERNO. cuno Y. 

tirged OUT eyes to meet, and clianged the oolonr 
of otir ^ces. But one moment alone it was that 
overcame us. When we read how the fond snule 
was kissed by such a lover, he, who shall never be 
divided from me, kiaaed my mouth all trembling. 
The book, and lie who wrote it, was a Graleotto. 
That day we read in it no farther."' 

^Vhilst the one spirit tbtis spake, the other wept 
so, tbfit I fainted with jiity, aa if 1 had been dying; 
and fell, as a doad body falls. 

Quella letturn, e scolorocci il viso : 

Ma eolu un puwto fu quel che ci viuae. 
Qaando legfjeomo il disiato rieo 

Efiser bacinto da cotonto amiinte, 

Questi, che miu da me non fia diviso, 135 

La hoccn mi baci6 tiitto trcmante : 

Galeotto fn il libro, e chi lo scriase : 

Quel giomo piii non vi leggemnio avaiite. 
Montre che 1' uno spirto questo dissa, 

L' altro piimgevn st, che di pietade HO 

lo venui men cosi com' io moiisse ; 
E caddi, come corpo morto cade. 

■ngiTenbf ffuroRfnnuThiirtu in 
bii HM. SareHtial. Vcnetiis, l.')72, 
foL lib. vi. p. :M)8, 9. Thu genen. 
logf of the Guidoa ii given at tlis 
end; and oompletcljiijfnwtinitli, 
■nd BX]]lun3, nil that ii sud n- 
Epecting Uicm b; Bocciuuio, lien' 

Tcnulo da ImoU, and the Mitt 
eorlj CoDunentntorB. A later edi- 
tion {1603} of tho unic work iiUoei 
tbo dwtb of Fnmcesat itnd Iter 
Invor at Uis eommcnocDient of th* 
jea 128lt. In the fint oditiaa it 
IE plBcod between 12ST and 1389. 
SiH! tbe Argument of this canto. 



On reooyeriog his senses, Dante gazes round, and finds himself in 
the midst of new tonnents, and a new kind of sinners. During 
his swoon, (as at the river Acheron), he has heen transported, 
from the tempests and precipices of the second, into the Tliird 
Circle. It is the place appointed for Epicures and Gluttons, 
who set their hearts upon the lowest species of sensual gratifi- 
cation. An unvarying, eternal storm of heavy hail, foul water, 
and snow, pours down upon them. They are all lying prostrate 
on the ground ; and the three-headed monster Cerberus keeps 
barking over them, and rending them. The shade of a citizen 
of Florence, who had been nicknamed Ciacco (Pig), eagerly 
sits up as the Poets pass ; and from him Dante hears of various 
events, that await the two parties by which the city is divided 
and distracted. After Icaviug Ciacco, the Poets have still 
some way to go in the disgustiug circle, but notice nothing 
more in it. They wade on slowly in the mixture of the Sha- 
dows and the rain, talking of the great Judgment and Eternity, 
tUl they find Plutus at the next descent. 





On sense returning, which closed itself before tlie 
misery of the two kinsfolk that stunned me all with 
sadness, I discern new torments, and new tormented 
souh^ whithersoever I move, and turn, and gaze. I 
am in the Third Circle, tJiat of the eternal, accursed, 
cold, and heavj'^ rain. Its course and quality is never 
new : large hail, and turbid water, and snow, it pours 
down through the darksome air. The ground, on 
which it falls, emits a putrid smell. Cerberus,* a 
monster fierce and strange, with three throats, barks 
dog-like over those that are immersed in it. His 

Al tomar della mente, che si chiuse 
Dinanzi alia piet^ de' duo cognati, 
Che di tristizia tutto mi confuse, 

Nuovi tomicnti e nuovi tonnentati 

Mi veggie intomo, come ch' io mi muova, 
E come eh' io mi volga, e ch' io mi guati. 

Io sono al torzo cerchio della piova 
Eterna, maledetta, fredda e grave : 
Regola e quality mai non 1' fe nova. 

Grandine grossa, e acqua tinta, e nevo 
Per r aer tenehroso si riversa : 
Pute la terra che questo riceve. 

Cerbero, fiera crudele e diversa, 
Con tro golo caninamente latra 
Sovra la gente che quivi e sommersa. 



' Cerberus h(vc ingens latratu 
rci/na trifctuci Personatf ctdverso 

rccuham immanis in antro. ifji. 


I eyes are red, his Ijeard gory and black,' hia beUy 
\ wide, and clawed his hands. He clutches the Hpirits, 
flays, and piecemeal rends' them. The rain makes 
them howl like dogs. With one side they screen 
the other ; they often him themselves, the impious 

When Cerberus, the great Worm,' perceived us, 

he opened his moutlis and shewed liis tusks : no limb 

i of him kept still.^ My guide, spreading hia palms, 

took up earth; and, with full fist«, cast it into his 

Gli occhi ha Termigli, e la barba unta ed atra, 
E il ventre largo, e nnghjate le mani ; 
GiafEia gli spirti, gli scuoia, ed isquatra. 

Urlar gli & la pioggia come cani : 
Dell' lui do' lati fanno all' altro echenno ; SO 

<i spesao i miseri profiini. 
:i acoise Cerbero, il gran venno, 
Le boccbe apersc, e mostrocci le sanno : 
Non avea membro che tenesae formo. 

£ il Doca mio di9t«i9Q le sue spniuie ; 25 

Preee la term, e con piene lo pugiia 

18. ligualra, Kqaatm, sr 

■ Spkitat 

On H-ilimnii. Hor. Od. iiL XL 

* Somswluit like the ; ToT/ora 
diripitinl mUiM,rl pjitm ntidaal ; 
Paninfrmtantmil,&c. .Gn. L 

' " Their Wonn sluJl not die. " 
ttaiah Uti. 24. 

"Oil*. Ui nS hunr Uiun didat glni 

* Lit. : "be had noliml) tint 
he kviit itill ;" be ahook in aU 
hiji linibi (or rage and hunger. 
Virtfil Ken. not withcat lignifi- 
aaux, thxt a tew buiiUola of mere 
■ordid earth vill quell and aataCy 
this new Dumiiti-wocm, emblem 
d( blind vonudty ; initeitd of tho 
Sibfl'a uiojent aopanfio oalte: 
MtUe loporulaiti rt maliratit fru- 
(riiui offam. £a. vi. i20. 

ravening gullets. As tlie dog, that barking craves,' 
and grows quiet wlien be bites his food, for he strains 
and battles only to devour it ; so did those squalid 
visages of Corbonis the Demon, who thunders on the 
spirits BO, that thcj would fain be deaf. 

We passed over tbo shadows whom the heavy 
rain subdues ; and placed our soles upon their emp- 
tiness, which seems a body. Thoy all were lying on 
the ground save one, who sat up forthwith when he 
saw OS pass before him. " O thou, who tliroogb this 
Hell art led," he said to me ; *' recognise me if thou 
majest : thou wast made before I was unmade."* 

La gitt& dontro alle bramoso csnne. 
Qual k quel cane cho ahbaiando agugna, 

E ei tacqueta poi che il paste monle, 

Cbi solo a divorarlo intende e pugna ; 30 

Cotai se fec«r quelle facco lords 

Dello demouio Cerbero che iutrona 

L' anime si, ch' esser vorrebber eorde. 
2foi passavom su per 1' ombre, che adona 

Ja greve piogpn, e ponevam le piante 35 

Sopra loi vanil^, che pnx persona. 
Elle giocean per term tutte quimte, 

Faor d' una che a seder ai levfi, ratto 

Ch' oUa ci vide possnrsi davante. 
to, che se' per questo inferno tnitto, 40 

Mi diB8e, riconosuimi, se sai : 

Tu foeti, prima ch' io disfatto, fatto. 


2S, A!fag'"h iwosn*- cntvci, tongs for. 
',Buki, cnviug (or lii« food. | ' Wut bom before I died. 


^^Euno TI. IKFERNO. 

^^P And I to liim : " The anguish whicli tlioa b&st, 
^Hrperlmps withdraws thee from my momoiy^ go that 
^^Kit Bcems not as if I ever saw thee. But tell me who 
^^ftart thou, that art put in such a doleful place, and in 
^^ Bach pnnishraent ; that, though other may be greater, 
none is so displeasing." 

And he to me: "Thy city, wluch is so full of 
I envy that the sack ah'eady overflows, ooutained me 
■in the cleai*' life. You, citizens, called me Ciacco :' 
Khv the banefid crime of gluttony, as thou see&t, I 

Ed io a lel : L' angoscia che tu hai 

Forae ti tira faor della mia mente, 

Si che nun par eh' io ti vedeasi nmi. 45 

Ma dimmi chi tu se', che in el dolente 

Luogo se' messa, ed a al fatta pena, 

Che s' altis b ma^ior, nulla u h1 spiacente. 
Ed egU a me : La tua clttii, ch' t plena 

D' invidia si, die giii tralxjuua il sacco, 50 

Soco mi tenne in la vita eerena. 
Vol, cittodini, mi cluamaste Ciacco J 

Per la ilanno§a colpa della gola. 

Come tu vodi, alia piuggta mi fiacco ; 

jesta to people of conaequence ; 
ftsd bad A great nontcmpt for the 
nmaum eort" Bargigi, anothor 
Tei7 old commeutator, alio teMt 
bon Cincoo wu fond of delicuiei, 
and poor ; and how, "in order tu 
have mora enjuyment, he made a 

plecisoul anil cKoelleut talker 

a man that alwaye hod Dewa fm 
the hoiueaof tlie ridi; where there 

t it, m buSooo ; tad 

M for hii love of dainty 

■ buffoon, he had 

64 IKTERNO. ciSTo rt. 

IftDgnish in tlie rain. And I, wretched spirit, atn 
not alono ; etnce all these for like crime are in like 
punishment:" and more he' said not. 

I answered him: " Ciae«o,' thy sore distress 
weighs upon me bo, that it bids me weop. But toll 
me, if thou canst, what Uio citizens of the divided 
city shall como to : if any one in It be just. And 
tell me the reason why such discord has assailed iL" 

Ajid he to me: "After long contention, they 
shall come to blood, and tlie savage' P^^ sbaH expol 

Ed io anima trista non eon solo, 65 

Ch6 tutbj queste a simil pena atanno 

Per simil colpa : e piii non fe' parolo. 
Io gli rispoBi ; Ciacco, il tuo affamio 

Mi pesa bI, ch' a lagrunar m' invito ; 

Ma dimmi, so tn sai, a clie venanno GO 

Li cittadin dcUa citt^ partita : 

S' alcim v' h giasto : e HiTnnii la cogione, 

PercM r ha tanta discordia asaalita, 
£d egli a me : Copo lunga tenzone 

Verrannn al sangue, e la parte selvaggia 65 

Caccerit 1' altra con molta DiTenaione. 


is oammonly a gre&t deid oF tjdlc^ 
more eipeciiJlf at table." IlmiJEM 
Dnnte aliUMt weep to hb the poor 
gifted Ciuw in «uiib i plight. 

I The nuue Ciacco ii eaid dso 
to lii»»e been a fiuniliar ahbrtvio- 
tion of Jsoopo (Jamea) in Dante'i 

— * Florence wm dirided by two 
faction!, the JVfri and£iancfei. or 
Blacki uid ^Miitea. The Wliitfs 
uecallfd the "uTage party/'be- 

came it wu headed hj the Ceralli, 
t, ron^b, puree-proud tamilj of 

! rma« 

and Boceaeeio Com. ), that had re- 
oently acquired great wealth and 
influence in Floroice. Or, "party 
of tlie wood^" (u it toay b« 
translated), beenute tbe CersU 
vreni from tbe wood; TalitioeTt^ 
or V(J di Nievolo. The DunaU, 
comparatively poor, but poaiew 
ing greater Udenla, praudof tiwir 



the other witli much offence. Tlieii it behoves this 
to fal] witliin three suna, and tlie other to pre- 
vail through the force of one who now keeps tack- 
ing.' It »haU carry its front high for a long time, 
■ifcaepmg tlie other under heavy burdens, however 
pit may weop thereat and ho ashamed. Two' aro 
Just; but are not Iistenod to there. Pride, Cnvy, 
Rud Avarice are the three sparka which have set 

Foi appresBD convien che qnesta coggia 
luiru tre soli, e ehe 1' altm eormonti 
Con la forza di tal, clie tcst^ piaggia. 

Alto teiri lungo tempo ie fronti, 70 

Tenendo 1' altra aotto gravi pesi. 
Come che di cih piangu, e cbe ne adoali. 

Giusti son duo, ma nou vi sono iutesi : 
Superbia, invidia ed avarizia bodo 
Le tre iaville ch' hauno i cttoii accesi. 75 

t>9_ PioffffiOy oo&at* or tiuka 

tmlulity, and verj ■oomf ul of 
■n upatiui*, led the opposiM lurty. 
TIU7 "cune ta blood^bxl" on 
tLa BTening at Sbr-dar l^iOO, at 
**■ grand ladiea' duuw" on the 
PuiiB di Suita TriniU; vliidi 
wat to ooaolnde the fetiintiet at 
tba dij, and had atttofted all tbe 
L Boat ilutiDBDuhed of the joung 
In 1301 the Whitei ex- 
tUul the Blulu 1 and 

tlera, cajoles. 

perhaps Bocifnce 
vho aent him; aod kept ''tack- 
ing," or pistendiiiB to be equallj 
well diipoiwd to both pftrtiea, till 
Chorlei wu utuaUy in Florenoe. 
' The oamea cf tlieie two are 
unkoinm ; and the conjecture! of 
the cummentatun ace not edify- 
ing. SooCanuinB ii.,b«t itaaiB, 
lidgiuiiing: "Cunanu, a' Ire ncn 
rfl',^ ke. (p<ige 28 of FratioeUi'i 
expelled, bj help of exlit.), whore Dante i|>eaki por- 
'!•■ de Taloia, in the year luipi of thu Hiiie two jiut men ; 
and in a very renurknhlc way of a 
third— probably Ml friend Guido 

^ within Iem tluui 
K*'Uine ((um" (•olor yean) uf the 
BUniD at whioh Ciocco apc^ki. 

the heart'* o/all on fire." Hero ho ended the lamen- 
table' sound. 

And I to liim : " Still I wish thee to instmct 
me, and to hestow a little farther speech on me. 
Fariiiata and the Togghiaio, wlio were so worthy; 
Jacopo Rnstieucci, ArrJgo and Mosea,' and the rest 
who set their minds on doing good : tell mo where 
they are, and give me to know them ; for great de- 
sire urges me to learn whether Heaven soothes or 
Hell empoisons tliem," 

And ho to me : " They are amongst the blackest 
spirits. A difTerent crime weighs them downwartU 
to the bottom. Shoiddst thou descend so far, thou 

Qui poae 6ue ol lacrimabil saono. 

Ed io a lui : Ancor vo' che m' msegni, 
£ che di piii parLtr mi iacci doDO. 

Farinata e il Togghiaio, cho fur ri degni, 
Jacopo Rasticucni, Arrigo e il Moeea, 
E gli altri, che a bea far posor gl' iogegni, 

Simiui ove §ono, o fa ch' io U coaosca ; 
Ch6 gran desio mi stringe di sapcrc, 
8e il Ciel gli addolcia o 1' Inferno gU attosca. 

E quegll : £1 son tra Is anime pih nero ; 
Siveraa colpa gii gli aggrava al fondo : 

1 lAmantaUe enongli to Dante 
in muiy wkTS. He belonged to 
neither p&rt;; and bul the leaden 
of both bnniihed, when he wai 
chief Prior, in June 1300, though 
bii relntioiu uid denrcst trieorii 
ware amongst thenu He aaly 
joiooJ theWhitea inoppoelng the 

coming of Oharlea to Florence ; 
KDil WM for thiit reMon exiled ; 
dejirived of al) hi» iiropurty; uii 
condemned to be burnt lUive. 

* Noble Plorentinea, wboae 
ounce ogun oeeor, exo^ Airi- 
go'e. He !• sud to have been of 
the Fifuiti fomllr. 


tSFKRSO. 67 

tiutyest see them. But if ever tboo Fetnni to the 
sweet world, I pray thee recall me to the memoiy 
of men. More I tell tliee not, and more I answer 
no*." Therewith he writhed hie straight eyes asqnint;' 
looked at me a little ; then bent his besd, and fell 
down with it like his blind comjMmions. 

And my Guide said to me ; " He wates no more 
nntil the angel's trumpet somid*. When the adrereo 
Power shall come, each shall rensit his sad grave ; 
shall resume his flesh and form ; shall hear that which 
resounds to all etenun'," 

Thus po.'^sed we through the filthy mixture of 
the shadows and the rain, with paces dow, touching 
a little on the future life. 

Se tauto soendi. gli potiai veJere. 
Ha oe ta torni nmi nel ilolce mondo, 

Pngoti che alia mente altmi mi lechi : 

Piit lion ti dico, e pOt non ti rispondo. 90 

Gli diritti occhi tone allora in tiieubi : 

Goardonuni nn poco ; e poi chinft la testa : 

Cadde con esaa a par d^li altri ciechL 
£ il Puca disse a me : Fiii non ei desta 

Di qua dal saon delT angelica bomba : 96 

Quando veiti la nimica podesta, 
Ciascnm ritroveii la tiieta tombo, 

Bipiglieii sua came e sua figura, 

Udiii quel che in eterao rimbomba. 
SI trapassaoimo per eozza mi^tura 100 

Sell' ombre e delta piog^^ a ]iasBi Icnti, 

Toccando nn poco la vita fututa. 

' Hitefea, with which he h»d I hi'^'datflrtailintoiiijaiiiting." He 
been looking ''■cruglit" at me. I grow bliud agiiu, like thu others. 



Wherefore I said : " Master, shall tiiese torments 
increase after the great Sentence, or grow less, or 
remain as burning?"* 

And he to me : " Return to thy science,* which 
has it, that the more a thing is perfect, the more it 
feels pleasure and likewise pain. Though these ac- 
cursed people never attain to true perfection, yet 
shall they be nearer to it after than before."' 

We went round along that road, speaking much 
more than I repeat We reached the point where 
the descent begins. Here found we Plutus, the great 

Perch' io dissi : Maestro, esti tonnenti 
Cresceranno ei dope la gran sentenza, 
fien minori, o saran si cocentil 105 

£d egli a me : Eitoma a tua scienza, 
Che vuol, quanto la cosa h piu perfetta, 
Piu scuta il bene, e cos! la doglienza. 

Tuttoche questa gento inaledetta 

In vera perfezion giammai non vada, 110 

Di ]h, piii clio di qua, esscre aspetta. 

K"oi aggirammo a tondo quella strada, 
Parlando piii assai ch' io non ridico : 
Venimmo al punto dove si digrada : 

Quivi trovammo Pluto il gran neniico. 115 

114. Si digrada^ descends in degrees. 

^ Equally burning, or bitter. 
* Thy Aristotelian Philosophy. 

' Lit. : *' beyond, than on this 
side," the great Judgment. 


PlatasitLe anaicntgodof ricliw, wlium the PueU Unil on Uio briuk 
of lUa Fuurtli Circle, swells with rngc niid aijtoxii^lUDvul nhvu 
fae sees them about to euler il ; and Huccei.its in ullering Mime 
strange words. Virgil, with brief und sharp n-proof, makes 
Ulu collapse and full to the ground. In Ibis circle — divided 
Into two halves — the Poets fiud two separate clam^'s of spirits, 
that ora coming in O[ipodile directions, ruiliog Inrge dead 
Weights, smiting these agaiost oue njiother; and then, nitli 
Iritlcr mutool reproaches, i-och turuing round bia Weight, and 
rolling it backwaida, till all meet and smite again, "at the 
uther jouBt," or other end of the two Haif-cirdcs. It is the 
souls of the Proiligal and Avaricious that have this panich- 
luent. In the left aiuioircle, which U occupied by the ava- 
ricious, Dant« notices many that are tooBured ; and in told 
that they were once High Dignitoriua of his Church, but have 
now grown so dim, that it would be vain to think of recog- 
niaing any of them. 

Atter speabing of Fortune and the things committed to her 
charge, the Poeta hasten acruos the circle to Ibe next duDcent, 
Upon it# brinlf (hey lind a etream of darli water, guebing down 
through a cleft, which it has woru out for itaelf ; and the; 
aooompanf this vtatec till it forms a marsh called Styx, whlcli 
uooupies the Fifth Circle. In this Marsh they tee spirits, all 
muddy and naked, aeaalling and tearing each other. Tbetc 
are tlie eoubs of the Wrathful. Beneath them, and coTeri"! 
with the black mud, are the wrals of the Gloomy'iJuggith, 
gnrgUog ill tbcir throats a dibmol chunl. The I'oets, after 
going a long way round tlie (sige of the loathsome pool, uome 
at I«l lo the foot of a high tower. 



CAirro Tii. 

CANTO vn. 

" Pape Satan ! pap^ Satan, alepp^ 1" began Plu- 
tus, with clucking* voice. And that gentle Sage, 
who knew all, said, comforting me : " Let not thy 
fear hurt thee ; for, whatever power he have, he shall 
not hinder us from descending this rock." 

Then he turned himself to that inflated visage, 
and said : " Peace, cursed Wolf 1* Consume thyself 
internally with thy greedy rage. Not without cause 
is our journey to the deep. Thus it is willed on 

Pape Satan, pape Satan aleppe, 
Cominci^ Pluto coUa voce chioccia : 
E quel Savio gentil, che tutto seppe, 

Disse per confortanni : Non ti noccia 
La tua paura, ch^, poder ch* egli abbia, 
Non ci terrk lo scender questa roccia. 

Poi si rivolse a quella onliata labbia, 
E disse : Taci, maledetto lupo : 
Consuma dentro te con la tua rabbia. 

Non b senza cagion 1* andare al cupo : 

1. Papt, Lat. papse. Aleppe^ alpha, prince, chief. 


1 "Hah Satan ! hah Satan ! thou 
Alpha !" Dante's son Pietro gives 
the explanation of Paj)€ and Al- 
tpptt as above. Plutus probably 
continues to regard Satan as his 
Alpha, or Prince ; and is surprised 
and enraged when he sees the in- 
truders. But his ideas are not 
clear, and his utterance of them is 

very imperfect. Chioccia (snbct.) 
means a brood, or ducking^ hen in 
Italian. Readerswill recollect the 
"Paix/Paixf Satan alUz/Paixr 
of the Huissiers, which Benvennto 
Cellini heard, when he '* took his 
dagger,'* and went to get justice 
in the courts at Paris. 
* Wolf, symbol of avarice. 



high, where Michael took vengeance of the proud ' 

As sails, swellc<l by the wind, fall entangled 
n-hen the mast breaks ; ho fell that cmel monster 
to the ground. Then we descended into the fourth 
conca\'i^, taking in more of the dismal bank, which 
ehnts up all the evil of the universe. Ah, Justice 
Divine ! Who shall tell in few' the many fresh 
pains and travails that I saw ? And why does guilt 
of ours thus waste us ? 

As does the surge, there above Charybdis, that 
hteaks itself against the surge wherewith it meets; 

Vnolai cod nell' a!to, ove Jlichele 

Fe' la vendetta del eaperbo stnipo. 
Qnali dol vento le gonfiate velo 

Caggiono awolte, poichfe 1' alber fiacca ; 

Tal cadde a terra ia fiera unidele. 15 

Coal Bcendemmo nella qnarta lacca, 

Prendendo piii Jella dolentc ripn, 

Ohe U tnal dell' tmivereo tutto inaacta. 
Ahi giustizia di Dio ! tantc chi atipa 

Ifnove travaglie e pene, qnaDli; io viddtl 30 

£ percfa^ nostra colpa A ne scipaT 
Come fa 1' onda li sovra Cariddi, 

Che d &angQ con qnella in coi s* intoppa ; 

their idoli lure they cominitted 
>dulte[7," kc Eak. vriii 87. 

' lit: "Who iton, pack*, or 
ennrda together, ao aumf nvw 
pBiu uid tnTub m I ■»« 7" 
Thii titenl iceuting of the marCt 
will per!u[ie bear different eiiib- 

"And tl 

ran: Jtlchiiol ind bis angela fought 

■(Minst thedngoD And the 

neat dngen wu oaat out, tlut 
old te i iK nl ntUd the Derll, and 
Salui, which ilGceiveth the whole 
worid." Btr. dL T, "Adoltery" 
in the HrlptorBl leain : " With 



CAinro yiu 

SO liave the people here to counter-dance.^ Here 
saw I too many more than elsewhere,^ both on the 
one side and on the other, with loud howlings, roll- 
ing weights by force of chest They smote against 
each other, and then each wheeled round just tliere, 
rolling aback, shouting, "Why boldest thou?" and 
" Why thro west thou away ?" Thus they returned 
along the gloomy circle, on either hand, to the 
opposite point, shouting always in their reproachful 
measure. Then every one, when he had reached 
it, turned through his half-circle towards the other 

Cos! convien che qui la gente riddi. 

Qui vidi gente piu che altrovo troppa, 
E d' una i)arte e d* altra, con grandi urli, 
Voltando pesi per forza di poppa : 

Percotevansi incontro, e poscia pur li 
Si rivolgea ciascim, voltando a retro, 
Gridando : Perche tieni 1 e perch6 burli 1 

Cosi tomavan per lo cerchio tetro, 
Da ogni mano all* opposite pimto, 
Gridando sempre in loro ontoso metro. 

Poi si volgea ciascun, quand* era giunto, 
Per lo 8U0 mezzo cerchio, all* altra giostra. 




24. RiddarCy wheel round and meet again, as in 
the ridda danoe. 30. Burlare, sport away. 

' As the waves of Charybdis 
meet and dash against the waves 
of Soylla (J?n. iiL 420, &c.) ; so 
the spirits here, with their bur- 

^ Dante, in another place, says 

to Avarice: *' Accurst be thoo, 
inveterate Wolf ! that hast more 
prey than all the other beasts." 
Purg, XX. 10. The avaricious and 
prodigal are also placed together 
in Purgatory. /&. 

And I, who felt my heart aa it were stiing, said : 
" My MasU^r, now shew me what people these arc ; 
and whether all those tonsured on our left were of 
the clergy." 

And he to me : " In their first life, all were so 
squint-eyed in mind,' that they mmlo no expenditure 
in it with moderation. Most clearly do their voices 
hart ont this, when they come io the two points' of 
the circle, where contrary guilt divides them. Those 
were Priosta, that have not hairy covering ou their 
heads, and Popes and Cardinals, in whom avarice 
does its utmost." 

£d io che avea Io cor qtusi compmito, 
Disst : Maestro mio, or mi dimoBtra 

Che gento 6 questa ; e so tutti fur cherci 

Quefiti chcrcuti alia sinistra nostra. 
Ed c^li a me : Tutti quanti fur guerci 

Si della mente in la vita primaia, 

Che con misura miUo spendio fetci. 
Absoi la voce lor cliiaro I' abLaia, 

Qimndo ^-cngono a' dao punti del cerchio, 

Ove colpa contraria li dispaia. 
Qnesti for Cherci, che non lian coperchio 

PiloBO al capo, o Papi e Cardinali, 
10 soperchio. 

42. Ftrvi, oi fecero ; uiaHo there, i. t. in their 

Ant life. 

> S*w every thing bo faUely, | other, nncl 017: "iniyhoHe«t.or 

that Ihty neier miido .my right 

gnuTiait thou?" sod "Why throw 

nuof Iheirvralth. 

ett thon awijT" or, WlyBqnan 

* Whm (hey f triira i|^itut«Mh 


And I : " Master, among tliia set, I surely ought 
to recognise some that were defiled bj these ev3s." 

And he to me : " Vain tlionghts combinest thon : 
their undiseeming life, which made them sordid, 
now makes them too obscure for any recognition. To 
all eternity they shall continue butting one anoUier.' 
These shaD arise from their graves with closed fista ; 
and these with wasted' hair. Dl-giving, and ill- 
keeping, has depi'ived them of the bright world,' 
and put them to this conflict : what a con/lkl it is, I 
adorn no words to telL* But thou, my Sou, m&yest 
see the brief mockery of the goods that are oom- 

Ed io : Maestro, tra quest! wtali 
DoTToi io ben riconoscere alcuni, 
Che faxo inuaondi di cotesti maJL 

Ed egli a me : Vaiii penaieri adtml : 
La ecouosceuto vita, che i fe' sozzi. 
Ad ogni oonoscenza or li fa bruni. 

In etemo verranno agli duo cozzi : 
Questi riBorgeronno del sepulcio 
Col pugno cliiuso, e questi co' crin mom. 

Mol daie, o mal teuer Io niondo pulcro 
Ha toltu loro, e iKisti a questa zuffa : 
Qnol ulla sia, jjotoIc non ci a^ipulcTO. 

Or puoi, figliuol, vedur la corta biiffa 
De' ben, che sou conmiossi alia Fortuna, 

' lit; "'thoyrfmllooiuolotlio 
ra buttisgi." 

* The HFuiuioiu, villi c1<nicd 
it« ; tho prodieals, with their 
117 hair "ihora otf," or wul«il. 

> Their iirodigftU^, orUieiiaTm- 
ricc, liu lioprived them gf Heann. 

* Their oiLH in olcur enough 1 
uiJ utcdi [HI oruiLlfi wardi at 
luiiiu to Mft it tortli. 



mitted onto Fortane, for which the faaraan kind 
oontend with one another.' For all the gold that 
is beneath tlie moon, or ever wbo, conld not give 
reBt to a single one of these weary souk." 

"Master," I said to him, "now teU me also: 
this Fortano, of which thou hintest to me; what is 
she, that has the good things of the world thus 
within her clutchas?" 

And he to me : " O fooL'sh creatures, bow great 
is this ignorance that fiJls upon ye ! Kow I wish 
thee to receive my judgment' of her. He whoso 
wisdom is transccndont orer all, made the heavens 
Mid gave them guides ;' so that every part may shine 

Per chc F omana gente si rabboSa. 
Cb^ tatto r oro, ch' h sotto Lv lana, 

E ehe gia (n, lU qneste anime stancbo 65 

Kon poterebbe fame posor una. 
Alaeetro, dtssi lui, or mi di' anche : 

Qucsta Forttma, di cbe tn mi tocche, 

Che h, cbe i ben del moudo ha si tra bnmdie? 
E qnegli a me ; O creature scioccbe, 70 

Quanta iguoraaza it quella cbe vi oQende ! 

Or to' che tu mia si-ntcwBi ne imboccbe. 
Cgliii, lo ciii Baver tutto trascende, 

Fece 11 deli, e di& lor dii conduce, 

72. /sitocf Ac tot iint>(>n-Jii ; ai taeeSt, v. 06, for loeetii. 

' Or, more lUenlly : iciillle 
with, "rebaff one umther." 

* Lit. : "Iwiiih tlieutuuke mj 
lnilgiiicnt o( her inMlhyDMnuL," 
uul (peak It (ortli. 

■ Oktb to eaeh of Uu odsrtUl 
■plicn*, or "bine mamhls km* 
rent,' m Asgclu [atelligciMe to 
guide ita emote. Com. Tr. iL c % 
&C. ; uul Fmrad, ixniL 77. 



CAKTO vn. 

to eveiy part,' equally distributing the light. In 
like manner, for worldly splendours, he ordained a 
general minister and guide;* to change betimes the 
vain possessions, from people to people, and from 
one kindred to another, beyond the hindrance of 
human wisdom. Hence one people commands, an- 
other languishes ; obej-ing her sentence, which is 
hidden like the seq>ent in the grass. Your know- 
ledge cannot withstand her. She provides, judges, 
and maintains her kingdom, as the other gods' do 

SI ch' ogni parte ad ogni parte splende, 

Distribuendo ugnalmente la luce : 
Similemente agli splendor mondani 
Ordinc) general ministra e duce, 

Che pemiutasse a tempo li ben vani, 

Di gente in gente, e d* uno in altro sangue, 
Oltre la difension de' senni umani : 

Per ch' una gente impera, e 1* altra langue, 
Seguendo lo giudicio di costei, 
Che h occulto, come in erba V angue. 

Vostro saver non ha contrasto a lei : 
Ella prowede, giudica, e persegue 
Suo regno, come il loro gli altri DeL 




^ That each of these ipheres 
may come round in its due time ; 
and, amongst other things, shine 
on every part of our earth. 

* St. Augustine says : No8 eat 
cauMoSf qua dicuntur foriuitce 
{unde ctiam Fortuna nomcn acce- 
pit), non dicimut nulfas, sed la- 
ientci, etuque tribuimus, vel veH 

Deiy rd quorumiibet Spirituum vo- 
luntati, De Civitate Dei, lib. v. 
And Dante : Heram {Pyrrktu) 
vocabat Fortunam, quam rauM» 
melius et rectius nos Divinam 
Providcntiam appeHamus, Hon- 
archia, lib. iL p. 110. 

> ** These Celestial InteUigenoes 
Plato named Ideas, which ii m 

I theirs. Her permutations have no truce. Necessity 
I makes her be swift; so oft como things requiring 
I change. This is she, who is so much re\-ile(l,' even 
I by those who ought to praise Iier, w/w-n blaming her 
■wrongfiilly, and with evil words. But sho is in 
bliss, and hears it not. With the other Primal 
[ Creatures joyful, she wheels her sphere, and tastes 

'* But let us now descend to greater misery. 
Already every star is falhng, that was oficeudtng 
when we entered ;^ and to stay too long is not per- 

Le sue pennutazion non hanno triegue t 

Ifecessita la fa easer veloce ; 

81 speaso viea cH vicenda conaegue. 90 

Quest' h cokd. ch' b tanto poata in croce 

Pur da color, cho le dovrian dar lode, 

Sandole biasmo a torto e mala voce. 
Ma ella s' b beata, e cJ6 non ode : 

Con 1' altre prime creature lieta 95 

Volve sua epera, o beata ai gode. 
Or diacendiamo omai a maggior pieta. 

Gi& ogni Stella cade, che saliva 

Quando mi moBsi, e il troppo star ai vieta. 

nmoh ■■ to uy Famia. Tbe Gen- 
tiln called them goitg uDi god- 
dMBM." Conv. ft. il c. 5. Tide 
alM> Parad. miil 121. 


•Oer 1 

, «n]<.Ti 1 

M. : " when I moved mfaelf," 
I to Uwl thee in. The Feet* huve 
fitaa iix lioan in getting thtu 

far. ItiBthBroforapaatmidnight. 
Si™aiintoai.l3«aiidiil. Daiite, 
M wo ahull set, gencnJly iniiiodtc* 
the time bj noting podtiuna of the 
aton, ire. And it mtut ulwnfs be 
Temeoibered, that the time uF the 
Viiionli near the Tcnia1E<iuinDi; 
ao thftt the days aod nighta me of 
eqaol length. 

78 INFERKO. c*>TO rn. 

We crossed tlie circle, to the other bank; near 
a fount, that boils aiid pours down througb & cleft, 
which it baa formed. The water was darker far than 
perae.' And we, accompanying the dusky waves, 
entered down by a strange patli. Tliis dreary stream- 
let makes a Marah, that is named Styx, when it has 
descended to the foot of the grey malignant shores.' 
And I, who stood intent on looking, saw muddy peo- 
ple in that bog, all naked and with a look of anger. 
Tliey were smiting each other, not with hands only, 
but with heail, and vnth chest, and with feet ; maim- 
ing one anotlier with their teeth, piece by piece. 

Sot ricidemmo il cerchio all' altra riva 
Sovi' una fonte, che bolle, e riversa 
Per un foasato che da loi ilitiva. 

L' acqua era buia molto pid che pcrsa : 
£ noi, in compagnia dell' onde bige, 
En tram mo giii per una via diverea. 

Una paludo fa, cbo ha nomo Stige, 
Questo trifito ruHi:el, qnaudo k disceso 
Al pi& delle maligna piagge grige. 

Ed io, che a rimirar mi stava inteso, 
Vidi geuti fimgose in quel pantano, 
Ignudo tutlc, e eon sembiante offeso. 

Questi d percotean non pur con mano, 
Ma con la testa, e col petto, e cu' jiioli, 
Troncandosi coi deuti a bnuto a brano. 


' Pent in x porple-bUak oo- 
ar. See note 3d, p, 64. 
» Bine via Tartarri feri Adit- 
tilit ad uiulu). Tvrbidut Ale 
nw KUCdqae mraf/lnt gurgil £t- 

lital, alqut uMTirm Cneyta rru^ 
UU aroMim. Ma. ti. 29G. CMfA 
tlayna olta villa, St^am^Mp*' 
Udm. lb. 323. C<Mtt moUinU. 
Omtg. ii. 179. 

The kind Master said ; " Son, now see the sools 
of tiiose wbom anger overcame. And also I would 
Lave thee to bolievo for certain, that there are peo- 
ple andemeatli tlia water, who sob, and make it 
babble at the surface ; as thy eye may tell thee, 
whichever way it turns. Fixed in the slime, they 
say : * Sullen were we in the sweet air, that is glad- 
dened by the Sun,' carrj-ing lazy smoke within our 
hearts :* now lie wo sullen here in the black mire'* 
This h^-mn they gurgle in their throats, for they 
I cannot apeak it in liill words." 

Lo buon Maestro disee : Figlio, ot vedi 
L' anime di coloi coi rinBe I' iia : 
Ed onulie to' che tu per certo credi, 

Che aotto I' acqua ha gente che sospira, 
E fauio puUuIar <{uest' acqua tJ Bummo, 
Come r occhio ti dice u' uha a' aggiia. 

Fitti nel limo dicoa : Triati fummo 
}!eU' oor ilolce che <U1 Sol s' allcgra, 
Fortanilo tlentro accidioso fummo : 

Or ci attristiam nella bolletta negra. 
QucBt' inno ri gorgogltan nella strozza, 
Che dir nol poBson con parola integra. 


1S4. BcUttta, depodt, settling! of laaclilf w: 

B nul: dtt Sut 
L "njoiea in the ■on." 

>uth, mokf til A 
f*, Ibnugh tfui, uid wTHiwci. 
bvie and tru iiisk«n bittemene 
ia bori*. which bittemewHi in 

hiiu the luie of ftll goudneaie ; 
thim in ncdiliB Che angnich of > 

trouble herte." Chaucer, i'lrnmo 




Thus, between the dry bank and the putrid fen,* 
we compassed a large arc of that loatibly slough, with 
eyes turned towards those that swallow of its filth. 
We came to the foot of a tower at last 

Cos! girammo della lorda pozza 

Grand' arco, tra la ripa secca e 11 mezzo, 
Con gli occhi volti a chi del fango ingozza. 

Yenimmo al pii d' mia torre al dassezzo. 


^ Messo (with the t gtretta, or 
oloie f ), a term applied to an ap- 
ple when it is beginning to rot ; 

and from that tranif eired to otiier 
things in the same state. See£<Ni- 
(Uno, VdltUdlOt ke. 


Before reaching the high tower, the Poets have observed two 
flame-signals rise from its summit, and another make answer 
at a great distance ; and now they see Phlegyas, coming with 
angry rapidity to ferry them over. They enter his bark ; and 
sail across the broad marsh, or Fifth Circle. On the passage, 
a spirit, all covered with mud, addresses Dante, and is recog- 
nised by him. It is Filippo Argenti, of the old Adimari family; 
who had been much noted for his ostentation, arrogance, and 
brutal anger. After leaving him, Dante begins to hear a 
sound of lamentation ; and Virgil tells him that the City of 
Dis (Satan, Lucifer) is getting near. He looks fonvard, 
through the grim vapour ; and discerns its pinnacles, red, as 
if they had come out of fire, Phlegyas lauds them at the 
gates. These they find occupied by a host of fallen angels, 
who deny them admittance. 




CANTO vm. 

I SAY continniiig,' that, long before we reached 
the foot of the high tower, our eyes went upwards 
to its summit, because of two flamelets,^ that we saw 
put there, and another from far give signal back ; so 
far that the eye could scarcely catch it And I, turn- 
ing to the Sea' of all intelligence, said : " What says 
this? and what replies yon other fire? And who 
are they that made it ?" 

lo dice scguitando, ch* assai prima 
Che noi fussimo al pi^ dell' alta torre, 
Gli occhi nostri n' andar suso alia cima, 

Per due fiammette che i vedemmo porre, 

£ un* altra da lungi render cenno, 5 

Tanto, che a pena 11 potea V occhio torre. 

Ed io, rivolto al mar di tutto il senno, 
Diiwi : Questo che dice? e che risponde 
Queir altro foco ? e chi son quel che 11 fenno ? 

1 Continuing the account of the 
Wrathful, &c., begun in the pre- 
ceding canto ; which is the first 
that ends without completing the 
lubjcct treated in it. 

' Tlie two flames indicate that 
two persons are come to bo fer- 
ried over. The tower is an out- 
post of the city of Lucifer, sepa- 
rated from it by the wide marsh. 


The signal is made by the senti- 
nels, just as in our watch-towers, 
when the enemy is mounting or 
preparing to mount : by ni^t (aa 
here in Hell, where it is always 
night) the fire is seen ; by day the 
smoke." Ott Com. 

' Virgil, "who knew aU** (canto 
vii. 3) ; who "did honour toeTeiy 
art and science. ** Canto It. 73. 

And he to me : " Over tlie squalid wavoa, already 
&aii mayest discern what ia expected,' if tie vapoor 
of the fen conceal it not from thee." 

Never did cord impel from itself an arrow, that 
ran through the air so quickly, as a little bark which 
I saw come towards us then, under the goidance of 
ft single steersman, who cried : " Now art thou ar- 
rived, fell spirit ?" 

' PhJegj'as,* Phiegyas," said my LurJ, " this 
lime thou criest in vain. Thou slialt not have us 
longer than while we pass the wash." 

As one who listens to eome great deceit which 
has been done to him, and then soro resents it ; 

Ed egli a me : Sa pQr 1e eucido onde 
Gi^ puoi acorgcre qncllo cho b' aspetta, 
8e il fmmno del ]Mmtaa nol ti naacoude. 

Corda non pinse mai da eo eaettn, 
Che si coiresse via per 1' aer snella, 
Com' io villi una nave piceioletta 

Venir per 1' acqiia vcreo noi in ipiella, 
Sotto il govemo d' un sol galeoto, 
Che gridava : Or ae' giunta, anima felkl 

Fle^is, Fkgiis, tu gridi a vfito, 

Disse Io inio Signore, a questa volta : 
Piii noQ ci arrai, se non passando il loto. 

Quale colui, cbe grande inganno ascolto, 
Che gli sia fatto, e poi se no rammaica, 


> What tlu sigiuli have been 

rUegyu, the tngrj f 1177101111 
of the m ^^hf is hflwhoHurut tha 

Apoltoi PUtpyofgHc 
vMna Aiimmel, M 
itur m(t per nmtrw. 


such grow Phlegj-as in his gathered rnge.' My 
Guide descended into the skiff, and then made me 
enter after liim; and not till I was in, did it seem 
laden." Soon as my Guide and I were in the boat, 
its ancient prow went on, cutting more of the water 
than it ia wont with others. 

Whilst wo were running through the dead chan- 
nel, there rose before mo one full of mud, and said : 
" Who art thou, that coraeat before thy time ?" 

And I to him; " If I come, I remain not. Bat 
thou, wIjo art thou, that hast become so foul ?" 

He answered: "Thou seest that I am one who 

Tal ai fi;' Flfgiaa nell' ira accolta. 

Lo Duca mio disceae nella barca, 25 

£ poi mi fece entrare appiesso lui, 
E 80I, quand' io fui dentro, parvu carca. 

Tosto cbc il Cuca ed io nel Icgno M, 
Scgiuido BO ne va I' antica pnira 
Dell* acijua piii che non suol con altnd. 30 

Mentre noi corrovam la morta gora, 
Dinanri mi bi feco un pien di fango, 
E disse : Chi se' tu, cho vieni onzi era 1 

£d io a lui : S' io vegno, io non rimungo ; 
Ma tu chi sei, cho si sei lattu bnitto ? 35 

depose : Vodi oho son un che piango. 

> Theeagarnge that badoomo 
upon FUegju in his oipuctetioa 
of proy, u ohuigwl into bitter uul- 
neu when lie Iiean tliut lliuPoeta 
itro not diwiDCid tu remnlii. 

* B7 th« weiglit at bit living 

body. GanvU tub pondere egtiiAa 
SMUU, ktu Mn. vL 413. 

> Will Dot IfU his aiuae;*hi4:Ii 
none bat the bluest ipiritfl refora 
to do: Buoh u Boccn degli Ab- 
bnU. Canto uiii 70-113: 


And I to him : " With weeping, and with sor- 
row, accursed spirit, remain thou I For I know 
thee, all fiJthy as thou art." 

Then he stretched both hands to the boat, wliero- 
at the wary Master tlirust him off, saying : " Away 
there with the other dogs !" And he put bia arms 
about my nock, kissed my fece, and said : " Indig- 
nant soul ! lilessed lie she that bore thee.' In your 
world, that was an arrogant personage. Good there 
is none t« ornament the memory of liim : so is his 
shadow here in fury. How many up there' now 
think themselves great kings,' that shall lie here 

£d io a lui ; Con piangere e con lulto, 

Spirito mnledetto, ti rimani ; 

Ch' io ti conosco, ancor aie lordo tutto. 
Allom stese al legno ambe le mani ; 40 

Put che il Maestro accorto Io soapinae, 

Bicendo : Via coet^ uon gli allri coni. 
Lo collo poi con le hraccia mi ciiise, 

Baciommi il volto, e disss : Ahiia sdegnosa, 

Benedetta colei che in te s' inciiise. 45 

Qaci fu al nionilo persona OTgogUosa : 

Bonti non i che sua memoria fregi : 

Cosl k r ombm sua qui furioaa. 
Qoanti ai tcngon or lassii gran regi, 


■ VirgQ eommends Dnnta (or 
tha iiigb iDdigaatioD and iliaguit 
wliioh ho Bumifeita on rcoogoiji- 
Ing thia chief rcpreaBntative of 
eiii|il7 amigiuice, ngo, and dit- 

"TberooboTe:" in jfonr world. 
CtDgi ill a ip;nerHJ aente ; 

men pTominent for their gnat 
quttiitiM, and worthy to be kinae. 
See the conuDcnti uf Boooaocio, 
Luidini, ke. Rrsem nm/aciual 
opt* .... Kon aunt niHdit font : 
Bet at, lui pomit metiu, £l din 
mala jwclnrur, La. aoneca, Thg- 
aUi, ohonis, act ii. 

like swino' in mire, leaving beliind tliem liutrible 
reppoachca 1" 

And I : " Master, I shonld be glad* to see him 
dipped in this swill, ere we quit the lake." 

And ho to me : " Before the shore comes to tliy 
view, tliou shalt bp Batkficd. It is fitting that thou 
shouldst bo gratified in Bucb a wish." A little after 
this, I suw the muddy [Miople make such rending of 
him, that oven now I praiso and tliank (rod for it. 
All cried; "At Filippo Argent! !"* Tho passionate 

Che qui stanumo come porci ia brogo, 
Di se laaciondo orribili diepregi ! 

Ed io : Maestro, molto sarei vago 
Di vederlo attttfare in quests broda, 
Prima che noi uscissimo del logo, 

Ed egli a me ; Avanti che la proda 
Ti si lasci vethr, tu saiai sado : 
Di tol disio converrk che to goda. 

Dopo ci6 poco, vidi qiiello strazio 
Far di costni alio fiingose gcnti, 
Che Dio ancor ne lodo e no ringrnzio. 

Tntti gridavano : A Filippo Ai;gentL 


> *' Note hei^ that tlie nrine 
rulli iUclf iu muJ, bucaua; it u 
vilo and itnpnre nnd tutiilianB ; 
uDiI thot thoie tMtiilioiu men, 
irho hold evory one in disdain 
tad west with noatiila turned 
nil, uv involved in min, nercr* 
thplom leaving bcliinrl them grie- 
voQ> infun; ; ao thut Uioy ve 
puniihed unun^ the living, nnd 
iJw •Diong the d«ul" Oil. Com. 

* Olad to aee hii brutal rage 


II the 

vile mud, tliough infinitol; abov« 
curing for him pononnlljr. 

* FilipiH Argenti «u of tilA 
CsTiiRjiiili fuuily — > bnnah of 
the Adimui— and " wbi id rioh 
Uul he h»l the hone, on which . 
he naed to rlilp, ihod with Silvar I 
{Argnto) ; and bom thi* he ile- I 
nved fail inmiuno. Ha wi 
man of largo nw. dark and dn- 
owf , uud of marvelluu> atmigth ; 


FloreDtine spirit turned with his teeth upon himself. 
Here we left him, bo that of him I tell oo more. 

But in my enrs a wailing smote me, whereat 
I bent my eyes' intently forwards. And the kind 
Master said : " Now, Son, tha city that is named of 
Dis draws nigh, with its grave citizens, with ita 
great company."' 

And I: "Master, ah-eady I discern its mosques, 
distinctly tliere within the valfey, red as if tliey had 
come out of fire." 

And to me he said : " The eternal fire, wliich 
causes them to glow withiu, shows them rod, as thou 
seest, in this low^ Hell." 

Lo Fioientino spirito bizzarro 

In ec medesmo m volgea co' dcnli. 
Quivi il laaciammo, che piii uon ne nairo : 

Wa negli orecchi mi pcrcosao im duolo, 65 

Per ch' io avanti intento V occhio abarro. 
E il buon Maestro disse : Omai, figliuolo, 

S' approasa la cittii che ha nome Dite, 

Co' gravi cittadin, col grande stuolo. 
Ed io : Maestro, gill h sue moschite 70 

I^ entro certo nella valle ccrno 

Vetmiglie, como so di fuoco uacite 
Fosaero. Ed ei mi disse : D foco etemo, 

Ch' entro le afibca, le dimostra rosse, 

Como tu vodi in i^nesto basso inferno. 75 

and bqviul kU othen oholeiic, 
«Tiai on tlie (ligliteet ooouioiu. 
AuJ eieopt thi>, theio i* do men- 
titm of an; thing that he did. " 
BoetaeeSa Coia. S«(i also Dccaia. 
C. U. Nov. S. 

■ Lit. : "I unbar mj eye," ic. 

• Or "he»»y" with gmit (cauto 
vi. 9fl) ; uid Ter; tnmieroaa. 

* "And WB ise it hare with tho 
eye, when imitha he»t their iron 
rightly 1 for the rednoH nhews 

Wo now aiTived in the deep fosses, -which moat 
that joylesa city. The walla seemed to me as if 
thoy were of iron. Not before making a, long cir- 
cuit, did we come to u place where the boatman 
loudly cried to us : "Go out : here is the eutrance." 
Above die gates I saw more than a thousand spirits, 
ramed from Heaven,' who angrOy exclaimed : " Who 
is tliat, who, without death, goes thi-ongli the king- 
dom of the dead?" 

And my sngc Master made a sign of wisliing to 
speak with them in secret Then thoy somewhat shut 

Noi pur giugnemmo denti'o all' alte foese, 

Cho vallau quella terra sconsokta : 

Le muia mi porea, che ferro fosae. 
Non Benza prima far grande aggirata, 

Venimmo in parte, dove il uuccliier, forte, 80 

ITscitB, ci griilfi ; tiui b V cntrata. 
lo vidi pifi di mille in sulle porte 

Dal ciel piovuti, che atiMosamento 

Dicean : Chi 6 cestui, che senia morte 
Ya per lo regno della morta geut« 1 89 

E il savio mio Maestro fece segno 

Pi voler lor parlor scgrotaiuentti. 
Allor chiusero on poco il gran diedegao, 

thst there ii fire And u here- 
tical sinners ore here pimubeid in 
the floHh with firo ; so in Hell Km 
thej with etenwl fire pimiiheil in 
«ul." Ott, Com. I*w, or deep 
Hell ; sailed the "bottom" (wnto 
Tj. 8G) 1 thH " bottom of the dii. 
null iholL" Ciinto ii. 16, The 
whole of it ii cKcupied hj the 

Cit; to which the Pooti ue mnr 
B|ii>roBcldng. The uiiper Hell 
cooniitB of the Fire Circles which 
the7 have slreadf puwd. la 
euihi iL IS, &c. this cliviBon of 
HeU Till be more fullj expUinea 
b; the Poet hiniwlf. 
1 Asgeli fallen from Hetrea. 

ap their great disdain, and said : " Come tliou alone ; 
and let that one go, who has entered so daringly 
into this kingdom. Let him return alone his foolish 
way : try, if he can ; for thou slialt stay hero, that 
haat escorted liira through so dark a country," 

Judge, Reader, if I was discouraged at tlie sound 
of the accursed words ; for I believed not that I 
erer should return by it " my lovod Guide, who 
more than seven times hast restored mo to safety,' 
and rescued from deep peril that stood before me, 
leave me not bo undone," I said : " and if to go {ar- 
tier be denied us, let us retrace our steps together 

E diflser ; Tien tn Holo, e quei sen vada, 

Che si ardito entrii per questo regno : 90 

Sol ai ritomi per In foUo etmda : 
Provi fie ea ; cliJ tu qui riinarrai, 
Che scorto 1' hai per si bouk contmda. 

Fenea, Letter, s' io mi discoufortid 

Xol suon delle parole malodette : 96 

Ch' io non ciedetti litomaici mat 

caro Duca mio, che piti di sette 
Yolt« m' hai sicnrtk lenduta, e tratto 
D' alto periglio che incontra mi stette, 

Kon mi lasciar, diss* io, cosl disfatto : 100 

E se r andar pi)i oltre c' fe negato, 
Eitroviam 1' onue nostre insieme latto. 

' Ut.: "Halt given boekufety [ punfoU; leekiiie, as Boma oom- 

to me." The eipreMion "mote meotntora have done, what sovcn 

than aeTeii times ii put (ur anf dangen these wnild be from which 

indefinite nnmbcr." Boccae. Cora, Dante hod b«en delirered bj his 

1 Uun i* na neoMatt; toe 1 Ouide. 

90 EiTERHO. c 

And that Lord, who had led mo thither, said to 
me : " Fear not ; for our passage iioue can take from 
us: by Such has it been given to us.' But thou, 
wait here for me ; aud comfort aud feed thy wearied 
spirit with good hojw; for 1 will uot forsake thee 
iu the low world." 

Tliiis Uie gentle Father goes, aud leaves me here. 
And I remaiu in doubt ; for yes and no contend 
within my head. I could not hear that which he 
offered to them. But he had not long stood with 
tliem, when tliey all, I'ying with one another, rushed 
in again. ^ These our adversaries closed the gates on 
tho breast of my Master, who remained without ; EUid 

E quel Signer, che 11 m' avea menato, 

Mi diase r Nob temer, chu il nostro paBso 

Kon ci piifi torro alcun : da tal n' e Jato. 105 

Ma qui m' attondi ; e lo epirito laeao 

Couforta e ciba di speronza buona, 

Ch' lo uou ti laeccrii ncl mondo basso. 
Coel sen va, e quivi m' abbandona 

Lo dolce padre, ed io riniango in fi>rse ; 1 10 

Ch6 il si, e il no nel capo mi tcnuona. 
TJdir non potei quello cbe a lor jwrse : 

Ma ei non stette ]k con easi guori, 

Che ciascun dentro a pruova si ricorse. 
Chiuaer le porte quei noatri awarBBii 115 ' 

Xol potto ul mio Signor, cbe faor rimaaa, 

E rivolseai a me con posai tori. 

' By inch high Butbority, f. t | » Aprtiova. " OeTtatun." Or, 
\>j CuloitUl Wudunu Cuito iL tryuig wba conld get in finb 
p. 17, JM I Blind with TMgft. 




WSTO vin. INFERNO. 91 

turned to me with slow steps. He had his eyes upon 
the grotmtl, and his eyebrows shoru of all boldness, 
and said widi sighs : " Who hath denied me the 
doleful bouses ?'" And to mo ho said : " Tliou, be 
not dismayed, thougli I get angry ; for I will master 
the trial, whatever be contrived withiji for hindrance. 
This insolence of theirs is nothing new ; for they 
shewed it onee at a less secret gate, which still is 
foiind unbarred. Ovor it thou sawest the dead in- 
scription.^ And already, on this side of it, cornea 
down the steep, passing tlie circles without escort, 
One by whom the cits' shall be opened to ua."^ 
Gli QCchi alia term, e le ciglia avea rase 
D' ogni baldania, e dicea no' aospiri : 
Chi m' bu negate le dolenti easel 120 

Ed a. me diase : Tu, percli' io in' adiri, 
Non abigottir, ch' io vincerfi la pruova, 
Qnol ch' alia difension deiitro s' aggiri. 
Qaesta lor tmcotanza nun It nuuva, 

Ch6 gii 1' usaro a men segreta porta, 125 

La quol senza ecrramo oiicor si trova. 
Sovr* eae& vedestii In ecritta morta : 
E gii di qua da lei disconde 1' erta, 
Fossando per li cendii eenza ecorta 
Tal, cho pet lui no fia la term aperta. 130 

;it forlana 
I In ptUriam rtditvt. Ma. 

* Tha gate of cattaaoe, over 
tiah it aeen tlia dark inacrip- 
OD. Tirgil teUti Duite that tLu 
mutu oppoHKl ibe entcaooe of 
Clfriit tnto HelL In the csiTioe 

12T. Veilatil, vedoiti to. 

of Eluter ere ["mUmlo wnto") 
ore tbeie vorUi ; Sodie porta* 
fliortHi, ci Krai partttr Salvator 
noMler durtipU. 

'lit.: "Suuli, that bj him 
the cil; ahull be opened to us." 
Tlie Angel who u ooming. 


Dante grows pale with fear when he sees his Guide come back 
from the gate, repulsed by the Demons, and disturbed in 
countenance. Yirgil endeavours to encourage him, but in 
perplexed and broken words, which only increase his fear. 
They cannot enter the City of Lucifer in their own strength. 
The three Furies suddenly appear, and 'threaten Dante with 
the head of Medusa. Virgil bids him turn round ; and screens 
him from the sight of it The Angel, whom Yirgil has been 
expecting, comes across the angry marsh ; puts all the Demons 
to flight, and opens the gates. The Poets then go in, without 
any opposition ; and they find a wide plain, all covered with 
burning sepulchres. It is the Sixth Circle ; and in the sepul- 
chres are punished the Heretics, with all their followers, of 
every sect. The Poets turn to the right hand, and go on be- 
tween the flaming tombs and the high walls of the city. 





That colour which cowardice painted on my 
face, when I saw my Guide turn back, repressed 
in him more quickly his new colour.^ He stopped 
attentive, like one who listens; for his eye could 
not lead him far, through the black air and the 
dense fog. " Yet it behoves us to gain this bat- 
tle," he began. " If not .... such help was offered 
to us.* Oh ! how long to me it seems till some one' 
come I" 

Quel color che vilt^ di fuor mi pinse, 
Veggendo 11 Duca mio tomare in volta, 
Piii tosto dentro il suo nuovo ristrinse. 

Attento si fenn6, com* uom che ascolta ; 

Cli^ r occhio nol potea menare a lunga 5 

Per i' aer nero, e per la nebbia folta. 

Pure a noi converrii vincer la punga, 
Cominci6 ei : se non,..tal ne s* offerse. 
Oh quanto tarda a me ch' altri qui giunga ! 

7. Punffo, pugna ; as venga, vegna, &c. 

* The palenesa "which cow- 
ardice painted outwardly on me/' 
made my Guide, in order to re- 
store my courage, "more quickly 
repress within him the new co- 
lour," which that repulse of the 
Demons had given him. Pinu 
also means " thrust, or mged.^ 

' Lit. : " Such (». e. Beatrice, or 
Divine Wisdom) offered herself to 
us.'* If we arc not to gain the 
hattle — but that is impossible, 
considering the help that has been 
promised to us. 

' Altri, some higher Power. 
See verse Sl ; and note 1st, p. 54. 


I saw well how he covered tlie bcgiiming' with 
^le otlier that camo after, which wore words differ- 
Bjg^' from tlie first. But Dot the less his language 
rgave me fear ; for perhaps I drew Ids hroken speech 
I to a worse meaning than he lield. " Into this bot- 
tom of the dreary sliell,' does any ever descend from 
I the first degree, whose onJy punislinient is hope cut 

This question I made, and he replied to me : 

'* Rarely it occurs that any of ua makes this journey 

[i on which I go. It is true, that once before I was 

lo viiJi l»en, si com' ei ricoperae 
Lo cominciar con 1' altro, elm poi venne, 
Cho fur parole alle prime diveiBe. 

Ma nondimen paum il suo dir dienne, 
Peroh' io traeva la parola tronca 
Forse a peggior soiitenzia, ch' ei non teniie. 

In qnesto fomio della trista conca 
Siscende mai olciui del primo griulo, 
Che sol per pena ha la sperauxa cioncal 

Quests qaeetion fee' io ; o quel : Di tado 
Incontra, mi rispose, clie di nui 
Faccia il cammino akiin per quale iu vado. 

Vero h che altra fiata (juaggiii fiii 

' The begiiuung ; "U uot"— 
I with the 1 "8qcbhelp,''&a. 

' " Hbell, from tlio reMnihliinoB 

20. Nui, . 

below groSBnarrosror," Borcaccio 
Com. Dante, in his terror, puts 
tluH m<li[«ctquGiti(m toaKUrtBUi 
whetber Vii^l has been dowa 
froiD Umbo (c. ir. 41'S) betoro, 
and knotVB tbe vinj. 

down hercj conjured by that fell Erichtho,' who re- 
called the shadows to their bodies. My flesh had 
been but sliort timo divested of me, when she made 
me enter within that wall, to draw out a spirit from 
the Circle of Judas.' That is the lowest place, and 
the most dark, and fiirtliest from the Heaven," which 
encircles all. Well do I know the way ; so reassure 
thyself. Thia marsh, which breathes the mighty- 
stench, all round begirds the doleful city, where we 
eannot now enter without anger." 

And more he said : but I have it not in memory ; 

Congiurato da quella Eriton cruda, 
Che richiomava 1' ombre a' corpi aui. 

Di pDco era di me la carue nuda, 25 

Ch' ella mi fecc entrar dcntro a quel muro, 
Pet trame un spirto del cei«hio di Giuda. 

Quell' tt il pill basso loco, o il pih. oecura, 
E il pii Ionian dal Ciel che tutto giro : 
Ben so il cammin ; per6 ti fa securo. 30 

Questa paludo, che il gran puzzo spira, 
Cingo d" intomo la cittfi dolcnto, 
tr noD potemo entrare omai senz' ira. 

Ed altro disee, ma uon 1' ho a mente ; 

' Erichtho, ft fimoui H>ro«rea 
of Thesaaly. Sea Locan, vl fi08, 
&0. And 0\-id : Tt/w: menUt in- 
ofit, Mt gnam furiaiit EridUho 
ImptttU. Epiit. Sappho Phaoni, 
V. 138. VattJMii famom fail 
ThifiUa mtUier; ni/ui noin«n 
hie pro qvdtiiet ttntfled pnnUur. 
Oilipin. Cnm. Orid. Duite hvra 
lUM the name of Erichtliii in the 

tame general Miiie ; and protnbljr 

toket tame old tradition of tha 
middle «£« reipeotiiig Vii|^ vho 
was tboucht to have boon a gnat 

* The i?iiuieA?a, where tha wont 
kinil of traitora are planed. Vide 
canto uiiv. IIT, 

' The Empyreal Heaven. 


for my eyo luiJ <lra\m mc wholly to the high tower 
with glowing siimmit, where all at once I saw erect 
three Hellish Furies, stained with blood; who had 
the limbs and attitude of women, and wero girt with 
greenest hydras. For hair, tliey had little serpents 
and cerastes,' wherewith their horrid temples were 

And he, knowing well the handmaids of the 
Queen* of everlasting lamentation, said to me : 
' Mark the Beree Erynnis 1 This is Megiera on 
the left hand ; she, that weopa upon the right, is 

Perocchft 1' occhio m' avea tutto tratto 
Vtr r nlta torre alia ciraa rovente, 

(Jve in un jiunto viJi dritte ratio 
Tre furio infenial di ennguo tint*, 
Che membra fonimiiiili aveano, cd atto; 

E con iilre yerdisaimB eran cinte : 
Setpentelli e cerasle avean per crine, 
Onde le fiere tempie eraa awinte. 

E qwei, che ben conohbe le moschine 
Delia Kegina doll' eteroo pianto, 
Guutdo, mi disse, lo fcroci Erine. 

Qneeta e Megera dal eiuistto canto : 

(Jnella, che piange dol destro, 6 Alotto : 


43. artKAiae,! 

~Oniwta liornM. B;4nu, wul 
And IH^aH ; not w thiokiwuin'd 

IMrcipt with blood of Qurgon." 
ML (L 67S, ke. TbeFuiics 

■ye, (Umigelle. 

are plMed liere ae ctnblfiaa of 
rebellion aguiiiBt God, and iu rc- 

' ProwrpiiiB. See Par, Lout, 
iv, 209, 


Alecto. Tesiplione is in Uie nikldlo." And there- 
witli he was silent. 

With her claws each was rending her breast ; 
they were smiting tliemselves with t]ieir palms, and 
crying so loudly, that I pressed close to tlie Poet 
for fear. " Let Medusa come, tliat we may eJiange 
him into atone,"' they all cried, looking downwards. 
" Badly did we avenge the assault of Theseus."' 

" Turn thee backwards, and keep thy eyes closed; 
for if the Gorgon shew herself, and thou shonldst 
seo her, there would be no returning uj> again." 
Thns said tho Master, and ho himself turned me, 
and tmsted not to my hands, but closed me also 

Tesifone b nol mezzo : e tacqne a tonto. • 
Coll' iingbie si fendea ciascuna il petto ; 

Batteanei a pakne, Q gridsvon b) alto, 50 

Ch' io mi atrinsi al Poeta per soapetto. 
Tenga Medusa, al il farem di amalto : 

Gridavan tutte riguardando in giuso : 

Mai not vengiammo in Tesoo V nAsoIto, 
Volgiti indictro, e tion lo viso L-hiuao ; 65 

Ch(! so il Gorgon si mostta, e tu il vedesai, 

Nulla earehbe del tomar niM suso. 
Cos) disee il Maestro ; ed cgli steesi 

Mi Tolse, e non si teniiu alls mie mnni, 

Che con le sue aiicor non mi c " 

na SIml, ttasa 

'Lit.: "Makohiiu of euunel," 
ohukge him into QtameL 

■ Alliuian to tliB <l«Meat of 
T!ie*en* aoil riritliooa into Bell ; 
iiod tho eacuiio uf TbeiiDiu, by tdd 

; &s tlli (or ello, cgli. 

of Henuln. Othei nartaU *«n- 

SiiUl, atrmumgue teMiit Inftlix 

Thaitai {.fin. vi. 617) docs not 
■cem vcageuncc mfficient. 

with Lis own. ye, who have sane intellects, mark 
the doctrine, which eoncoals itself beneath the veil 
of the strange versos !' 

And now there came, npon the turbid wares, a 
crash of fcarfiJ sound, at whicli tho sliorcs botli trem- 
bled: a sonnd as of a wind, impetuous for tho adverse 
heat*,* which smites the forest witliout any stay; 
shatters off tlie boughs, beats down, and sweeps 

O voi, cho aveto gl' intellatti sani, 
Mirate la dottrina, che e' aaconde 
Sotto il vdame degU vyrai stranl 

E gik Tenia en per le torbid' onde 
Vn fracasso d' un euon pien di spavento, C5 

Per cui tremavano ambedue lo spondu ; 

Son altrbienti fetto clie d' un vento 
Impotuoao per gli avverai ardori, 
Cho fior la selva eenza alcuu rattento; 

Li tanii xcluanta, abbatte, e porta fuori : 70 

' The very wgbt of lurdemHl 
rabolliaD sgaiiut the Almightj— 
•gMut tbs Source of aH light, 
uul peace, >nd joy— and iU eter- 
nal ooUMilDencei, i> too teiribla ; 
ia « thing not to be renlueil or 
codntcd without Ditidc asiiit- 
MMF. Oc>miiiu« the tear tlimt 
conioi over Duite, botoir uiJ 
ktter entoring the orper put of 
Hall, iu i^tot 3d, 3<t, uid 4th. 

A onTsfnl perusal of what the 
idd and nnr cammentatcin uy 

> ; fitre in oanto i. Kl, 

d I the clear conriDtion that it a not 
worth rvpeatiug. itoadsti, arho 
cliooao to wtiafy thenueliei, may 
eonnilt BocciLooiu, tho Ottioio, 
IdJidino, Telutelio, kc. ; and, 
uuougBt the mora iniHitirn, Volpi, 
Venturi, Louibordi, *o. Tho Cu- 
mnHuAnalilim of Rowetti, tho" 
alirayi ooute imcl ingoDioua, ill far 
too wild uid abaonl for any k- 
rioui reader of Dante. 

' Ruahing towanls the rarer, 
hratcil sir, u if it were a great 


away : dusty in front, it goes superb, and m&kos die 
wild beasts and the sbepberds flee. 

He loosed my eyes, and said : " Now turn thy 
nerve of vision ou that ancient foain, there where the 
smoke ia harshest"' 

As frogs, before their enemy tlie aerpent, run 
all asunder through the water, till each squats' upou 
the bottom ; bo I saw more than & thousand ruined 
lipirits flee before one, who passed the Stygian ferry 
with soles unwet* Ho waved that gross air from his 
countenance, often moving liia left fumd before Aim; 
and only of tliat trouble seemed ho weary. Well 

Dinamj polveroso va superbo, 

E fii fuggir 1b fiere e li paatori 
Gli occhi mi eciolse, e (lisae : Or drizza il iterbo 

Del viao su per quella achiuma aatica, 

Per indi ove quel fiunmo i pid acecbo. 75 

Como le lane imianzi alia nimica 

Biscia per 1' acqua si dilfguan tutte. 

Fin cb' alia tvna ciascuim s' abbica j 
Yid' lo piii di mille anime distrutte 

Fu^ir cosl diuiinzi ail un, cho al passo 80 

Faaaava Stige coUq pianto asciutte. 
Dal volto riiimvoa quuU' aer grasso, 

M enaudo la sinistra innanzi spesao ; 

E sol Ji quell' angoseia parea lasso. 

I Ot rlcDHeat : wbere tha otU 
cfiiitM are gutting out of aigbt. 

* " Mtkdi • henii uf iteslf," or 
gathcn it«clf np, on the bottom. 

ago"— by vbieh VirgU anrl Dunto 
hsvo juit ooine, and at which tha 


a lit.: 

■piiita ara ferried ( 
pAiaing with feet dry," < 
ing with angel wingi I 

nTTEBNO. 101 

3id I perceive thitt he was a Messenger of Heaven ; 
ind I turned to the Master. And be made a sign 
that I should aland ({uiet, and bow down to him. 
Ah, how full ho aeemed to rae of indignation ! Ho 
teaohed tlio gate, an<l with a wand opened it; for 
D it there was no reHi^tance. 

" outcasts of Heaven I race despised I" began 
ie, npon tlie horrid tlireshold. " Why dwells this 
insolence in you ? Why spiu-n ye at that Will,' 
whose object never can be frustrated, and which 
often has increased yom- pain ? AVhat profits it to 
tmtt against tlie Fates ? Your Cerberus, if ye re- 
Ben m' Bccorei cli' egU era del Ciel tae«BO, 85 
E volsinii al Maestro : e quei fe' eogao, 
Ch' io stessi cheto, cd inchina^si mX esso. 
Abi qnonto mi pama pien di diedegno ! 
Giunse alia porta, e con una verghetta 
L' aperse, chb non v" ebhe alcuii riteyno. 
caeoiiiti del ciel, gente dispetta, 
Cominciji egli in bu 1' orribU eoglia, 
Ond' sBta oltracotanza in voi a" ullcttal 
Feichfi ricalcitrate a quella vogUo, 

A cui non puote U fin mai oaScr mozzo, 
E die piil volte v" ha cresciuta dugUa ) 
Che jpova nelle Fata dar di cozzol 
Ceibero vostro, se bon vi ricorda, 

SQ. JSoao, mozulo, out off. 

"Hie Angel avoidi Uong the I imd their load barking Corbenw, 

u of Ood in ulilreuing tbe in tha versH thatfoUov, ai being 

nnd take* tbeir Fats* I tlio on]; tcrmt BE for them. 

102 IKTERSO, CA-frO ii. 

member, sHU bears Iiis chin aud Iiis tLroat peeled for 
doing so."' 

Then he returned by the filthy vraj, and spake 
no word to ua ;' but looked like ouo whom other 
care ni'ges and incites tJian that of those who stsnd 
before bim. And we moved our feet towards tJie 
city, secure after the sacred words. We entered 
into it without any strife. And I, who was de- 
sirous to behold the condition' whieli such a for- 
tress encloses, as soon as I was iii, sent my eyes 
around; and saw, on either hand, a spacious pWn 
fill! of sorrow and of evil torment 

N'e porta ancor pelato mento e il gozzo. 
Poi si rivolse per la stratla lonla, 100 

E non fo' motto a noi : ma fe' sembiante 

D' uomo, cui altra cura rtringa e mordo, 
Che quella di colui che gU b davanto. 

E noi movommo i piodi in ver la t«iTa, 

Sicuri appresso Itj parole Bante. lO.*! 

Centro v' entnunmo seiiza nlcuna guerra : 

Ed io, ch' ftvea di rignanlar disio 

La condizion che tal furtenza serra. 
Com' io fui dontro, 1' oechio intomo in\-io ; 

E TBggio ad ogni man grande campegna 110 

Plena di duolo e di tormonta rio. 


> AllBcling to the old fubU of 
Eeicslo, Had hla (ImggiiiG Cet- 
bem> witli the threefold ehuin. 
wbiah hu 1»ft it* touk : Tar- 
tanaia UU {SenuUi) nMnu ciur- 
tuiUm in innrla ptiivil, Ipntu a 

tolto rrgii traxagut tmnoXon. 

.Bn. vl 395. See tilio ^.« viii 

* Come to eieoate what hw 
been willed in HcaTen, and oot 
to piLrler with ui. 

' The Eonditiaii of IboM tluit 
ue within it. 


A3 at Aries, where the Ehone stagnntes, ns at 
Pola near the Quarraro gulf, which shuts up Italy 
aiid bathes Its confines, the sepulchres' make all the 
place tmeven ; so did tliey here on every side, only 
the manner here was bitterer. For amongst the 
tombs were scattered flaniea, wliereby tliey were 
made all over so glnwing-hot, that iron more Itot 
no craft requires. Their covers were all raised up ; 
and out of them prooouded moans bo grievous, that 
they seemed indeed Ou; moans of spirits sad and 

And I : " Master, what are these people who, 

81 come ad Arli, ove U Rodano stagna, 

SI com' a Fola preaso del Quamoro, 

Olie Italia uhiude e i auoi termini bagna, 
Fauno i sepolcri tutto il loco varo ; 115 

Cosl fecevan quivi d' ogni parte, 

Salvo cLe il modo v' era ]nti amaro; 
Ch& tni gli avelli fianmie erano aparte, 

Per le quali enm ai del tutto accesi, 

Ch« forro jiiii non chiede verun' arte. 120 

Tutli gli lor ooperchi eran soapesi, 

E fuor n' useivan ^ duii lamenti, 

Che ben pareaa di miauri e d' offesi. 
Ed io : Maestro, qiiai sou quelle gonti, 

UB. Faro, viirio, diacgimlp. 

Al Alio, wbere the Rhono : meroua moiiDdt, which are mp- 

re the sen; and ut piueil to bavo been icpnlchras. 

I PoU, u oit; of UlriA, neu the The old legends reipectuig theoi 

f gnlf of CJmuiwn), thiire are nu- I are now riuite obiolele. 

104 INFERNO. CAarro n. 

buried within tliose chests/ make themselves heard 
by their painfiil sighs?" 

And he to me : " These are the Arch-heretics 
with their followers of every sect ; and much more, 
than thou thinkest, the tombs are laden. Like with 
like is buried here; and the monuments are more 
and less hot" 

Then, after turning to the right hand, we passed 
between the tortures and the high battlements. 

Che seppellite dentro da quell' arche 125 

Si fan sentir coi sospiri dolenti? 
Ed egli a me : Qui son gli eresiarche 

Co' lor seguaci d' ogni setta, e molto 

Pill che non credi, son le tombe carche. 
Simile qui con simile e sepolto : 130 

E i monimenti son piii, e men caldL 

E poi ch' alia man destra si fu v61to, 
Passammo tra i martin e gli alti spaldL 

' Arche^ arks, chests, coffers. 
The tenn area is properly applied 

which the bodies are deposited, 
and which, with its lid, resemblet 

to the part of a monument in I a chest. 


The Poets go on, close bj the wall of the city, with the fiery 
tombs on their left; and Dante, observing that the lids of 
theee are all open, inquires if it would be possible to see the 
spirits contained in them. Virgil, understanding the full im- 
port and object of his question, tells him that the Epicurean 
Heretics are all buried in the part through which they are 
then passing ; and that he will therefore soon have his wish 
gratified. Whilst they are speaking, the soul of Farinata, the 
great Ohibelline chief, of whom Dante has been thinking, 
addresses him from one of the sepulchres. Farinata was the 
father-in-law of Guido Cavalcanti, Dante's most intimate 
friend ; and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti, the father of Guido, 
rises up in the same sepulchre, when he hears the living voice, 
and looks round to see if his son is there. Amongst other 
things, Farinata foretells the duration of Dante's exile ; and 
explains to him how the spirits in Hell have of themselves 
no knowledge concerning events that are actually passing on 
earth, but only of things distant, either in the past or the 


Now by a narrow patli, between tlie oity-wall 
and tho torments, my Master goes on, and I behind 
him.' " Virtue supreme I wlio through the im- 
pious circles thus wheeloat me, as it pleases thee," 
I began ; " speak to me, and satisfy my wishes. 
Might those people, who lie witliiu the sepulchres, 
be seen ? Tlie covers all are rused, and none keeps 

And he to me: " All sliall be closed up, when, 
from Jehosaphat,* they retm-n here with the bodies 

Ora sen VR per uno atretto calle, 
Tra il muro della terra e li niartlri, 
Lo mici Maestro, ed io dopo h spalle. 

virtii Bomma, che per gli ouipi giri 
Mi Tolvi, cominciai, oorae a te place ; S 

Poilomi, c soddisfamnii a.' miei desiri. 

La gente, che per li aepolcri giace, 
Fotiebbesi vederl giii son levati 
Tutti i coperchi, e nefiaun guardia face. 

Ed egli a me : Tutti saran seirati, 10 

Quando di loaapLat qui tomeranno 

' Lit.: "Behind Ms dhoulileni. 

■ From tho viHty of Ji-hoai 
fihht, where, iteuordinK to the g: 
nenil opmiun of tbat time, tk 
Iiut jud£iDent ii to be held. " 
win nlM gather all nationi, an 

will 11 

g thuiu do» 

I vidley of Jehosaphftt, uid tdO 

|ilei4 with them there 

Let the hesthoD be swakened, and 
oouie up to the ville; of Jshoai- 
plut : for tbero will I lit (o judee 
ill tbe heathen niiuul about." 
Jvtl iu. 2, 12. 



which they have left above. In tluB part are en- 
tombed witli Epicnnis all his followers, who make 
the soul die with the body. Tlierefore to the ques- 
tion, which thou a&kest me, thou shall soon have 
satisfaction here within ; and also to the wish' which 
tlioa lioldest secret fi-om me." 

And I : " Kind Guide, I do not keep mj heart 
concealed fi'om thee, except for brevity of speech, 
to wliidi thou hast ere now* disposed me." 

*' O Tuscan I who through the ci^ of fire goest 
alive, speaking thus decorously ; may it please theo 

Coi coTpi, che lassu lianno losciatL 

Sao cimitero da queata parte liauuo 
Con Epicure tutti i suoi segunci, 
Che 1' anima col coqw morta faimo. 

Tejii alia dimarttla che mi faci 

Quinci eutro soddisiatto sami toato, 
E al disio ancor, cho tn mi taci. 

Ed io : Bunn Duca, non tegno nascosto 
A t« mio cor, bp non per dicer poco ; 
£ tu m' liai iton pur ora a ci6 disposto. 

Tosco, cite per la cittjb del foco 
Vivo ten vai coal parlaudo onesto, 
Piacciati di ristare in questo loco. 

> Pratttbly the wub to see Fa- 
rinaU. Cuito vl 70, ke. DiiDto 
baa now miclicil Uic " bottiim," 
«bet« CiMW told him he miyht 
finj FniiwtB ; uiil is romindei) of 
tliia by bforing Viigil qieaJf of 
EpiouTu See nute, p. 108. 

* Lit. : "Not only now ;" Dot 
□nly b; thjr siample unci ailmoni- 
tiuua here (oanto iii. 61, 7G, and 
is. 8C), but ttl«i by the old and 
wiU-koown brevity of thy style, 
" but tbov diqxMsd im to (jiciik 

108 lypEBNo. 

to stop in this plaeo. Thy speech clearly shews ihee 
a native of that noble country, which perhaps I vexed 
too much." Suddenly tliis sound issued from one of 
the ehestSj whereat in fear I drew a little closer to 
my Guide. 

And he said to me : " Turn thee round. WTiat 
art thou doing ? Lo there Farmnta !' who has raised 
himself erect. From the girdle upwards thou shall 
see him all." 

Already I had fixed my look on hia : and he 
rose upright with hreaat and couuteuanoe, as if be 

La tnia loqueln ti & uumifesto 
Di quella nabil putrla natio, 
Alia qua! furse fui troppa moleata 

Subitamcnte questo auono usclo 

D' una deir arche : peri^i m' occostai, 
Temendo, uu poco piii al Duca mio. 

Ed ei mi disae : Volgiti : che fai t 
Tedi lii i'arinata, che a' k diitto : 
Dalla cintola in hu tutto il vedrai. 

lo avea gi^ il mio viso nel buo litto; 
Ed ei s' ergea col petto e colla fronte, 


> Fuia&t« ilugli tHierti, ik fun- 
oiu leader of the GhibcUincs in 
tlie time ol Froclcnck II. and of 
Muifred, Tke fuail; oF the 
Dberti mi tme of Iba oitlmt uiil 
niDit poverEul in Floreucg. In 
tliD Chroniclei of Matetpini, Til- 
Luii, kc. there U frequent men- 
tion inftdo of FHriniita And liii 
deedXkUilujriiigs. Duuig, cleiir- 

■ightol, pradeat, ni 
ho Btood above >1I the Other Flo- 
rentincB of hia time ; and tbo 
nune he left aeemi to have pro- 
duoed a decii impreedoi) upon 
DaDt«, Boccoodio, Ltuidioi, anil 
othen, tell us thnt be denied the 
imtuortality of tbo mul ; and be- 
longed to the " sect of the Bpi- 



.«um I. INFERNO. 


entertained great scom of HelL And the bold and ^| 

ready lianda of my Guide pushed me amongst 

the H 

sepiOturcs to hira, saying : " Let thy words be ni 




Ab soon as I was at the foot of his tomb, 

l,e ■ 

Jooked at mo a little; and then, almost contemptn- ^| 

onsly, he asked me : " Who were thy ancestors?' 


I, being desirous to obey, eorcealed it not ; 

but ■ 

opened the whole to him : whereupon ho raised his ^M 

browa a little. Then he said : " Fiercely adverse | 

were they to me, and to my progenitors, and to 

my ■ 

party; so that twice I scattered' them." 


" If they were driven forth, they returned fivam H 

Come BveBse lo Inferno in gran dtspitto : 

E 1b animose man del Duca e prcinte 

Mi pijiaer tra le sejjoltiu^ a lui, 

Dic«ii<io : Le paroiu tue Bicn coat«. 

ToGto che al pic ilelk sua toiuba fui, 


Guardommi un poco, e poi quasi adognoso 

>U dimandfi ; Chi fur li maggior tui 1 

lo, ch' eta d' ubbedir diBiiIeroso, 

Non gliel colai, ma tatto glicl' apersi ; 

Olid' ei hvh le ciglia im poco in aoso ; 


Poi diase : Fieromente fiiro awerai 

A me ed a' miei primi, ed a mJa parte, 

SI cli» per due fiato gli diapersl 

S' ei fur cacciati, ei tomar d' ogni parte, 

3B. Dhpillo. diipotto. 10, SoiB, luia. 

■ Or :" Let thy wordo be cleai, 1 ' In the jeai 124S ; tail 






every qiiai-t«r, both times," I answered Uim. 

"But 1 

yours have not riglitlj learnt that art" 


Then, beside him, there rose a shadow 

visible H 

to the chin.' It had raised itself, I thiiik, upon ita | 

kiiees. It looked aromid me, as if it had a 

wish to ^1 

see whether some one were with me. But when H 

all its expectation was quenched, it said, weeping : H 

" If tlirough this blind prison thou goest by height | 

of genius, where b my son? And why is 

he not ■ 

with thee ?" 


And I to him : "Of myself I come not He, that | 

waits yondor, leads mo tlu-ough this place; 


[jerhaps thy Guido' held in disdain." 

Rispoai Lo lui, r una e 1' altta fiata ; 


Ma i Toatri non appreser hen quoH' arte. 

TJa' ombra liuigo ijuasta infino al mento : 

Credo che s' era inginocchion levata. 

S'intomu mi guards, come tolento 


Avesse di veder e' altti era mcco ; 

Ma poi che il sospicar fu tutto aponto, 

Fiangendo disse : Se per ijaeBta uicco 

Carcere vai per ultezza d' iiigeguo. 

Mio figlio ov' 6T e poreh6 non b tecoT 


Ed io a lui : Da me stesso uoii vuguo : 

Colui, che attends Ih, per qui mi meita, 

Fotse oui Gaido Tostro ebbe a disdegno. 

vioV.dtnmtothechiD." Thi> u i-artj. af^ap.B.106, 


tli«iluMleofCuvmlcuitsde-C».l. < Guido CftrUsuiti, o«Ubnted 

ouitf,tlM&ther<>rDuit«-.frieud u a poet <ui<l pUloupUar in thoM ^ 


Already Iiis words and the manner of his piin- 
Isliiiient had read his name to me. Hence my an- 

r was BO fiUI. Rising instantly erect, lie cried : 
" How saidst thon ? He had?' Lives he not atill? 
Does not tho sweet light' strike his eyes?" When 
he perceived that I made some delay in answering, 
Bnpine he fell again, and shewed himself no more. 

Bat that other, magnanimous, at whose desire I 

Le sue parole, e il modo della petia 
M' avBvan di eostui gia letto il nomo : 
Perib fu la risposta cost pieQa. 

Di subito drizzato gridi ; Come 

Diceflti ; egli ebbo ) noa viy" egli ancora 
Hon fiere gli occhi suoi lo dolce lome ! 

Quando e' accorae d' alcuna dimora 
Ch' io laceva dinanzi alia risposta, 
Supin ricadde, e pii non parve fuora. 

Ma quell' altro mi^nonimo, a cui poi<ta 

69. Fiere, furuce. 

" Smea, md now eliiefly remarkable 

for hu iatimato fnenilship witli 

Duilo, which continusd till the 

tino of hi> death, in December 

LUOO. He nurriad the daughter 

Kw Fariiuto in 1386 {Villani, TiL 

™1B) 1 M thit he miut hnve been 

mucli older thim Dante, who wiu 

b«ni in 1366. He took a lealoiu 

uiit violent ahure in the pnrty- 

uf the 

^_ rm 

of those tliat Here baniihed 
n Dante held the office of 
f Priw in 1300. Villani, 
i4iL 41, 42. In the Vita JTiumt 

73. Poula, istanin. 
(l>. 334) DaiitB upeak* of Gnido's 
aTersion to tlie Latin tongae. It 
miat have been either for that 
reason, or For hiii fooliah party- 
viulunee. with whicji Dante by 
no mennB eymputliiwd, that he 
li here «aiil to have held Tusil 
(Poet, or emblem of Wiadom) in 
diidain. SeTsral of big poemi 
are still eitnnt, 

' " He bn<t ;" ai of a thing part. 

• "Truly the tight is iweet, 
and a pleaumt thing it ii for 
tbe eyei to behold the smi." 
Ectlit. »L 7. 


liad stopped, changed not his aspect, nor moved hia 
neck, nor bent his side. "And if,'* continuing hia 
fonner words, he said, " they have learnt that art 
badly, it more torments me than thia bod. But tiio 
&ee of tlio Queen,' who reigns here, shall not be 
fifiy tuues rckiudled ere thou shalt know Uie hard- 
ness of that art.^ And so mayest thou ouce r«turu 
to the sweet world,* t*jll me why that [leople ia so 
fierce against my kindred in all its laws ?"* 

Hestato m' era, non muti> ospetto, 

K6 mosso collo, nb piegb sua costa, 75 

E 8B, contimiando al prime detto, 

£^11 han quell' arte, disae, male appresa, 
Ci6 mi tormenta piJi che questo letto. 

Ma non cinquanta volte fia racceea 

La faccia della donna, che qui rcgge, 80 

Cho tu saprai quauto quell' arte pesa. 

£ eo tu niai net dolce mondo legge, 
Dimmi, perclife quel popolo 6 si empio 
Incontro a' luici in cioscuna sua leggo 1 

82. JUggt, ristU ; from an obaolate rerb. 

' TnaVirvinit ofii Dutna. £u. 
Iv. S]l. rroieriaiie, Diana, 01 the 

' Not fifty moiitlu iiluU posi 
beforu tliuu know the wliole 
weight, or difficulty, of Ihol art 
at returning Irani exile. The 
Curdiiuil da Prato, whe lukd como 

mtke H !ut i 

■l»pt B< 

ciling tbo two fMtiana, quitted 
Florence DO the 4th of .lone, 1304. 
I'lllani, riii. Gfl. Aud, from tlml 

tiuie, the party with which Dante 
hod been banished lost all hope. 

' I adjure thee by thy iriili 
to return, tell us, ka. See iIm 

' ■' Whonavor any 
made for ncalling the eulea, the 
Uberti were alwoyi eioeplad." 

And the boaea of the family Wi 
taken out of tlieir tumba, and o 
into the Ariio. Ibid. 



^R-'x. INFKRSO. 113 

Whereat T to liim: *' The havoc, and the groat 

slanghter, wliicli dyed the Arbia red,' causes such 

orations in our temple."' 

And sighing, he shook his head ; then said : " In 

that I was not single ; nor -without cause, assuredly, 

shodd I have stirred with the otliers. But J was 

single t]iere, where aU consented to extirpate Flo- 

rence,' I alone mth open face defended her." 

Ond' io a Ini : Lo strazio e 11 grands scempio, 85 

Che fece 1' Arbia colorata in, 

Tale orazion fa far nel noatro tempio. 

?oi ch' ebbe sospirando il capo eeoEso ; 

A cii non fiii io sol, disse, ah certo 

Seiixa cogioQ sarel con gli altri mosso ; 90 

Ma fu' io sol colii, dove sofferto 

Fu per cioacuno di tone via Fiorenza, 

Colui ehe la difese a viso aperto. 

> At ths battle of MonUiXTti, 

■or the riTer Aibiu. wlucb took 

in a chomh a<l)oiiiing the Pfthwe 

pUo on Tuewlay the 4tli ot 

of the Priors. Omrions mrana 

September, 12130, naA nude that 

alao "pmyor." a* well ai "ora- 

day very meroonUe. The army 

tioD," or ipMoh 1 and maj hen 

be taken in cither nenie. 

thnr »llio^ luiioiuiting to mora 

'Lit.: "Whore by every one 

r t)wD thirty tboaauid foot and 

it -waB niffcrod (votitd) to take 

three thmuwid bo™, wu do- 

away Fbrenoe," Jic. A counoU 

frated th<ic«, uid trampled to 

of tho OhibeUiiieB WH» helil nt 

plsoetiby FaritiBta with a muoh 

EmiK>li, after the buttle of Moni- 

■naUer torn. 3fafup.cftp.ia7; 

aperti, In which it wa* propo«a 

that Florence ihould he dertroyert. 

* Th, Oooncil. were held in 

Farinata alone ojipogeil the men. 

the ohnreliee at Florence till the 

luro, an.l said : " It there were 

year 1381. Mi--chi.,v. lib. iL And 

no other hut hiniMlf. be would 

1^ ItmiT. An Imota myt that, evon 

defend it with >word in hUii), ai 

& M 


"Ah! BO mjiy thy seed sometime have roat," I 
prayed him, "solvo the knot wluch has here mvolved 
my judgment. It seems that you boo berorehand 
what time brings with it, if I rightly hear ; and have 
a different manner with tho present," 

" Like one who has imperfect vision, w© see the 
things," he said, " wliich ai'e remote from ub : flo 
much light tJio Supreme Ruler still gives to usl' 
When Uiey draw nigh, or are, our intellect re alto- 
gether void ;' and except what others bring us, we 

Deh se ripoai mai vostra Gemenza, 
Progai io lui, solvetemi quel nwJo, 
Che iiui ha inviluppata mia eent^nza. 

E' par che voi veggiate, ee ben odo, 

Dinaiui quel, che il t«nipo seco adduce, 
£ uel presente tenete altro mode. 

Noi veggiam come quei, che ha mala luce, 
Le coBe, diase, che ue sou lontano ; 
Cotanto ancor ne aplende il sommo Duce : 

Quando s' appressano, o bod, tutto h vano 
Kostro intelletto ; e, a' altri nol ci apportii, 

long BB there wm life in hii 
bodj." Tlie reat, "scBmij the 
maa the; hod to dool with, uid 
his nutburiiy, uid foUuwen, de- 
■iitcd. Andtliutourcitjesisped 
frutu nich fiU7, hj- the valaur 
of ODD dtiien." Malap, c 170; 
Viltani, viii 81. 

' Lit. : " So mush doe* the 
8ii|itBme Rnler atill tbinu U> Q«." 

' Thejr gee (liinga diituit, 

whether put or future : bat n< 
tiunga &t lisnd, or preient. Oe- 
DGT&l opiDion of the Fitthen. 

" Tho departed ipiriti know 
thingi) iiiist and to coiue ; 
■re ignoruit of tliingi pr«M 
AKuuattinao foreteUi whkt ihould 
hKppen unla Uljruet, ye% igan- 
rantly inqnirea whkt im beootne 
of hit own ■on." Biowiie, Ume 
burial, oup. iv. 

INFERNO. 11!) 

knov nothing of your liuman state. Thoroforo tlioii 
inaj-e^t understand tliat all our knowledge shall he 
dead, from that moment when the portal of tiio Fu- 
ture shall he closed."' 

Thtn, as compiuictlous for my fiiult,' I said : 
" Now will you therefore tell that fallen one, that 
his chili is still joined to the living.' And if I was 
mute >efore, at the response, let him know, it was 
becaos my thoughts already wero in that error* 
which you have resolved for me." 

Aid now my Master was recalling me. Where- 

Xulla sapem di vostro stato umano. 

Bri comprender puoi the tutta morta 
Fia nostra cenoacenzsi da quel panto, 
Che del futuro fia chiusa la porta. 

Ulor, come di mia colpa compunto, 
Diaoi : Or direte dunque a quel caduto, 
Che U BUo nato t co' vivi ancor congianto. 

E s' io fai dlann alia riapoeta muto, 
Fat' ei saper che il fei, pertli^ pensava 
Gia nell' error cho m' avete soluto, 

E gii il Maestro niio mi ricliiamava : 


lOa. Sapcm. 

' After the lut juilgmcnt, vben 
" there •hsU bo lime no longer ;" 
when (Il the toub* aluUl be eeiiled 
up. See VI 10, ke. 

' Patilt ot not having told C»- 
valeuite tliat bij >on wu ftlive ; 
mud therebj having gireD him 
ailditkiiial pnin. 

" For to liiia t]jB< 

1 jou 

to nil the living there i» hope." 
Ecela-ix. 4. 

* Error of believing that the 
B{iirita in Uell, who could iiieak 
■a olwl; of thing! put uid 
future, were likewiw itcquatnted 
with things prencnt. 


fore I, in more haste, besouglit tlie spirit to teU me 
wlio was witli him. 

He said to me : " Willi more than a tlioiiscnd lie 
I here. The seeouJ Frederick' is here witliii, an<I 
the Cardinal ■' and of tlie rest I speak not," There- 
with he Iiid himself. 

Per th' io pregai lo spirito pid avaccio, 

Che mi dicesae, chi eon Im si atova. 
Biasemi : Qui con pii di mille giaccio : 

Qua entro e lo aocondo Foderico, 

E il CardlDale, e dogli altri mi taccio. 120 

Indi s' aacose : ed io in vtt V antico 

> The Emperor Frederick the 
Second, -who diod on ths 13th of 
I>eoemb«r, 12»), ia the fifty-nitb 
year of hJs age. Ai Bniperor he 
reigned thirty years, thirty-eight 
ax King of tJenuany, nnd fifty- 
two u King of the T«a SiciKcL 
Due ieaniB from the old t'hro- 
iiialea, ka. that he ipent his early 
life in energetio itudieB, and miule 
liis Court in Sicily Tery famous by 
princely patronnge of literature 
and mil that wag bigheat in thaw 
time^ He "knew Utio, and 
Gronk, rtnd SDraccnic-, wu libe- 
ral, wiie, and cniiant in mi. . . . 
Id every ohiDf oity of Sicily and 
Apulia he duuIh u strong and rioh 
eaitle ; alw the Capuan castle, 
tliD towen of Naples, the Iiriilges 
ovortheriverVoltumo at Capua," 
&0. OIU Crnn. In lils Inter yearn 
ht; soem* tu have moved jn a very 

turbid element, with aniee of 
Saracens, Papal eicomntnioft- 
tioDi, and uuiverul aoiipiaii of 
bin nearest friendi. The fahloiu 
book Dt Trilnu ImpoiloTiliv.-w%A 
imputed to him : and be -jt,-^ 
canae enough besides for tlu 
charge of heresy which DaatC 
here sanotiDua. In the treotiac 
Dt Vulirari Eloifiiio (lib. L cap. 
12), Dante speaks of bi* literal} 
infiuenoe, kD, in high tenna. 

* Ottaviano dugM rbaldini, a 
Florentine, made Cardinal by 
Innooent TV. in 1245 ; and dit- 
tingnished from other Cardinula 
by his talents, bii great influ- 
ence, and vehement adherence to 
the Ghibelline party. -"U there 
be any soul, I have lost ininc 
for the Ghibelline*," ii a profane 
eiclamation of hii, reported by 
all the oM 


And I towards tlie ancient Poet turned my steps, 
revolving that saying winch seemed hostile to me.^ 
He moved on ; and then, aa we were going, lie said 
tu me: " Why art thou so bewildered?" And I 
satisfied him in his question. 

" Let thy memory retain what thou hast hoard 
against tliee," that Sage exhorted me. " And now 
mark here," and he raised his finger. " Wlicn tliou 
shall stand before the sweet ray of that Ladi/,' whose 
bright eye seetli all, from her slialt tliou know the 
jonmey of thy life."* 

Then to the sinister hand* he turned his feet. 

Poeta Tolsi t paesi, ripensaudo 

A quel parkr che mi parea nemico. 

Egli si mosBe ; e poi coal andando 
Mi diftse : Perehfe sei tu d smarrito 1 
£d in li soddisfuci el siio dimando. 

La mente tua conaervi quel clie udito 
Hai contra te, mi comand^ quel Saggio, 
Ed ora attendi qui : e drizz^ il dito. 

Quando sarai dinanzl al dolce raggio 
Di qnella, il cui bell' occhio tntto vede, 
Da lei saprai di tua vita il viaggio. 

Appreaso volae a man sinistra il piede : 

' FiuinaU'i prophecy about bit 
og and Imrd ixile. 

■ Botrioe, or CelutUl VTu- 
aa. Sc« oanta iL 

■ Tbf eartbt; joft uui hii]iet 
■w gotie. The ga; LoopBrd will 
ner bapede tlioe sgain. Tbou 
lalt ga tbmugt) this dork Hell, 
id we all itk bittoraeii ; and ' 

then ihalt thou come lu tint 
beaveuty I%ht wliich will toacb 
thee the joume; of th; life, anrl 
the etenuU thjnes that depend 

'■ The Poeti alwayi turn ta the 
left when goin)) to a wono clui 

of linnetB. 




We left the wall, and went towards the middle, by 
a path that strikes into a valley, which even up there 
annoyed us with its fetor.* 

Lasciammo 11 muro, e gimmo in v^r lo mezso 
Per im sentier, che ad una valle fiede, 135 

Che in fin lassii facea spiacer suo lezzo. 

1 Lit. : "Which made its fetor 
displease even up there.'* They 

are stiU far from the lowest part 
of HeU. 


After croBsing the Sixth Circle, the Poets come to a rocky preci- 
pice which separates it from the circles beneath. They find a 
large monument, standing on the very edge of the precipice, 
with an inscription indicating that it contains a heretical 
Pope; and are forced to take shelter behind it, on account 
of the fetid exhalation that is rising from the abyss. Virgil 
explains what kind of sinners are punished in the three circles 
which they have still to see ; and why the Carnal, the Glutton- 
ous, the Avaricious and Prodigal, the Wrathful and gloomy- 
sluggish, are not punished within the city of Dis. Dante then 
inquires how Usury offends God ; and Virgil having answered 
him, they go on, towards the place at which a passage leads 
down to the Seventh Circle. 





Upon the edge of a high bank, formed by large 
broken stones in a circle, we came above a still more 
cruel throng.^ And here, because of the horrible 
excess of stench^ which tlie deep abyss throws out, 
we approached it under cover of a great monument, 
whereon I saw a writing that said : " I hold Pope 
Anastasius, whom Photinus drew from the straight 



In su r ostremit^ d* im* alta ripa, 

Che facevan gran pietre rotto in cerchio, 
Venimmo sopra piu cnidelo stipa : 

E quivi per V orribile soperchio 

Del puzzo, che il profondo abisso gitta, 
Ci raccostanimo dietro ad un coperchio 

I)* un grande avuUo, ov* io vidi una scritta 
Che diceva : Anastasio papa guardo, 
Lo qual trasse Fotin della \ia dritta. 


* Crowd of greater sinners in 
greater punishment, below the 
precipice to which the Poets 
have come. 

' Stench of murderers, &c. 
that are below. 

" Oh, my ofTcnco id rank ; it smells to 

Hamlet, act ill. eccnc n. 

' It was a current belief in 
Dante's time, and for two hun- 

dred years later, that a Pope 
Anastasius had been draiR'n from 
the straight way by PhotinuB, the 
Heretic of Thessalonica ; and had 
died a horrible death in conae- 
quence. See the comments of 
Boccaccio, Landino, VeUuteUo, 
Danielle, &c. The Jesuits Bel- 
larmino, Venturi, &o. hare en- 
deavoured to shew that there 
was no such Pope in the time of 


" Our descent wo must delay, till seaao bo some- 
tvhat used to tlie dismnl blast, and then wo sb&U nut 
lioed it." Thus the Master. And I said to lum : 
"Find some compensation, that the time may not be 
lost." And he : " Thou soest that I intend it." 

" My Sou, within these stones," he tlien began 

1 say, " are three circlets' in gradation, like those 

thou leayeat They all are filled with spirits accurst. 

But, that the sight of tlu^se hereafter may of itself 

Lo nostro scender convien easer tardo, 
Si che s' 8uai prima un poco i! aeiiso 
Al triato fiato, o poi Don iiii riguardo. 

Cori il Maestro. Ed io : Alcuii compenso, 
Dissi lui, trova, che il tempo non passi 
Perduto. Ed egli : Vedi ch' a ci() penso. 

Figliuol mio, dentro du cotesti sasai, 
Coiuincid poi a dir, son tre cerchietti 
Di grado in grado, come quei cho lassi. 

Tutti 8L>n piea di spirti raaledetti : 
Ma perchu poi ti basti pur la vieta, 


IL S aoif, s' OFeuL 

:. La»»\, luci. 

Fliotiltiu. Thequextiun, wlietliur 
a^f Liiretiijal Tope or Emperor 
of thftt name evor exuteil, may 
raBMin a matter of indifference 
to V*. The prnctical mciuuiig of 
ibe puaage ia very evident. Dante 
«ube« all men to knoT hia opi- 
nioD, tbat Pojwi are not exempt 
trDU harO]', and tliat it deserves 
g)>t«tei pimidunsnt in them tban 
in other men. He findi an Em- 
peror, a GhiboUine Cardinal, aud 

the greatest uf the GhibelUiie 
chiefB, in tho uuac oirclo. " This 
cry of tiling will da like wind, 
whinh atriiiea with greatoat (oroo 
the highest AuounitB." Pufitd. 

ivii. laa 

1 '•Cirelet«,"froni the arnall. 
neii of their >iie, compared with 
tboM above. " In (puliation," 
i.[. ouo after uiother, beooming 


suffice thop, hearken how and wherefore they are pent 
up. Of all malice, which gains hatred in Heaven, 
the end in injur}' ; and every such end, either by 
force or by fraud, aggrieveth others. But because 
fraud is a ^■ice peculiar to man, it more displeases 
God ; and therefore the fraudulent are placed be- 
neath,' and more pain assails them. 

" All the first circle is for the violent Bat aa 
violence may be done to three persons, it is ftirmed 
and distinguished into tliree rounds.' To Qod, to 
one's self, and to one's neighbour, may violence be 
dono : I say in them and in their things, as thou 
shalt hear with evident discourse. 

" By force, death and painful wounds may be 

Itttendi come, e perchfe eon coatretti. 
D' ogui molizia ch' odio in Cielo acquista, 

Ingiuria i^ il Gxic ; ed ogni &a cotale 

con foTza, o con frode nltnii cantristo. 
Ma perch* frode i duU'uom proprio malu, 

Piii Bpiace a Dio j e peW) stan di sutto 

Qli frodolenti, e piti dolor gli assole. 
Pe' violenti il primo cerehio fe tutto, 

Ma perch^ ai fa forza a tre persone, 

In tK gironi 6 diatinto e costrutto. 
A Dio, a B^, al prossimo si puone 

Fat forza ; dico in lore, o in lor coae, 

Come ndirai con apeita ragione. 
Morte per forza, e feiute dogliose 

' Qmm autem diiobiu modi*, id I homim at ; ted /rata tMi dvna- 
«K, «K W aul frmuUfitH. ijijuria majort. CUnao, 3s OOo. I IX 
w alitHluimmn st | ■ Oonoentrio ipMN, or rinp. 


inflicted upon' one's neighbour; and upon his sub- 
stance, devastations, burnings, and injurious extor- 
tions : wherefore the first round torments all homi- 
cides and every one who sti-ikes maliciously, all 
plunderers and robbers, in different bands. 

A man may lay violent hand upon himself, and 
upon his property: and therefore in the second round 
JUUBt everj' one repent in vain who deprives himself 
of your world, ' gambles away and dissipates his 
wealth, and weeps there where he should be joyous,' 

Yioleaoe may be done against the Deity, in the heart* 

Xol proBsimo si danno, e nel euo avoie 
Eoino, inceaili e toilette daunose : 

Onde omicidi, e ciaacon cho mal fiore, 
Guastatori e predon, tutti tormenta 
Lo giron primo per diverse achiere. 

Puote nomo avero in efe man violenta 
£ ne'suoi beoi : e \ieiii nel seconds 
Giron con\'ien che mum pro si penta 

Qualunque priva sJ del vostro mondo, 
Biscazza e fonde la eua facultade, 
E piange ]k dove eassr dee giocondo, 

pQossi lar forzn nella Beitade, 


" Are given to the 
ndgliboiir." Cattrvatim dot ilrct- 
Oeorg. iii STA Circum 

JEd. I. 733. 

• Conuniti wlf-niurder. 

' Duitc luu ua euTieatDeu tlint 

I da^i, naj inGnitti ; but tbu 

olf nukes him feel the besutj 

boontj of Qod'i omtion 

B glwmeH uid inten- 

with n 

ft ET«t oHnio. 

• " The fool hath aaid in hit 
heart, Thure i> no God." Ptalm 
liv. IjliiLl. '• Oot of tbe heart 
of laen jjrocced evil thoughts . . . 
blaiphemj, pride, foolialmw*. " 
itiXrk vti. 21, 22. 


denying and blaspheming Him ; and disdaining Na- 
ture and her bounty : and bonce the smaUeet' round 
seals with its mark' both Sodom and Cahors,* and all 
who speak with disparagement of Glod in their hoarts. 
" Fraud, which guaws every conscience,' a man 
may practiee upon tliuHQ whu confide in him; and 
upon those wlio repose no confidence. This lat- 
ter mode' seems only to cut off the bond of love 
which Nature makes : hence in the second circle 

Col cor negando e Itestemmiando qnella, 

£ spregiando Katcra, e sua bontade : 
E per6 lo minor giroa siiggeUa 

Del segno suo e Sodoma, e Coorsa, SO 

E chi, sprcgiondo Dio, col cor favella. 
1a frode, oud' ogni coacYenzn t morea, 

Puii r nomo usare in <iuej, ch' in lui si fida, 

E in quei clie fidanza uon imborea. 
Questo utodo di rotro par che nccida RR 

Piu lo vincol d' amor che fa Natura : 

Onde nel coicluo secondo s' amiida 

I Included within Ilie other 
two, and therefore utuUut. 

< " If on; mnn vorabip tba 
beut and hii image, uid nsieiv« 
Ilia Murk in hi* foreheiul, or in 
his hand, the laiae ■hall drink e{ 
tlie wine of the vrath of God." 

Hiv. .it, 9, la 

* Cahore, a cit; of Guienne ; a 
noet of luurora in Dante's time. 
RMcQUcio BHfi tlint in FluroDoe 
Cmnvmo «u irnonymom with 
oTOroto, lunrer, See DHcatgt, 

doititr. art. Caoreini, for Mine 
curious p«rticuliitB respecting the 
numher* und hateful worlt of 
thorn Unirorfc 

* (luiw* ever; one sontciuos 
of having piaotiiied it. Or: gnaw> 
the eoiucienoe of everf one ; fnim 

' Frand in general, without Tin. 
Utian of any ipedal conHdenee, 
brtHki uol; the oommon bond td 
lore thai mute* man to matu 


f iie«ts hypocrisy, flattery, sorcerers, clieatjng, theft 
and rfmony, panders, barators, aud like filth. In 
tho other mode is forgotten that love wliieh Nature 
makes, and also that which attem'tu'ds is added,' 
giving birth to special trust. Hence in the smallest 
circle, at the centre of the universe and scat of Dis," 
every traitor is eternally consumed." 

And I ; " Master, thy discourse proceeds most 
clearly, and excellently dbtinguishes this gulf, and 
the people that possess it Bnt tdl me : Those of the 
&t martth;^ t/iose whom the wind leads, and whom 

Ipocrisia, lusingho e chi affattum, 
Falsity ladroniiccio e simcinia, 
Ruffiau, boratti, e aimilo lorduia. 

Per r altro modo quell' amor a' obblia 
Che la Natura, a quel cli' i poi a 
Hi che La tede speaal si cria : 

Ondo no! corchio minore, ov' i il pnnto 
Dell' uiiiverso, in su che Dite siede, 
Qimliuique trade in etemo e consunto. 

Ed io : Maestro, aasM chiaio procede 
Li tua ragione, ed aasal beu distingue 
Qiiesto baratro, e il popol cbe il possiede. 

Ma dimmi : Quei della palude pinguc, 
Cbe mena il vento, e cbe batte la pioggia. 

' Fnmd, or trvaoherj', nguinat 
ftilatuiiu, beoefsctuni, frien^U, &c. 
liT«*k* tbia wlilitioiul bond of 
Ion. 8ae J?n. vi. GOD. 

• Ut i "Where il the point 
(orntn] of the uniieno, upon 

which Dis Bit8." Sco canto 

' " Thocc of the fat mtinli" 
are tba Wrathful, &o, Cantu viiL 
" Those whom the wind leiuli," 
Ihu Curaul ainDL-n. Contu t. 


the rain beats ; and those who me^t with tongues 
so fiharp, — why are they not punished in the red 
city, if God's anger be upon them? And if not, 
why are tliey in such plight ?" 

And ho to me : *' Wborefore erra tJiy mind so 
much beyond its wont ? Or are thy thoughts turned 
somewhere else ? Eomomberest thou not the words 
wherewith thy Ethics' treat of the three dispositions 
which Hcftvon wills not, incontiueneo, malice, and 
mad bestiality? And how incontinence less offends 
God, and receives less blame? If thou rightly con- 

E che e' incontran con si aspre lingue, 
Perehfe non dentro della citti, roggia 

Son ei puniti, se Dto gU ha in ira ) 

£ ee non gli bo, percbS sono a lol foggia 1 75 

£d egli a, mo : Fercli^ tauto delira, 

Disse, lo ingegno tuo da qacl ch' ei suole % 

Ower la mente dove altrovo mira 1 
Kon ti rimombra di quelle potolo, 

Con lo ([uai la tua Etica pertratta 80 

Le tre dispoBizion, che il Ciel non vuole ; 
Incontineuza, malizia e la mutta 

Bestiolitade t e come incontinonza 

Men Dio ofiende, e men btosimo accattal 

73. Bosffia, rouo, red witli firs. 

"■Wiom the r»m besU," tbe 
Gluttons uid EpiciiTW. Cauto n. 
"TlioK with tangaw w) vhu^," 
the Prodigal uid AnHdotu. 
Cuito vii Tbey of the ouBfineii, 
" who noTBT wore eliTo" (awito 
tlL), lire not taken lata nwoiuiL 

■ The Ethia of Arirtotle, 
which thou but nutde thy own 
bf itddj. Lib. vii. oap. L "Ha- 
■pectiug itioralt, thrse tlunga kra 
to ba avoided : nudka, inoonti* 
noooo, uid bertMli^.** Bm tito 
Ihid. cap. 9. &0. 

sidereat this doctrine, and recallost to tliy memory 
who they are tJiat suffer pimislmienfc above, withoat,' 
thou eaaily wilt see wliy they are separated from 
these fell apiritt, and why, with less anger, Diiine 
Justice strikes them," 

" Sun !* who healcst all tronbled vision, thou 

makost so glad when thou rosolvest mo, that to doubt 

is not leas gratefiil tlian to know. Turn thee yet a 

I little back, to where thou sayest tliat usury offends 

I tlie Divine Goodness,^ and unravel tlie knot." 

8e tn rigaaidi ben qnesta sentenzo, 
E recbiti alia mente chi son (|iielli, 
Che su di fiior sostongon ponitenza, 

Tu vedrai ben percht da quasti felli 
Sien dipartiti, e perchi! men crucuiata 
La divina giustizia gli maiiellL 

Sol, che eani ogni viatu turbata, 
Tu mi content! al, qmvndo tu solvi, 
Che, non men cbe saver, dubbiar m' ogf 

Ancora un poco indjotro ti rivolvi, 
Diss' io, 1ft dove di' che usuia offende 
La divina bontade, e il groppo svolvi. 

' laooDtinuiDa is pnniibod ii 
tb( Sf e tilralei, which un above 
vithoDt tho city of Dia ; uid ma 
lie* uid beitulity. in the thre> 


■ithia il 


Ua botiraon thsm in the Sixth 
C^le, like a kind of conDeoting 
liiik : ft prepmtion for the trui- 
in (rom inoontinunce to mill' 
nod brutiiluma. That toub 

of the Pope ie pot on the verge 
of the pre«ipicc, and sipoied to 
the blast of the abjM, in order to 
sheir, Bmougat other thluga, what 

oiallj in thoM of high atation, 
' " Light at tho other Poeta." 

Canto L 82. 

> See verK9 4G-50, where thii 

il mid in Eubatanoo. 

128 nOTRNO. 

He said to me : " Philosophy, to him who hears 
it, points out, not in one place alone, how NatnPB 
taies her courae from the Dii"ine Intellect, and from 
its art And, if thou note well tliy Physics, thou 
wilt find, not many pages from the first, that yonr 
art, as fer as it can, follows her,^ as tho scholar does 
bis master ; ao that your art is, as it were, the grand- 
child' of the Deity. By these two,* if thou recalleal 
to thy memory Genesis* at the beginning, it hohoves 

Filosofia, mi disse, a chi 1' attends, 

Nota non pore in una sola parte, 

Come Jfatum lo bug corso prende 
DaJ divino lutcUetto e da sua arte : 

E 66 til ben la tua Fisica note, 

Tu trOYonii non dopo molto carte, 
Che r arte vostra queUo, quunto puote, 

Segue, eome il maestro fa il discente, 

SI che vostr' arte a Dio quasi b nipote. 
Da questo due, se tu ti lochi a mente 

Lo Geneai dal prinoipio, conviene 

' Fallow! uture. " PHtoio- 

m poiat, teiiiett tuauram 

tuttvrmiU, viMxect 

^sAo, drnrnUI Mfilia a matrt, 

«M or* diKtndriu 

iM, rfM poiat veritinnliler iwpfu 
Dti; It tic dUtaa orUn," Ao. 
8m note 3, p. 120, 
* Your srt being the daughter 

of Natnre, uid Nntnte the dko^ 
ter of the Dei^. 

' B7 NfttoTc and Art ; hj n 
work agreeable to " tbeae two,' 

' AUiuion to the labonr « 
pointed for Adain uiil all hii pe 
terity: " And the Lord Qod tm 
tlie man, and pat bini into ti 
gardeti of Eden to dr«H it, u 
tokeepit." OtnaUti.lS. "'. 
the >«Mt of thT facr *ha(t tb 
cat bread." Ilnd. lii 19, 

man to gain Us bread, and multiply the people.' 
And because the usurer takes another waj, he con- 
Natiire in herself and in her follower,* placiug 
elsewhere his hope. 

" Bat follow mo now, as it ploases me to go ; for 
the Fishes^ glide od the horizon, and all the Wain 
lies over Caurus, and yonder fiir onwards we go 
I'down the cliff." 

Prender sua vita, ed uTanziir Li geute, 
£ perdit 1' usuriere altra. viii tieDs, 
Per tk Natuia, e per la sua segiiace 
Dispregia, poiclii in altro pon la speue. 
Ma seguimi oramai, cho il gir mi place : 
Ch6 i Pesci gnizzan eu per 1' orizzoiita, 
E Carro tutto botis Coro gince, 
E il hulzo via 1& oltre d dismouta. 

o take, or reoeii 
lu lite (nisfamance), and adiac 
tiig people." See the words 
the Gnt diapter of Geneaii, " . 
fnutful mud multiply, and i 
pleuuh the earth, and aubdue 

See end of D. 1, p. 12S. 

Id dictaja artrm offcndentUj, 
T qHamdoM cunteqaeiiliam 
efftnrlimia. Qiuil at 
r dMam nriem ofaidat 
m ilatmat, patU gvitt, 

rantur^ artcm, exavmt ali- 

It fackt <JtnariiH», et per 

contapieit titm no/uroJc, tt tic 
amlra Daan," la. Pietro di 
Dante. And tlie untrsr tmati 
in his guos by vinxj alone. Our 
■jsttmi cpf Political Eeonouiy, 
aod our Money Uatkot, lie veiy 
fur remote from thoie timei □( 

' The Fiahm, now above the 
horizon, inuueduiitely pnoede 
Ariel ; and, ai the sun il in 
Arias (note lat, p. G), the time 
hero ii»licatod is aomo two lioun 
before lunriac. The poaition of 
the Wain, or OreaC Bear (CuuiiM, 
IB Viixil'a Korth-WMt 



I The WB7 down io the Sevenlh Circle ci 

o( ahfttlered roeba. Its etitrautc ia occupied liy Ibe Miuotaur, 
horror of Crete, and emblem of tha bloodthiretj violence and 
bratality that are puniahed below. Tlie loonater begins to 
gnaw himself threateniuglf; bat Virgil directa empbatlo worda 
to him, which iustantly muke him plunge nbout in powerlefa 
fnrj, and leave tbB passage free for some time. Dante is then 
l«d down amongst loose stones, which are lying so steep, tJiat 
they give wuy under tto weight of his feot, Tlie river of £Iood 
comes lo view oa they approach tbc bottom of tlie precipice. 
It itoea round the whole of the Seventh Circle, and fonns the 
First of iU three diviaiona. AU wlio have oonunitted Violence 
Hg^nst others are tonueu(«<I in it; some Iwing immersed to 
the eyebrows, some to the tliroat, &c., according to the dif- 
fereat degroea of guilt; and troope of Centaurs are running 
along Its outer bank, keeping each einner at bia proper depth. 
Nessue ia appointed by Chiron, chief of the Centaurs, to guide 
Dante to the ehallowest part of the river, and carry bim acrois 
it. Ue names several of the tyrants, murderers, oaaossijis, &o. 
that appear as ttiey go aUmg ; ond then repftBGea the river by 
himself to rejoin hie companions. 

CANTO xn. 

The place to which we came, in order to descend 
the bank, was aJpine, and such, from what was there; 
besides, that every eye would shun' it. As is th», 
ruin, which struck tho Adige in its flank, on this 
gide Trent,* caused by earthquake or by defectir» 
prop ; for from tho summit of the mountain, wheno> 
it tooved, to the plain, tlio rook is shattered so, that 
it might give some passage to one that were above: 
such of that rocky steep was the descent. And on 

Era lo loco, ove a seender la riva 

Venimmo, alpestro ; e, per quel ch' ivi et' anc( 
Tal, ch' ogni vista ne Batebbo schiva. 

Qual & qnella niino, che nel fiauco 
Di quo da Trento 1' Adice poreossa 
per tremuoto o pot sostegno nianco ; 

Che da clma del monte, onde si moase, 
Al piano, b el la roccia discosccsa, 
Ch' alcima via dareWie a chi bu fosse : 

Cotal di quel burmto era le scesa. 

' Snob, from the UiniiUnr 
which lay ipt«Ml over it (vcT. 11, 
ftt), th»t "every look wDoId be 
ihy of it." 

> Dante had doQbt]e« leen the 
fall of the mouatnin, which he 
here dcscriboi, ni it coolrl not 
have been fur from Vorona. One 
meh fall look place near IUtoU 

in 1310, when he wat probablj' 
staying with Bartolom. delta Scal&i 
Ste tho Faduan edition of Dant& 
Bat the Adige is a npid it 
and uema to have be«Q 
" Btrnok in flunk," or Uuiut oat 
of iu coune, at varioiu i^ 
it had n 

WFERSO. 133 

' the top of the broken cleft lay spread tho infamy 
: of Crete,' which waa eonceivod in the false oow.* 
And when he saw us, he gnawed himself, like one 
■whom anger inwardly consumes. 

My Sage cried towards him : " Perhaps thou 
Qunkest the Dnke' of Alliens may be here, who, in 
file world above, gave thee thy death? Get thee 
gooo, Monster 1 For this one coraes not, instructed by 
thy sister ;* hut passes on to see your punishmeuta," 
As a bull, tliat breaks loose, in the moment when 
9 huA received the fatal stroke, and cannot go, but 

E in ST! la pantu della rotta ktca 

L' infiimia di Creti era distesa, 
die fti concetta noUa faka vacca : 

£ quando vido noi, se st^aso morse, 

Si come quei cui I' ira dentro fiacea. 
Lo Savio mio in ver Ini gritl6 : Forse 

Tu credi che qui sia il Duca d' Atene, 

Cte au nel mondo la morte ti porset 
Partiti, beatia, ch6 quosti non viene 

Anuuaestrato dnlla tua sorella, 

Ma vassi per veder la vostre pene. 
Qual h quel toro, che ei sloccia in qnolla 

Cho ha ricevuto gia '1 colpo mortale, 

Che gir non sa, ma qua o 1^ aaltella ; 

> Tbe Minotaor. .En. vi. 26, 
(Md. JUct. Tiii. 1S5, ko. 
Pldplua) ; i«ppoilaq«t ftrto, 

jB». tL 211, Ke. 
'Hhsmtm. Stukecpoore'a " re- 
rottd Duke." The oaiue uutkca 

tbe Muiotanr spring ap from iti 
lair, in hllnd fury. 

• AriuJao, by whow inKnio- 
tioui ThciGiu wu enohlcd toilay 
tile Miuotnur, and make liis et- 
cnpe from its labyrinth. 

134 INFEBKO, cm 

plonges hither and thither ; so I saw the MinotBtir 
do. And my wary Guide cried: "Bun to the |>as8age. 
Whilst he is in fury, it is good that tJiou descend." 

Thus we took our way downwards ou the ruin' of 
those atones, which often moved beneath my feet, 
from tlie ujiusual weight.' I went musing, and 1 
said : " Pf3rLap8 thou art thinking of this fallea; 
mass, guarded by that bestial rage, wliich I quelled! 
just now. I would have thee know, that, when I 
went the other time, down here to tlie deep Hell/ 
this rock had not yet fallen. But certainly, if I 
distinguish rightly, short while before He o 
who took from Dis the great prey of the upmost 

Vid' io lo Waaotauro for cotale, 

E quegli aocorto gridft : Corn al varco ; 
Montre ch' i in furia, fe Luon cUe tu ti cole. 

Cosi prenJemmo via giii per lo acareo 
Di quelle pietre, cho epcsso moviensi 
Sotto i miei piedi per lo nuovo corco. 

Io ^B, pensondo ; e quei dlsse : Tu pensi 
Forse a quests rovina, ch' fe guardata 
I>a quell' ira bestial, ch' io ora spenai 

Or yd' che sappi, cho 1' oltrn flata 
Ch' io discesi quaggiii nel basso Infcmo, 
Questa roccia uou era ancor cascata. 

Ma certo, poco pria, se ben disceruo, 
Che venisae Colui, che la gran preda 
Lev6 a Dite del cerchio supemo, 


"Due1urKe,"&ci. atones I 
g u itsep us Hben Ouj were 
■t abittend ud r«U. | 

' Weight af bii body ; on k wtj 

fre<]ueul«J onlj lij apiiiU. 

niTES^TO. 135 

\ oirclej' on all sides the deep loathsome valley trem- 

I bled so, tliat I tliought the unlvergo felt love, where- 

I bj', as some believe, the world has ofl-times been 

converted into chaos.* And in tliat inomeut,' here, 

And elsewhere,* this ancient rock made such down- 

" But fix thy eyes upon the valley ;' for the river 

f of blood draws nigh, in whieli boils every one who 

I by violence injiu-es others, blind cupidity ! 

tiboliah anger I which so incites us in the short life ; 

md then, in the eternal, steeps ub bo bitterly." 

Da tatte parti 1' alta valle feda 
Tremi) eA, ch' io pensni che 1' a. 
Sentiase amor, per lo quale 6 cM creda 

Pill volte il moudo in coos converso ; 
E in quol punto questa vecchia roccia 
Qui, e al trove, tal fcce ri verso. 

Ma ficca gli occlti a valic ; ch^ b' approccia 
La rivieta del sangue, in la qiial bolle 
Qnal che per violeoza in altrui uoccia. 

deca cupiiligia, o ira folle, 
Che si ci sproni nella vita corta, 
£ nell' etcma poi bL mal c' iDUiiolle ! 


' Took the PatrianJa ("Krcat 
" of Ml till then) from lim- 
. Cknto ir. 62, kc 

■ Opisioii of Empedootes, unil 
Other untique philoMphen. 

■ WliBn Chrut ilied. " And 
the ouili did ipukke, and the rock* 
imt ) Mid tht) gnireB wora opened : 

aad miui; bodies of the uinti 
wLich slept arme, uid came oat 
of their ginTci, lud vent into the 
hoi J oitj." itatl. iiriL 51, io, 

' In the pUioo of the Hypo- 
critei. Cuito xxiii Lifl, Ic. 

' Loot down ; "6i thy eye* (a 
talU) vallBywardi. " 

136 nrFERNO. 

I san- a v.-itl(! foss bent arcwise, aa embracing iJll 
tlie )>]aiu, according to wbat my Quido bad told me. 
And between it and the foot of the bank were Cen- 
taurs, running ono behind tlie otlier, ai'nied with ar- 
rows, as tliey were wont on earth to go in hunting. 
Perceiving us descend, they aU stood atill ; and from 
the band tlu'ee came forth with bows and jarelinB 
chosen first. And one of them cried from (ar : " To 
what torment come ye, ye that descend the coast?< 
Tell from thence : if not, I draw the bow, 

My Master said : '* Onr answer wo will make to- 
Chiron, there near at hand. ■ Unhappily' thy will 
was always thus rash." Then m touclicd mo and 

lo vidi im' ampin fossa in arco torta, 

Come qucUa uLe tutto il piano abbraccia, 

Secondo ch' area detto la mia scoria : 
E tra il pi6 della ripa ed esaa, in traccia 

Conean Coutauri armati di sauttc, 

Come Bolean nel moiido andare a caccia. 
Vedendoci calar ciascun ristctte, 

£ della schiera tre si dipartiro 

Con archi o neticciuole prima elette : 
E r un grid^ da lungi ; A qunl niortiro 

Yenite voi, che scendeto la costa 1 

Ditel costiaci, bo non, 1' arco tiro. 
Lo ntio Maestro disss : La risposta 

Fai-em noi a Chiron cosUi di presso ; 

Mai fu la Toglia tua sempro ^ tosta. 

cnlM ■!•« thee for tbj raahneai. 

I Virgil Till explain Lii 
I to Chinm, the Mge pi 

rXFERKO. 137 

"That IB Nessos, wbo died fur tlio fair De- 

janira, and of himself took vengeance for himself.' 

He in the middle, who is looking down upon hia 

breast, is the great CTuron,^ he who nursed Achilles. 

L^at other is Pholus,* who was §o full of rage. 

^Around the foss they go by Uiousantb, piercing 

t«iih their arrows whatever spirit wrenches itself out 

r the blood farther than it^ guilt has allotted for 


We drew near those rapid beasts. Chiron took 
I and with the notch put back his beard 
Lnpon his jaws. When he had uncovered his great 
Inoath, be said to hia companions; "Have ye per- 

Poi mi tonti, e disse : Quegli fe Ifesso, 

Che morl per la bella Deianira, 

E fe' di si' la veuJetta egli stcsao. 
E quel di mcizo, che al petto si mira, 70 

E' U grnn Chirone, il qual nudrio Achille : 

Quell' nltro fe Folo, che fii el pien d' ira. 
Dintomo al fosso vanno a mille a niUle, 

Saettando qual' anima si svello 

Del saiigue piii che eua colpa sortille. 75 

Xoi ci appressammo a quelle fiere sneUe : 

Chiron prese uno etrale, e con la cocca 

Fece la barba indietro alio moHcelle. 
Quando s' ebbo ecoperta b grau bocca, 

Disse (u compagni : Siele voi accorti, 80 

I Bj giving tho rob* tttinted ] ' Magiitn. Fhiltj/ri<ia CAiroit, 

•iiU hi* own htood to Dejanim, it GeorB- iii. MO, 

wife of Hnroles ; Nti: nwrifmur '' FHrmUiCtntanTOtlltodotanit, 

inuUi, tte, Ovid. Mel. Lc. 131. I Sluriamiut FlMlamqat. Tb.iH55. 


ceived that tlie one belund movos what ho touches? 
Tlie feet of tlie dead are not wont to do bo." 

And my good Guide, who waa already at tha 
breast of him, where tlie two natures are consorted, 
replied: "Indeed ho is alive, and solitary thus h&va- 
1 to shew him the dark valley. Necessity brings liim 
to it,' and not sport From singing AUeluiab, came 
She' who gave me this new office. He 
robber, nor 1 a thievish spirit But by that virtue* 
through which I move my steps on such a woody 
way,* give us some one of thine whom we t 

Che quel di rietro move ci6 ch' ei tocoa t 
Coai non aoglion fare i pi6 de' morti, 

£ il mio buon Duca, cbe gifi gli era al petto, 

Ove le duo natnro son conaorti, 
Riapose : Ben k vivo ; e al soletto 

Mostrorli mi convien k vdle biua : 

Kocessit4 il c' induce, e non diletto. 
Tal si parti da cantare alleluia, 

Che mi oonunise queat' ufiujo nuovo ; 

Xon h ladron, q6 io imima fuia. 
Ma per quolla virti, per cui io muovo 

Li pasd miei per A sclvaggia strada, 

Samie un de' tuoi, a cui noi eiamo a pruovo, 

93. A prmrw, from Lat. prept, nwr. 

I "And there wu no otlwT 
way." 1^ ''"'V. «nto L 62. 

• lit. ! " Such {Bastrioe, Ce- 
leitial Wbdom) cune from ting- 
ing AUelninb ;" uiil " gftVB ma 
(Hdhuu Wltdom) thu new of- 
" Sum Bate 2tl, p. 17. S«e 

olio the " Great ndoe at 
people in Heaven, nying 
luinh . . . u the Toioe af 
watcn, anJ m the voioo of 
thumUriiiga," &<L An-, xix. 1,8.. 

• That high Cdestial 

» Or: "wild," 

follow,' tliat lio may shew ua where the ford is, and 
.rrj" over him upon hla back, for he is not a spirit 
to go through the air," 

Chiron bont round on his right breast, and smd 
to Nessus : " Turn, and guide Uiem then ; and if 
auothor troop encounter you, keep it off." 

We moved onwards with oiir trusty guide, along 
the border of tlie purple boiling, wherein the boiled 
were making loud slirieks. I saw people down 
in it even to tlie eyebrows ; and the great Centaur 
Baid : " These are tjiants who took to blood and 
plunder. Here they lament their merciless offences. 
Here is Aleiiaiider ;' and fierce Dionysius, who made 

Che ne dlmostri I^ ove ei guada, 

E che porti coatni in su la groppa, 95 

Chk non k spirto che per 1' aer vada. 
Chiron si volsa in sulla deatra poppa, 

E disae a Nesso : Toma, e d li guida ; 

£ & canaar, b' altra echiera v' intoppa. 
Noi ci moycmma colla scorta fida 100 

Lnngo b proda del bollor vomugUo, 

Ove i boUiti faceano alte strida. 
lo vidi gente sotto inlmo al ciglio ; 

E U gran Centatiro diese : £1 son timnni, 

Che dier ael eangue e nell' aver di piglio. 106 

Qoivi ai piangrin 11 apietati danni : 

Quivi 6 Alessondio, e Dionisio fero, 


'To whom WB □1117' be 
" lo. AVuui adit, maabni- 
raUtu, icitatqiie vadoravi. 
. ttit. is. 108. 

* AlBiamlcr tbe Great, uiooi4> M 
ing to the culioat couuDentitoi^ I 
I>iutro (Dimte's wd), Boeca 
LnniUiio, tec And their oioium ' 


Sicily liavc years of woe. And that brow which h 
the hair ao black is Azzolino ;' and tliat other, who 
is blond, is Obizzo^ of Esto, who in verity waa 
quenched by his step-aou up in the world." 

Then I turned me to the Poet, and he said: "Let 
him he ehief guide to thee now,' and ine second." 

A Uttle farther on, tlie Centaur pau^d beside & 

Che fe' Cicilia aver doloroai anni : 
E quella fronte che ha U pel cofi nero 
E' Azajlino ; o quoll' altro, ch' J biondo, 
E* Obmo dn Eati, il qiial per vero 
Fa spsnto dal figliastro su nel mondo. 
Allor mi volsi al Foeta ; e quei disee : 
Quest! ti sia or priino, ed lo sBcondo. 
Poco pii. oltro il Centauro a" affiase 

U oonfinnei! by tbe pauage in 
LncaD, beginning : Tlltc FtUm 
prnia taana Philippic Frlis.prrt- 
do.jaert, Jio. Phara, %. 21, (to. 

AleiBllder ia praueil, but anl; 
for hit raful libcrolitj, in tlio Con- 
tiW, Tr. IT. c IL 

I AjutoUno, or Euolmo ili Ro- 

. of the I 

Froderick II. ; and nfUnrardi 
Cbidf of the Ghibellineii, in the 
U(m» TTevigiana and great part 
of Lombanl;' Ho died In 1260 ; 
and waa " (h« molt anisl and 
farnudablfl tyrant that ever lived 
among Chriatiani." VUlani, xi. 
72. No eiaggcratiun here in tba 
Guelph hiMoiiao. 

' Harquia of Ferran, "a fu- 
rious, cruei, npadoui Qrnuit." 

When Trenltaned by diaeaae, in 
the year 1!^. he wu amoUiuTed 
bj his own Kin Azuii who il har« 
called a itep-son in conaequeDMi. 
Be waa a Gnelph, oonnteipvt to 
Ezielina tbo nbibolline. Dante 
had an equal hatred of both fao- 
tioni. The Monarchy, fur whioh 
he atrove ao lealoiuly, waa to 
be a thing infinitely above both, 
AiEo ia again alluded to in oantn 
iviii, 50 ; and in Pvrg. v. 77. 

■ Lit. : ''Let hiui bo Gnt tu 
ihee," iid. Let hirn ahe* thea 

derera. Phlegyaa. whom we (aw 
on the angry marab, ia Gtafid- 
father o 




people which, as far as tlie throat, seemed to issue 
from that boiling ab'eaiii. He shewed us a spirit by 
itself apart, saying: " That one, in God's bosom, 
pierced tho heart which still is venerated on the 

Then some I saw, who kept the head and like- 
wise all the chest out of the river ; and of these I 
recogniseil many. Thus more and more tliat blood 
grew shallow, until it covered the feet only : and 
here was our passage tlirongh the foss. "As thou 

Sovia una gente, che infino alia gohi 
Foroa che di quel bulicame usciase. 

Mostrocci uu' oinbra dall' un canto sola, 
Dicendo ; Colui fesao, in grembo a Dio, 
Lo cuor che in sul Tamigi ancor si uola. 

Poi vidi genti, che di fuor del rio 

Tenean la t«sta e ancor tutto il caaso : 
E di cofltoro osaai riconobb' io. 

Coal a piu a pik si facea basso 

Quel sangue si, che copria pur li piedi : 
£ quivi fu del toaao il nostro poaso. 

' Onj de Mojitfort, dariag dlub 
uid the elevrntioQ of the lioit in a 
chnrali at Titeibo, atabbedPriiioe 
HeiU7, the loii of Richard at Corn- 
mil, &ad nei>he» of Henir in,, 
in revenge for the death of hii 
&thar Siman de Hontfort, Earl 
afLeioorter. Villaiu(vij.3[»)aay«, 
"Ui»i the heart of Henry, in n 
golilMl eup, WM plaOHl on a jiil- 
. lar kt Loodan bridge over the 

riTBT Thames, for a meniorial to 
tlie English of the said ontrage." 
Some ItoliaD ooiniiiontaton make 
aiici/r si cola mean ^^atill drips," 
aa if eallEng for Tongcance ; but 
that ia quite a modem intcrpret*- 
tion, and hardly desarvsi notioe. 
Guy is put apart From the rvit, 
on account of the aimmi>taiii»> 
uul the plaoe whore hii erima 

142 LNTERNO. lUSTO zn, 

aeest the boiling streain, on this side, oontinnally 
diminish," said the Centaur, " so I wovdd have thee 
to believe tliat, on this other,' it lowers its bottom 
more and more, till it comes again to where tyraimy 
is doomed to mourn. Divine Justice here torments 
that Attila, who was a scourgo on earth ; and Pyr- 
rhus and Sextiis ;' and to eternity milks tears, which 
by tlie boiling it unlocks, from Rinier of Cometo, 
from Hinior Pazzo," who on the highways made so 
much war." 

Then he turned back, and by himself repassed tlio 

SI come tu da questa parte vcdi 
Lo hulicame che sempre si acema, 
Disss il Centauro, voglio che tu credi, 

Che da quests altra a pill a piii giii prema 
Lo fondo suo, infin che si raggiunge 
Ova la tirannia convion che gcma. 

La divina giuatiria di qua pungo 
Quell' Attila che fit flogello in terra, 
E PiiTO, e Sesto ; cd in eterao mmigc 

Le lagrime, che col bollor disserra, 
A Einier da Corneto, a Rinier Pazzo, 
Che fecero alle strade tantn gueira. 

Foi si rivolae, e ripOBSosai il gaazto. 

' Neuiu keeps vndins Mroiia 
ths bnnil fonl, ftt the tune time 
that he it telling Dante how. on 
both lido* of them, the (treuni 
deepen B. 

* Prrrhni, King of Epinu. 
Seitoj the Pirate, son of Pompcy. 

Srxlut eralt mojriio Jtmif* indiffna 
partitlf, ko, Lacao, vi 4SD. 

• TVo noted rolilien and awai- 
BiiiE, both on II s:reat Hale, in the 
time of Frederick IL The latter 
belonged to the noble family of 
the Pairi in Florence. 



Tbe Sepond RounJ, or ring, of the Seventh Circle; He dismal 
myntio Wood of Kiilf-murdorars. Tbe eouIb of tbel^e have 
taken root in the ground, and becomi; stunted trees, witli 
withered learea and branches; ioete&d of fruit, producing 
poison. Tbe obsoene Harpies, insntiable foreboden of misery 
and despair, eit wailing upon them and devouring them. 
Pietro delle Vigne, the grunt Chancellor of Frederick II., is 
one of tbe suicides; and he tells Dante what bad made him 
destroy himself, and also in what manner the soiiia are con- 
Terled into tlioee nocouth trees. Their discourse is intermpted 
Vy the noiite of luo spirits all naked and torn, who come 
rashing through the dense wood, pursued by eager female hell- 
honnds. The first of them <a Lano, a Sienneae: the second. 
Jacopo da Sant' Andrea, a Paduan. Both bad violently wasted 
their substance, and thereby brought themselves to an un- 
timely end, and to this punishment. Danle finds a country- 
man, who, after squandering all his STibstance, had hanged 
himself ; and hears him apeak superstitiously about the cala- 
mitiaa of Florence. 

CANTO xm. 

Nessus Wd not yet reachoJ the other side,* 
whon wo moved into a wood, which by no path was 
marked. Not green the foliage, hut of colour dusky; 
not smooth the branches, bnt gnarled and warped j 
apples none were there, bat withered stickB with 
poison. No holta^ so rough or dense have those wild 
beasts, that hate the cultivated tracts, between Cecina 
and C'ometo.' 

Here the unseemly Harpies make their neat, who 
ciiased the Trojans &om the Strophades with dismal 
note of future woe. * Wide wings they have, and 

NoN era aneor (U li Nesao arrivato, 

Quando noi ci niett«mina ])er im bosco, 

Che da nessun eentioro era segnato. 
Soa frondi venli, inn Ji color foaeo ; 

Ifon rami Bcliietti, luu nodosi e involti ; 5 

Son pomi v' eron, ma stecchi con tosco. 
Non ban si aapri sterpi n^ si folti 

Quelle fiere selvagge, che is odio hanno 

Tra Cecina o Cometo i luoghi colli. 
Quivi le brutte Arpie lor nido &nno, 

Che cacciitr delle Strofaile i Troiani 

Con tristo aimuiizio di future donna 

Cliarch. The dutrist between I 
thorn ii itill wild, and entUgUd I 
»ith farorte luid minhee. 

' See the prophecy of Celvno 1 
tho Ilupjr, be ; uid it* etltct at 
the Trojniu. .£n. ili. 245-362 

> Ottheriyarofbtmid. 

■ lit. ; " No iwiti, truaki, or 
*hoota u roagb,~ ka. 

* Cecinu, ■ tauU rivor to the 
■OBth at heghom ; Coniuto, • 
(otrn ia the Patrimony of the 

DfFERNO. 145 

I necks and faces biimnn, feot ^vi'tli claws,' and tlieir 
Urgo belly featlierod. They niidce ruefid cries* on 
I the strangG trees. 

And the kind Master began to say to me : " Be- 
fore thou goest &rther, know that tlion art in the 
second round; and shnit be, until thon comest to the 
I iiorrid sand,' Therefore look well, and thou shalt 
I Bce tilings that will confirm my speeeli.'ff' 

Already I heard wailiugs uttered on every side, 
I tnd saw no one to make thera ; wlierefore I, all 
[■ bewildered, stood still. I tliink he thought that I 

Ale hanno late, e colli e visi umtint, 

Pi^ con artigli, e pennuto il gran ventre : 
Fanno Inmonti in su gU alberi etrani. 

E il buon Maestro : Prima che piii entre, 
Sappi cbe sei nel secondo girona, 
Mi comincib a dire ; e sarai, mentie 

Cbe tu venai eiU' orribil sabbioue. 
Peril riguaida bene, e si vedrai 
Cose, che daran fede al mio aermone. 

Irt Bentia gii d' oy^ii parte tmr guai, 
E non vudea persona che il facesse ; 
Per oh' io tutto smarrito m' arri'stai 

' Virgind votaerun valtta, /a- 

dorui ^n. uL 31-56. Some 

<IM»« t™fri« Pro/uriH, Hnnr- 

alition. rend r Che lorrin ftdt 

giu BUMiil, tt paUida tanper Ora 

al mio «Tmon(. " wMoh would 

fimt. JUL iJL 216, A(^ 

take Hway belief (lom my ■peech," 

* ToJE Utram (lira interodomn. 


1 related them. The wonU in 

> Id tbe tliird round. Seo 

vono -18, kc, which made Fh- 

ouito liv. 

flolo xlopt thij reading, ought to 

• What I hB»« uid of Poly- 

liBVe mikda hiio reject it. 

was thinking so many Toices came, amongst those 
stumps, from people wLo liid tliemselvea on our 
account. Therefore tlie Master said : " If thou 
breakest off any little shoot from one of these plants, 
the thoughts, which thou hast, will all beeomo de- 

Then I stretched my Iiand a litUo forward, and 
plucked a branchlet from a great thorn ; and the 
trunk of it cried : " Why dost thou rond me ?" And- 
when it had grown dark with blood, it again began 
to cry: " Why dost tliou tear me? Hast thou no 
breath of pily? Men we were, and now are turned 
to trees. Truly thy hand should bo more merciftdj 
had we been souls of serpents." 

Ah a green brand, that is burning at one end, at 

r credo cL' ei credette ch' io credesse, 25 

Che tonte voci ueciBSer tra que' bronchi 

Da geDt« chQ per not si naacondesse. 
Per6 disao U Maestro : Se tu tronchi 

Qualche fraschetta d' una d' este piante, 

Li pcnaier ch' hoi si faran tutti monchi. 
Allor poisi la niauo un poco avante, 

E colai un ramuscel da un gran pruno, 

£ il tronco auo gridb : Porch^ mi echiaute 1 
Da che fatto fu poi di saugue bruiio, 

Eioomincii a giidar : I'ercht- mi acerpi 1 

Non hai tu apirto di pietat« olcuno ? 
tJomini fumtno. eil or siam fatti aterpi : 

Beu dovrebb' eeeci la tua man piii pia, 

Se state rtwsinio anime di aerpL 
Come d' un stizzo verde, che arso aia 

tiie otiier drops, and hissea with the wind wliich is 
escaping ; so from tliat broEen splint, words and 
blood came forth together : whereat I let fall the 
lop,' and stood like one who is afraid. 

" If he, wounded spirit 1" my Sage replied, 
*' conld have believed before, what he lias seen only 
in my verse,' he would not have stretched fortli his 
}iand against thee; but the iacredibiHty of the tiling 
made me prompt him to do what grieves myself. 
But tell him who thou wast j so that, to make thee 
wme amends, he may refresh thy fame up in the 
world, to wliich he is permitted to return." 

Ajid the trunk: '■ Tliou so allurest me with thy 

Dall' un do' capi, che dull' oltro geme, 

E cigola per vento clie va via ; 
SI della acheggia rotta usciva insieme 

Parole e sangue ; ond'io laaciai la cima 

Cadere, e stetti come I' uom che teme. 45 

S' egli avesse potuto ureder prima, 

Rispose U Savio mio, annua lesa, 

Ci6 che ha veduto pur con la niia rima, 
Non averebbe in te la man djatesa ; 

Ma la cosa incredibile lui fece 30 

Indurlo ad ovro, ch' a me steaao peso. 
Ma dilli clii tu fosti, s\ che, in vece 

D' alcuoa ammenda, tua iama rin&eschi 

Nel mondo su, dove tomar gli lece. 
£ il troncD : SI col dolce dii m'adcscbi, 

' WMoh ha l«a broken off. | wliioli Le La» Blrcady alludcii. 

• In the itoiy "f PoljJonia, to I See (ii. 145) ver. 21, uid note -l. 


sweet words, that I cannot keep silent; and let it 
not seem burdensome to you, if I enlarge a little 
in discourse, ' I am lie,' who held both keys of 
Frederick's heart, and tuined them, locking and un- 
locking so softly, that from his secrets I excluded 
almost every other man. So great fideli^ I bore to 
tiie glorious office, that I lost thereby both sleep and 
lifo. The harlot,* that never from desar's dwelling 

Ch' io non posso tocero ; e voi non grari 
Parch' io un poco a ragionar m' inveschi, 

Io son colui, cbe tenni anibo le chiavi 
Del cor di Fcderigo, e che le volei 
Serrando e disserrando si soavi, 60 

Cbe dol segreto buo quasi ogni uom tolsi : 
Fedo portai al glorioso ufizio, 
Tanto ch' io ne perdei Io sonno e i polsL 

La meretrice, che mai dall* ospizio 

' Lit : " If I UD vntiMd, or 

ought in tlie lore, to cli«oonn« 
■ while." Adarare and vavacart 
■re both derived from mpo, a. bait 

' Pietro delleVigne {liiVintii). 
■Bcretoiry, pro(onot*ry, oluuioel- 
lor, be. of the Emperor Frede- 
riak II. He bub boni of very 
poor pfireuta, nt Capua, towudi 
the end of the twelfth century % 
beggcil hit Wky to Bolugni, and 
itndieil there with great tatX and 
efllect ; attracted the notice of the 
Emperor, nnditoodiu thehigheat 
fsTOur with bim for manj jeu>, 
transacting all his grentest afiiiirE. 

In hia preeperitj, bo 
hii poor mother and uitet ; and 
■eemii to have been eieiy way 
A noble anri farSiTe-hcarted man, 
with whoai Dante oould deeply 
Bympathiw. It wo* not till after 
llie Counoa of Lyona, in 1345, 
wbon Frederick beoame entan- 
gled with univerHl dupioioii, 
thnl he waa aosuaed of treachoiy. 
and dsBtroyoiI UioueU 
hitter " sorrow and i 
Six Books of bta Latin letters 
are ttiU extant, and one 

■ Enry- Sm w. IS. 



tunie4 hor adulterous eyes,' oonimon Iiaiie, and v'lco 
of courts, iuflamod all minds against me ; and these 
so inflamed Augustus, tljat my joyous honours were 
changed to dismal soitowh. My soul, in its disdain- 
ful mood, tliinking to escape disdain by deatJi, mado 
me, tkoiiffk just, unjust against myself. By tho new- 
roots of this tree, I Bwear to you, never did I break 
fiuth to my lord, who was so worthy of honour. And 
if any of yon return to the world, strengthen the 
memory of me, which still lies prostrate from the 
hlow that envy gave it." 

The Poet listened a while, and then said to mo : 

Hi Cesara son toTse gli occtu putti, 
Hoite comnne, e dclle corti vizio, 

Iliftammb contra me gli Btiimi tutti, 
E gl' infiammati iufiammiir si Aiigusto, 
Che i lieti onor toniaro in tristi luttL 

L' animo mio, per disJognoso yuato, 
Crodendo col morir fuggir disilegno, 
Ingiusto fece me contra me giusto. 

Per lo nuove radici d' esto legno 

Vi giuro, ch« giammai non nippi fede 
Al mio signor, ebo fu d'onor al degno. 

E Be di voi alcun nel mondo riede, 
Confurti Ift memoria niia, che giace 
Ancor del colpo eh a luvidia la diede. 

Hn poco attese, e poi : Da cH' ei si tace, 



' Jlj CcakT ia meant the Em- 
pans': eatUed kIm Auguitiu in 
for. 68l Adulterous, i c dislofnl, 
Mdaoing ejes. Envy Rnt net 

loosB the hwlot Wolf. Cjuito i. 
100-111. "Throngh Envy of ths 
Davi) came death into the vorld." 
Wild, a at 


seest the boiling stream, on this aide, continually 
diminish," said the Centaur, " so I would have thee 
to believe that, on this other,' it lowers its bottom 
more and more, till it comes again to where tyranny 
is doomed to moom. Divine Justice here torments 
tliat Attiia, who was a scourge on earth ; and Pyr- 
rhua and Sextus ;' and to eternity milks tears, which 
by the boiling it unlocks, from Rinier of Cometo, 
from Rinior Pazzo,* who on the highways made so 
much war," 

Then he turned back, and by himself repassed the 

SI come tu dn^ questa parte vedi 
Lo hulicame che sempre si acema, 
Diase il Contauro, vojjlio che tu crodi, 

Che da quest' altni a pih e piii yih prema 
Lo fonilo sun, infin che si raggiuuge 
OvG la tiraimia conviea che genut. 

La diviaa gtustizJa di qua pungQ 
Quell' Attiia che fii flagello in terra, 
E Pirro, e Sesto ; ed in etemo munge 

Lo lagricie, che col boUor diaeerra, 
A Kiuier da Cometo, a Rinier Paeaj, 
Che fecero alle etrade tanta guona. 

Poi si rivolse, e ripaasosfii il guazra. 


• Nesnu keepa wsding acrott i 
d tonl, At tbe tuoe time 
tbst he U telling Duite hoir. on 
both (idea of thorn, tbe Btmm ' 

» Pyirbui, King of Eplrut 
Sextiuthe Finite, wuiofPomper. i 

Srxtai tral, uia|fnD pn)to I'ndi 
parcnlr, Ao. Lucnn, ri. 420. 
• Two notcil iDhlien •nd M 
■in*, botb on n greitt Hule, in 
time or Ft«ilerick 11. The ktt«r 
belotigod to the noble fuuiljr g( 
the Pw^ in Flonmoe. 


Tbe Second Rounds or ring, of the Seventh Circle; the dismal 
mystic Wood of Self-murderers. The souls of these have 
taken root in the ground, and become stunted trees, with 
withered leaves and branches; instead of fruit, producing 
poison. The obscene Harpies, insatiable foreboders of misery 
and despair, sit wailing upon them and devouring them. 
Pietro delle Vigne, the great Chancellor of Frederick II., is 
one of the suicides ; and he tells Dante what had made him 
destroy himself, and also in what manner the souls are con- 
verted into those uncouth trees. Their discourse is interrupted 
by the noise of two spirits all naked and torn, who come 
rushing through the dense wood, pursued by eager female hell- 
hounds. The first of them is Lano, a Siennese ; the second. 
Jacopo da Sant* Andrea, a Paduan. Both had violently wasted 
their substance, and thereby brought themselves to an un- 
timely end, and to this punishment. Dante finds a country- 
man, who, after squandering all his substance, had hanged 
himself ; and hears him speak superstitiously about the cala- 
mities of Florence. 

CANTO xm. 

Nessus had not jet reached the other side,' 
when we moved into a wood, which by no path was 
marked. Not green the foliage, hut of colour dusky ; 
not smooth the branches, but gnarled and warped ; 
apples none were there, but witliered sticks with 
poison. No holts^ so rough or dense have those wild 
beasts, that hate the cultivated tractij, between Cecina 
and Corneto.' 

Here tlie unseemly Harpies make their nest, who 
chased the Trojans &om the Strophades with dismal 
note of fiiture woe.* Wide wings they have, and 

No N era ancor di Ifi Neaso arrivato, 

Quando uoi ci mettemmo per uii bosco, 

Che da nessUQ acnticio era sognato, 
IfoQ frondi verdi, tna di color fijaco ; 

Non rami achietti, ma nodosi e involti ; 5 

^on pomi v* eron, ma stecchi con tosco. 
Non ban al aspri aterpi ij6 al felti 

Quelle flero selraggo, che in odio hanno 

Tra Cecilia e Coraeto i luogM colli. 
Quivi le brutte Arpie lor nido fanno, 10 

Che cacciir dello Strofado i Troiani 

Con triato onnunzio di futuro danno. 

Churoh. Tlie diitrict b«t«r«eii 
them ia iHll Mild, and euUnglcd 
with far«ti and mnnhcai 

' See the prophecy of Cebeuo 
the Harpj, be, ; and it* affect on 
the Trojuia. jEn. Hi. 245-262. 

■ Of the ri(or of blood. 

■ Lit. 1 " So nKiti, t^UIkl^ or 
■hoot* 10 longh," &a. 

' Ceoma, > nuoQ liver to the 
•oath of Leghorn ; Corneto, a 
town in the Patrimony uf the 


nocks and faces hmDOD, feet wltlt claws,' and their 
l&rgo belly feathered. They moke rueflil cri 
the strange trees. 

And the kind Master began to say to mo : 
fore thon goest farther, know that thou art in the 
second round ; and ahalt be, until thou eomeat to the 
horrid eand.° Therefore look well, and thou shalt 
see things that will confirm my speech. 'S- 

Already I heard wailinga uttered on every side, 
and saw no one to make them ; wherefore I, all 
bewildered, stood still. I think he thouglit that I 

Ale hauno late, e colli a visi iimtini, 

Vit^ con artigli, e pennuto U gran ventre : 
Fonno lamenti in su gli alberi strani. 

E il buon Maestro ; Prima che piii entre, 
Sappi cha sei ael secondo girone, 
Mi coinincii a dire ; e aaiiii, mentre 

Clie tu veirai all' orribil sahbione. 
Peri riguarda bene, e si vydrai 
Cose, che daran fede al mio acrmonc. 

lo sentia gift d' ogni parte tnir guat, 
E non veilea persona che il faccase ; 
Per ch' 10 tutto amarrito m' arrtistai. 

> FtnTHX' mlufrum ntUtu, /a- 
dHttna rtntrit Proluria, unca- 
t/ve naiiui, rl pallida imptr Ora 
famu Sji. iii 210, &a. 

' Vnt Mrvn dka inter odamn. 

■ In the Uiitil round. Sec 

• ■mi»l 1 hire ■aid ot Polj- 

dorui. ^n. 1 

2I-5G. Som*^ 

editiant rciul ; Cht li 

„/M • 

al mio ttnaone, " wliioh would 
take aVKj belief from mjipeeoL," 
i. e. vhioh would be inaiedihle if 
I relntcd tbom. Ths wordi [□ 
vene 4S, kc, whicli mule Poa- 
colo wJopt thii rending, ought lo 
hare nude him reject it. _ 


was tliinkjng so many voices came, amongst those 
stumps, from people who hid themselves on our 
account. Therefore the Master saiil : " If thoa 
breakest off any little shoot from one of tlieae plants, 
the thoughts, which thou hast, will all become de- 

Then I strotGhed my hand a little forward, and 
plucked a branehlct from a great thorn ; and the 
tnuik of it eried : " Why dost thou rend me?" And 
when it had grown dark with blood, it again began 
to cry : " Why dost thou tear me ? Hast tliou no 
breath of pity? Men we were, and now are turned 
to trees. Ti'uly thy hand should bo more merciful, 
had we been souls of serpents." 

As a grecu brand, that is burning at one end, at 

r credo ch' ei credutte eh' io credesse, 25 

Che tante voui uscissor tra que' bronchi 

Da gente ctie per nol ei iiascondesae. 
Per6 disse il Maestro ; Se tu tronchi 

Qualche &aBc)iett.i d' una d' oste piant«, 

Li pensiar eb' hai ei fanvn tutti nionchi. 30 

Allor porsi la mano un poco avante, 

E colBi un mmuscel da un gran pruno, 

£ il tronco sua grid^ : Fetche mi schiante I 
Da che fatto fu poi di sangue bruno, 

Ricominciii a giidar : Perchi; mi aceqii 1 35 

Non hai tu epirto di pietate alcuno I 
Uomini fummo, etl or aiam fatti sterpi : 

Ben doTrcbb' eascr la tua man piti pia. 

So state foseimo anime di serpL 
Come d* tin stizzo verde, che arso sia 40 

CAiTO zm. 



the other drops, and hisses with the wind which is 
escaping ; so fi*om that broRen splint, words and 
blood came forth together : whereat I let fall the 
top,\and stood like one who is afraid. 

" If he, wounded spirit I" my Sage replied, 
" could have believed before, what he has seen only 
in my verse,^ he would not have stretched forth his 
hand against thee ; but the incredibility of the thing 
made me prompt him to do what grieves myself. 
But tell him who thou wast ; so that, to make thee 
some amends, he may refresh tliy fame up in the 
world, to which he is permitted to retmn." 

And the trunk : " Thou so allurest me with thy 

Dall' un de' capi, che dalF altro geme, 
E cigola per vento che va via ; 

Si della scheggia rotta usciva insieme 
Parole e sangue : ond' io lasciai la cima 
Cadere, e stetti come V uom che teme. 

S' egU avesse potuto creder prima, 
Kispose 11 Savio mio, anima lesa, 
Ci6 che ha vedato pur con la mia rima, 

Non averebbe in te la man distesa ; 
Ma la cosa incredibile mi fece 
Indurlo ad ovra, cli' a me stesso pesa. 

Ma dilli chi tu fosti, si che, in voce 
D' alcuna ammeuda, tua fama rinfreschi 
Nel mondo su, dove tomar gli lece. 

E il tronco : Si col dolce dir m* adeschi, 



1 Which he had broken off. 
* In the story of Polydorus, to 

which he has already alluded. 
See (p. 145) ver. 21, and note 4. 

148 INFERKO. oumi 

sweet worda, that I oannot keep Bilent; and let it 
not seem biirdenBonie to yon, if I enlarge a little" 
in discourse.' I am he,* who held toth keys of 
Frederick's heart, and tiimcJ them, locking and un- 
locking so softly, that from his secrets I excluded 
almost every other man. So great fidelitj' I bore to 
the glorious office, that I lost tliereby botli sleep uid 
life. The harlot,^ that never from Ciesar's dwelling 

Ch' io non posao taoere ; e voi non gmvi 
Perch' io un poco a ragionar m' inveschi. 

Io eon colui, che tenni amho le chiavi 
Del cor di Federigo, e che le volsi 
Senando e disseirando si soavi, 

Che dal segreto suo quasi ogni uom tolsi : 
Fede portai al glorioso ufiiio, 
Tanto ch' io ne perdei Io sonno e i poUi. 

La meretrice, che mai ilall' ospido 

> Ub : " II I un entjeed, or 
eau^t in the lore, to duooaru 

m while." Adacare md inittcart 
itra bath cierivod ftum aea, n bait 

' Pietio deUeVigne (Ji- Vineii), 
leoretarj, protonotBiy, cbuiwl- 
loT, lie of tlio Emperor Frodo- 
Hck II. He WOK born of very 
poor iiursnti, nt Capul^ towards 
tbo cad uf tho twelfth century; 
b^ged hii way to Bologna, and 
■tudied them with great cral uid 
etf«ot ; kttrMted tbe iiutiue of tbo 
Eniperur, itnd stood in the higheit 
farour with him lor niuij ye«r», 
tranisetinj nil his grmtest aCBun. 

In hit prosperity, he rememberad 
bis jioor mother tai liitat ; uid 
seems to bate besD erery wsf 
a noblo nnd farave-heutod 
with whom Dute oould deeplj 
sympnthiso. It was not tiU ftftw 
the Conseil of Lyooi, in 134S, 
when Fredciiok beoune e 
gled with universuJ lUEfiicioti, 
tliat bo was accused of troacbeiy, 
and destroyed hinuelf in th>t 
hitter '' sorrow luid dinlaiu.' 
Six Booka of his Latin letter* 
titi itiU extuit, and one Cu 

' Enty. See tot. 78l 

OHTO xni. 



tamed her adulterous eyes,' common bane, and vice 
of courts, inflamed all minds against me; and these 
so inflamed Augustus, that my joyous honours were 
changed to dismal sorrows. My soul, in its disdain- 
ful mood, thinking to escape disdain by death, made 
me, though just, unjust against myself. By the new 
roots of this tree, I swear to you, never did I break 
fidth to my lord, who was so worthy of honour. And 
if any of you return to the world, strengthen the 
memory of me, which still lies prostrate from the 
blow that envy gave it." 

The Poet listened a while, and then said to me : 

Di Cesare non torse gli occhi putti, 
Morte comuno, e delle corti vizio, 

Infiamin6 contra me gli animi tutti, 
E gl' infiamraati infiammar si Augusto, 
Che i Heti onor tomaro in tristi luttL 

L* animo mio, per disdegnoso gusto, 
Credendo col morir fuggir disdegno, 
Ingiusto fece me contra me giusto. 

Per le nuove radici d' esto legno 

Vi giuro, cho giammai non ruppi fedo 
Al mio signor, che fu d' onor si degno. 

E se di voi alcun nel mondo riede, 
Conforti la memoria mia, die giace 
Ancor del colpo che invidia la diede. 

Un poco attese, e poi : Da ch' ei si tace, 




^ B7 CasMT ifl meant the Em- 
peror; called fdio Auguitas in 
?er. 6S. AdalteronB, i, t, disloyal, 
■educing eyes. Envy first set 

loose the harlot Wolf. Canto i. 
100-111. " Through Envy of the 
Devil came death into the world.** 
Wisd, 'u,2L 

150 INFEBNO. con. 

" Since he is eilent, lose not the hour;' but speak^ 
and aak him, if tliou wouldst know more." 

Whereat I to liim : " Do thou aak him farther, 
respecting what thou thiiikest will satisfy nie ; for 
I could not, such pity is upon my heart."' 

He therefore resumed: " So may the man' do 
freely for thee what thy words entreat him, O im- 
prisoneti spirit, plcaso tliee tell us farther, how the 
soul gettt bound up in these knots. And tell us, i£ 
thou mayest, whether any ever frees itself from such 

Then tlie trunk blew strongly, and soon thai 
wind was changed into these words : " Briefly shall 

Disss il Poeta a me, non perder 1' ora ; 

Ma paila, e chiedi a lui, se pit ti place. 
Ond' io a lui : Dimajidal tu sncora 

Di quel che credi ch' a me soddlsfoccia ; 

Ch' io Don potrei : tanta pieti m' accora. 
Por6 ricominciii : So 1' uom ti faccin 

liberamente cib cho il tuo dir prega, 

Spiiito iucarcorato, imcor ti piaccia 
Di dime come I' anima si lega 

In qucsti nocchi ; e dinne, se ta puoi, 

S' alcuua mai da tai membra si spiega. 
Allor Bo&b Io tronco forte, e poi 

Si converli quel vento in cotal voce : 

■ The moment, tbg occuion. ' " The mui," i. <, Doate 

' Duite wcU knew the grot ' Lit. : " Unfoldi ittelf 

tuk of Frederick'! sbief mnn : lucli memben ;" «i»p« 

and tiic naj in wbioh ho h>cl thoH knotty stunted fonn*. bi 

«nileiitn>ur«d to perform It. which It ii kept Impriioned. 


2n>e Second Round, or rinR, of Hie St-veoth Circle; the iliBlnal 
mjstio Wood of Self-murdererB, Tliti houIs u[ these h&ve 
taken root in the ground, and bocome Btimted trees, nitb 
withered leaves sttd branchee; inatesd of fruit, producing 
poiMn. The obsoene Harpies, inentiabic foreboders of miserj 
and detpair, sit vailing upon them aod devouring; them. 
Pietro dalle Vigne, the great Chaocellor of Frederick II., is 
one of the suicidtfi; and he (ells Datitc what had mnds hlro 
degtrof himself, and aim in what mnnner the bouIb are con- 
verted into those Dncouth trees. Their discourse is interrupted 
by the noise of t«o apirits all naked and torn, who como 
ra«hing through the dense wood, pursued by eager female hell- 
hounds. The first of them is Lnuo, a Viennese; the second. 
Jaeopo da 8ant" Andrea, a Paduan. Both had violently wasted 
their gubetance, and thereby brought themselves to an un- 
timely end, and to this panishmeut. Danle findi> a country- 
man, who, after squanderiug all his subetance, had hanged 
liimself ; and facam him epeak euperstitlouEly about the cala- 
mities of Florence. 

142 INFEBNO. eun 

Beest the iKiiling stream, on this side, contiDUiiltjr 
diminish," said the Centaur, " so I would have thee 
to believe that, on this other,' it lowers its bottom 
more and more, till it comes again to where tyranny 
ia doomed to mourn. Divine Justice here tormenta 
tliat Attila, who was a scourge on earth ; and Pyr- 
rhuB and 8extus ;' and to eternity milks tears, which 
by the boiling it unlocks, &om Einier of Cometo^ 
from Binier Pazzo,' who on the highways made 80 
much war." 

Then he turned back, and by himself repassed the 

SI come tu da quests parte vedi 

Lo biilicame cbe aempre si scema, 

Disss il Centauro, voglio che tu cradi, 
Che da quest' oltra a, pifi a i>iu gib. pretna 

Lo fondo suo, infin che si raggiungo 

Ove la tiramua con vie n cbe gemii. 
La divisa giustizia di qua punge 

Quell' Attila che fu flagello in terra, 

E Pirrti, e Sesto ; ed in etemo munge 
Le lagrime, che col bollor disaerm, 

A Einior da Cometo, a Rinier Pazzo, 

Che fecero alle strade taato guerra, 
f oi si rivobe, e ripassosai il guazzo. 

1 Neuna kmpg wailing uro« 
the broiiil fanl, ut tha itme time 
that he ia tilling Duite bow, on 
botl] niitvi o( tbem, the atrcnm 

» PiTTThns, King of Epiraa. 
Saxtoa the Finte, bud of Foiap«7. 

Serf ui erat, nutgno prvla itidigns 
partnit, &0. Lncnn. tI. 42ft 

• Two ticrtwl robljei» unl ■■ 
aina. both on u grent acnie, in 
tinio of FreJerick II. The Utt<r 
belongcrt to the noble fmnity of 
the F»ud iu Florence, 


f Xbe Seconrl liound, or ring, of the Sevenlli Circle ; tbc dinm&l 
mjHtic Wood of Self-murderera. TLe guule of Ousee have 
takeo root la the grauDd. and become etunted trees, with 
withered leaves and brandies; instead of fruit, producioi; 
poison. The obsoeiiB Harpiee, insnUable forebodera of mfsery 
and despair, sit wniling upon them and devouring them. 
PJetro delle Vignc, the great Chanrellor of Frederick II., is 
one of the euicides; and he tells DnTite what had made htm 
deslro]' himiwlf, and also in what manner the souls are oon- 
verlfd into those oneouth trees. Tbeir discourM is Intermpted 
by the noiee of two spirits all naked and torn, who come 
nubing through the dense wood, pursued by eager female hell- 
hounds, The Brst of them is Lano, a Sicnnese ; the second, 
Jaoopo da Sant' Andrea, a Paduan. Both had violently waHhid 
their •ubstanoe, and thereby brought thamBelvcs to an uti- 
lud to this punislimeot. Dante finds a countrj'- 
\, who, after squandering all hta aubstance, had hanged 
ind hears him speak Kuperstttioualy about the oala- 
Hof Florence. 


it cried, " what hast tLou gained by making me thy 
screen ? What blame have I of thy Binftil life ?" 

When the Master had stopped beside it, he aoid : 
" Who wast thou, who, through so many wonnds, 
blowest forth with blood thy dolorous speech ?" 

And be to us: " Ye spirits, who are come to 
see the ignominious mangling which has thns dis- 
joined my leaves from me, gather them lo the 
foot of the dismal shrub 1 I was of tlie citj" that 
changed its first patron for the Baptist,' on which 

Che t' fe giovato di me fare schermo 1 

Che colpa ho io della tua %-ita rea 1 1 35 

Quando il Maestro fu sovr" eaeo fermo, 
DissB : Chi fusti, che per tnnte p«nt« 
Soffi col Bangue doloroso sermo 1 

E quegli a noi : anime, che giunte 

Siote a veder Io strozio disonesto, 140 

Che le mie frondi ha ^ da nie diagiunte, 

£accoglietele al pic del triato ccsto ; 
Io fui della cHti, che nel Battista 
Cangi6 '1 primo padrone : ond' ei per quests 

Himt {uhion. "He vu tbe 
heir of very grot liDbea, and he 

waited Sffny the wbole of hli 
vealth. Amoogit other prodi- 
enlitiea of hii it in told, that, 
wiahing to Bee a gnat and beau- 
tiful fire, he cBUscil one of hii 
own viUaitobe burnt," OU.Cam. 
LttDO and he repreHnt the clam 
of unnsn who have done rjolenoe 
to their aubituioe (oonto zi 41} ; 
aDd the hell-houndi ar« to them 

what the Haiplea are to the Mtlf- 

^ Florence, according to the old 
tmiitiona given hy Btalecjiiitl, 
Villani, &o., WM fanndod by tlie 
Boiiiani, who oLoae Man for their 
patron or protector; waa deatroyod 
by Attila, and then rebuilt hj 
CharlemagBe, with St. John the 
Baptiit for it* (latiPD. Hence 
tlie Tenfreance of Man, " with 
hii art;" and the ■npcntitiou* 

m nn. D.TKBKO. IBS 

account he with hia art will always make it sor- 
rowful. And were it not that at the passage of the 
Amo tliero yot remains some aomblaneo of him, those 
(^tizens, who afterwards rebuilt it on the asliea left by 
Attils, would have laboured in vain. 

"I made a gibbet for myself of my own dwell- 

a V arte sua la {aik tristo. 
E ae non fosse ehe in aul pasao d' Amo 
Kimone an cor di lui alcana vista ; 

Qaei cittadio, che poi la rifomlarno 
Sovra il cencr che d' AttOa rimaso, 
Avrebbev fatto lavorai* indarno. 

lo fei giubbetto a mo delle mie case. 


TmentioD (often mentioned hy 
tbo old ehroniclon) for the i 
Hunt of hi* ilatiK, wbioli stood 
at tbf end of the bridge over the 
Amo. uid was at hiat twept 
■witjr bf a flood in 1333. 

> Who thi* «u. that hung 
tumutf in bia own hoiu 
nnkaown. Bocco do' I 
Lotto degli A*li, both of nobis 

tioned by the oldeat commen- 
toton. u having been driven bj 
the dopair and poverty ("hell- 

honnds"), which they had broaght 
npon themulres, to Beek death in 
thi« way. Booeaceia siiya : " In 
thwe timea, ■■ if it had been a 
ennc wnt by God ugion onr oity, 
mi^ny hangad themtwNea ; lO that 
evety one oan apply the worriii 
to wbomioever be pleaie«." Tlio 
Oitimo remarks : " Tlii* itiirit 
■ponki of hia end, ait tbey speak 
in Paria, where perhapa he bad 
spent aiid conium^ part of bia 
n^th. The phtce wliare men 
arc hanged ia called a gibbet in 
Paria, and through Fraoce." 


Dante (^BQ□ot go on fjll he haa collected tlio scattered IcBTes, and 
reslored thein W Ihat wretclied ehriib in which the bouI of hie 
counlrjman i« im prisoned. He is then led I17 Tirgil, acroaa 
tbe remainder of the wood, to the edge of the Third Round, or 
ring, of the Seventli Circle. It is a naked plain of burning 
Sand ; the plaue appointed for the punishment of those who 
have done Violence against Ood, againit Nature, and agikinst 
Nature and Art. Canto li. 40, Ice, The violent agaiaut God, 
the least numerous cIbkh, are lying supine upon the cand, and 
in greater torment than the rest. The violent against Nature 
and Art are litiing all crouched up ; end the violent aguititt 
Nature are moving about, in large troops, with a speed pro- 
portioned to their guilt. A alow eternal Shower of Fire is 
fulling upon them all. Capaneus is amongst the lupine, un- 
subdued by the Sames, btoaphvming with his old decisiveness 
and fury. AIt«r speaking with him, the poets go on, between 
the burning Band and tlie nood of selE-murderere, and aoon 
oome to a crimBon streamlet that gushea forth from the wood 
and urossea the sandy plain, Virgil here explains the origin 
of all the rivers and marBbea of Bell. 


The love of my native place oonstraining me 
I gatlioroci up the scattered leaves; aiid gave thei 
back to him, who wan already hoai-se. Then w 
came to tlie limit, where fJie second round ia eepa* 
rated from tlie third, and where is seen tho fearfoll 
art of justice. To make the new things clear, I 
say we reached a plain which from its bed repeh' 
all jilants. The dolorous wood is a garland to ii 
round about, as to the wood tlio dismal foss.' Hen: 
we stayed our feet close to ita very edge. Thai 
s a »ind, dry and thick, not different in 

PoiCBK la cariti ilel natio looo 

Mi striiiso, rauimi lo froodi! eparto, 
E teudu' le a cului, ch' eta gia roco. 

Iiidi venimmo ol fine, ovo si parto 
Lo secondo giron do! tereo, e dove 
Si vede di giustizia orribil' arte. 

A ben nianifestar le cose nuove, 
Dice ch' arrivamnio od una landa, 
Che dal suo letto ogm pianta rimuove. 

La dolorosa selva 1' k ghirlanda 

lutomo, come il fosao tristo ad essa : 
Quivi fermammo i piedi a randa a landa. 

Lo spazzo era una rena arida e spessa, 

mil the btiming plsin. ni | vood. &et Cuito xL 3D, 

or. INFERNO. 159 

[ its fashion from tliat which ouec was troddeu by the 
[ feet of Cato.' 

O vengeance of God I how ahouldst thou be 
1 feared by every one who reads what was revealed 
I to vay eyea I I saw many herds of naked souls, 
I who were all lamenting very miserably ; and there 
I seemed imposed upon them a divorso law : Some 
1 were lying snpine upon tlie ground ; some sitting 
I all crouched up ; and others roaming incessantly. 
ft Those that moved about were much more numerous ; 
I sod those that were lying in the tomient were fewer, 
I but uttered louder cries of pain.' 

Non d'altrft foggia fetta eho colei, 

Che da' pi^ di Caton gii fu aopprefi§a. 15 

vendetta di Bio, quanto ta doi 

Esser temuta da ciasuun, che legge 

Ci6 cho fu manifesto i^li occhi miei I 
D' aiiime nude vidi molte gregge, 

Che piongBBn tutte aesai miaeramente, 20 

E parea posta lor diversa legge. 
Supin giaceva in terra alciina gunte ; 

Alcona ai sedea tutta raccolta, 

Ell altta andava continuamento. 
Quella che giva intorno era pi{i molto, 25 

£ quella men, che giaceva ol tormento, 

Ma piit al duolo avea la liugua sciolta. 

' ThelibTHi detert, over which i ' Lit : " Had tha tongue moP 
» ootulocted the reiDuna of let loune for tbo pain ;" wens ii 
ip«7'* ftrmy. Bee Lucan. a. grtsatai tomieat, and liad to or; 



Orer all the great sand, ialling slowly, rained 
dilated flakes of fire, like those of snow in Alps 
without a wind. As the danie« which Alexaiiderj 
in tbose hot regions of India, saw fall upon his host, 
entire' to the ground; whereat he witli lus legions 
took cai-e to tramp the soil, for the fire was mora 
- easily extinguished while alone: so fell the eternal 
heat, by which the sand was kindled, like tinder 
under flint and steel, redoubling the pain. Ever 
restless was the dance' of miserable hands, now here, 
now there, shaking off the fresh burning. 

Sovra tutto it sabbion d' un cador lonto 

Piovean di fuoco dilatate falde, 

Come Ji neve in alpe acnza vento. 
Quoli Alessaniiro iu quelle parti calde 

D' India viJl^ sovra lo buo stuolo 

Fiamme cadcre iiihuo a teaa ealde j 
Per ch' ei iirovvide a scalpitar lo bqoIo 

Con le sue scliiere, perciocchi il vapore 

Me' si atjngueva inentre ch' era solo : 
Tale scoudeva 1' eternals ardore ; 

Onde r arena s' accendea, com' esca 

8otto il focile, a doppiar lo dolore. 
Scnza riposo mai era la trcsca 

Dulle miscTo irmnj, or quindi or quiuci 

lecotendo da ae 1' arsnra fresca. 

' "WTioIb," uDobinjed to tlB i ' Tba IVMr-a wm « lort ol 
STOUDil. Tbli tradition about politui dwiee, consisting tnunlj 

Aleuinder ii uid to be taken | uf ntpidcoini>ticiit«lgeitani>,i 
from •onte luiipoKil letter of his moTementi of the hauiiLb 

to Arlatotls. See Landiiio, Can. ' Benv. d» Iioola, Con. 

DUTO or. ISTEKSO. 161 

I began ; " Master, thou who coiiquereat all things, 
Itvo the hard Demons, that came forth against us at 
I'fto entrance of the gate: who is that great spirit, 
■ who seeraa to care not for the fire, and lies disdainfiil 
liwd contorted, so that the rain seems not to ripen 

And^he himself, remarking that I asked my Guide 
■.oonceming him, exclaimed: " Wliat I was living, 
Rihat am I dead. Though Jove weary out his smith, 
from whom in anger Jie took the sharp holt with 
wliieh on my last day I was transfixed ; and though 
he weary ont the others, one by one, at the black 
fi>rge in Mongibello,' eiying : ' Help, help, good 

lo cominciai ; Maestro, tu ehe vinci 
Tutte le cose, fuor che i Dinioa diiri, 
Ch' ull' entrar della porta incoutro uactnci, 45 

Chi 6 quel grande, ohe non par cbe curi 
Lo jnceiidio, e giacc dispettoso e torto, 
SI dhe la pioggia non par che il moturil 

E quel medesmo, che si fue accorto 
Ch' io dimandava il mio T)«en di lui, 
Grid6 : Qual fui vivo, tal son morto. 

Se Giova stanchi il auo fabl>ro, da cui 
Crunciato preae la folgore acuta, 
Onde 1" ultimo di percosso fui ; 

E a' egli etauclij ^li altri a luuta a uiuta 
In Mongibello alia fiicina negra. 
Gridando : Buon VuIcitio, uiuta, aiuta, 

' ^tn«, in which Vuluui uid I forgeiJ the thundcrTioltB i 
ilop* ( JTdiici Cydoptf] I ter. See .En. viii. 419, & 


Vulcaii !' as he did at the strife of PlJegra ; and hurl 
at me with all hia might, yet should he not therebj; 
have jujfiil vengeance,"' 

Then my Guide spake with a force such as I had: 
not heard before: "0 Capaneua I* in tli at thy pride' 
remains unquenched, thou art punished more. No 
torture, except thy own raving, would be pain pro- 
portioned to thy iiiry." 

Then to me he turned with gentler lip, saying 
" That was the one of the seven kings who laid fiego 
to Thebes; and lie held, and seems to hold, Grod 
in de6ance and prize liim lightly. But, as I told 
him, his revilinga are omamenta that well befit liis 

SI com' ei feco alia pugna di Flegra ; 
E me sactti di tutta sua forza, 
Non ne potrebbe aver vendetta oUegra. 

Allora il Duca mio parli di forza 
Tanto, ch' io non 1' avea A forte udito : 
Capaneo, in cib cbo nan s' ammorza 

Iji tua Buperbia, aei tu pii panJto : 
Nidlo martirio, fiior che la tua rabbia, 
Sareblie al tuo furor dolor compito. 

Poi ei rivolse a mo con miglior labbia, 
Dicendo : Quel fu 1' un de' aette regl 
Ch' essieer Tcbe ; ed ebbe, e par ch' ^li abbia 

Cio in disdegno, e poco par che U pregi ; 
^a, come io dissi lui, li auoi dispetti 

' Seo Statim, Thtb. oL SOS, I tira of blasiiliaroy kdiI urrogUiM, 
1 ; and I. 928, Ao. ! m the Cuuods of Duite whifj 

' Capuiciu U the rejireKnta- | b^ini : jiatrii 


Now fi)lloiv me, and see tlioii place not yd 
[ fhy feet upon the burning sand ; but always keep 
era back close to tlie wood." 
In silence we cnme to where thei'e gushes fortli 
from tlie wood a little rividet, the redness of wliicli J 
I still makes ine shudder. As from the Bulicame'l 
iasues the streamlet, which the sinful women share i 
amongst themselves ; so this ran d<Jwn across tlie 
sand. Its bottom and both its shelving banks were 
petrified, and also tlie margins near itj wliereby I 
discerned tliat oiu- passago lay there. 

" Amidst all the rest that I have shewn thee, 
I BDce we entered by the gate whose threshold ia 

Sono al BUG petto aasat dehiti fregi 
Or mi vien dletro, o guimia the nou motti 

Ancor li piedi nell' arena arsiccia ; 

Ma semprc al bosto gli ritieni strettL 
Tacendo diveninuno li ove apiccia 

Fuor della selva un picoiol Jiumitollo, 

Lo cui roasore aacor mi niccopriccia. 
Quale del Bulicamo esce il ni^coUo, 

Che parton poi tra lor le peccatrici ; 

Tal per 1' arena giti sen giva quelto. 
Lo fondo suo ed ambo lo pendici 

Fatt' eran pietra, o i margini da lato : 

Per oh' io m' accorai che il passo era lici. 
Tra tutto 1' altro ch' io t' ho diinostrato, 

Poscia i:he noi eutrammo per la porta, 

Lo cui sogliore a nessuno k negnXo, 

' Tb* Bnlicnme, hem oUuilecl i Boeo., I^ud,, ke, ipeak of " 
, i* a hot spring neai Viterbo, | liuful women" th&t liveJ near 


deniod to none,' tliy eyes have discerned nothing 
so notable as the present stream, which quencheit all 
the flames above it." Tliese were words of my Guide. 
Wherefore I prayed him to bestow on me tlie food,' 
for which he had bestowed the appetito. 

"In the middle of the sea lies a waste country," ha 
then said, "which is named Crete,* under whose King 
the world oucd was chaste.* A mouutaiii is there, 
called Ida, which once was glad with waters and with 
foliage: now it is deserted like an antiquated thing. 

Cosa non fu dagli tnoi occhi acorta 

Notabile, com' h il prosente rio, 

Che eopra ei tutle fitLmmelle luniuoTta. 
Queete parole fur del Duca niio : 

Per ch' io pregai, cbe mi largigse il paato, 

Di cui lai^to m' aveva il diaio. 
In mezzo il mar siede iiu paese guaeto, 

Diss' egli atlora, che a' appelia Creta, 

Sotto il cul R(ige fu gi^ il luoudo i^eto. 
Una montf^na V t, che gii fu lieta 

D' acque e dl ftonde, che ai chioma Ida ; 

Oro k deaerta come coaa vieto. 

99. Fiefo, grown old, or ttalp ; dim with tgv. 

Virgn, redctait Satunia rigna of 
Virgil, at,jt : Virgo rorabalHTJu*- 
iitioj ifliam rt Aatrtam foe 
Satui^iti rrffna dicfbanlw I 
tmpora, qua tt Auria nui 
bani, JuilUia /lotiirima at 
tnt Moitartka. Siyn ad 
mundi ditpoMiliancm m 
£>M Umarchiam, ke. i 
Ub. i. p. 28. 

> "Gitt«, that itill is found on- 
barrod." See p. 91, and note 3d. 

* To oipluin wh)r that Btniun 
il (O aoUkblo. 

* Citla Jorit <nii|7nt tatdlo jaeel 
imala punln, Mont Idittu uM, tt 
gcatit ctinabula noitrtr. .fin. iiL 
IW. "CrKilo" of the Tnijiuu i 
uid of Komo Mil! itt Empire, ke. 

* Duite, quoting the rtdu tl 

Rhea^ of old cbose it for the faithful cradle of her 

son ; and the better to conceal him, when he wept, 
caused cries to be made on it 

*' Withui t}jc mountain stands erect' a great Old 
Man, who keepa his shoulders turned towarda Da- 
mietta, and looks at Rome as if it were liis mirror. 
His head is shnpeti of fine gold, his anna and bin 
breast are pure silver ; then he is of brass to tho 
deft: from theneo downwards lie is all of chosen 
iron, save that the right foot is of baked clay ; and 

Rca la ecelse gih. per cuna fida 

Del sue figliuolo, e per celarlo moglio, 
Quando piangea, vi facea far le grida. 

Dentro dal monte sta dritto im gran veglip, 
Chu tien volte le ajwdle invfir Damiata, 
£ Roma gnarda si ci>iue alio spe^jlle. 

La sua testa 6 di fiiio oro formata, 

E puro argento son le braccia e il petto ; 
Poi e di ramo infino alia forcata ; 

Da indi in giuso ^ tutto ferro elettn, 
Salvo c!ie il destro piede i; terra cotta, 


' Shek, orOybele, ka., dnnghter 
of Hetven and Eutb, tuid wife of 
SatDrn, orChronoi, concealing her 
MD Japiter. Bine Titaltr euUrix 
Cjrbefe, Cori/banliqnt ara, Iitmm- 
qut nemiu .- >iinefida tiltnlia la- 
erh, do. Mn. iii. IIL 

■ With bit golden hud towuilB ! 
HettTm ; and the poor foot of 
11U7, OD whiflh bo ihiofl; stands, 
towknli D14, Looking lacllj at 

Rome, the eeatreof temponil and 
apiritua! govommcnt, n» the mir- 
ror of hifl eoaditiun, Thik image 

theit moaBrohies ia tolcoti from 
DanitI (ii. 3,1, ko.) ; and it> aiso- 
eiationa from the old poetic tra- 
ditions. A new life cmd algnif 
csncy i» given to butb. The tears 
of Sin and Miaciy, returning tu 
Satan, make the image ooniplota 

166 INfBBNO. 

he rests more on this' Uian on the other. 'Every psrty 
except the gold, h broken with a fissure that drop*' 
tears, whicJi collected perforate that grotto.* Their 
course descends from rock to rock into this valley. 
They* fomi Acheron, Styx, and Ptilegotbon ; theiif 
by tliis narrow conduit, go down to wliere there i 
no more descent.* They form Cocjinis ; and thou 
shalt see what kind of lake that is : hero therefor* 
I describe it not" 

And I to him: " If the present rill thus flows 
down from our world, why does it appear to us only* 
on this bank?" 

E Bta in bu quel, piit che in bu I' altro, eretto. 
Ciascuna part«, fuoi che 1' on>, h rolta 

X)' una fesaura che lagrime goccia, 

Lc quali Bccolto fonm quella grotta. 
Lor corso in qucsta valle si diroucia : 

Fanno Acheronte, Stige, e Flegetonta ; 

Poi sen van gid per queata strotta doccia 
Infin lii, ova piii non si dismonta : 

Fanno Cocito ; e quol aiu quello atagno, 

Tu U vederai ; jieri qui non ai conta. 
£d io a lui : Se il presento rigagno 

Si deriva coal dal nostro mondo, 

Percli^ ci appar pure a questo vivagno t 

IIG. Si dirotxia, from roeeia, took, 

' lit : "Stand* more ercot on I lUnil* ; tad tlion in H«ll 
tbii" Dlay foot ; nujiporta hiiuult domi from ouuIb Co oinile. 
man with it. > Tho» teon of Sin 

• '■ Bore," or work tbrongli, ■ To tbe CantrB of tbe Eutfa. 

t'iM wTcrn in which the Imago I * U it tliiu iL»o«nd« from d 


And Iio to 1110 : " Tium knowost that tlie place 
18 round : ami though thou hast como far, alwa^-s to 
file left, descending towards the bottom ; thou haat 
not yet turned tlu'ough the entire circle. Wherefore 
if aught new appears to us, it ought not to bring 
wonder on thy countenance." 

And I again : " Master, where is Phlegethon 
■nd Lethe found ; for thou apeakeat not of the one, 
and snyest the otlier is formed by tliis rain?"' 

" In all thy questions truly tliou jileasest me," 
be answered ; " but the boiling of tlie red water 
might well resolve one' of those thou askest, Lethe 

Ed egli a me : Tu sni clie i] luogo h tondo, 

£ tutto che tu sii venuto molto 125 

Pur a ainistm giu calanilo al fondo, 

Xon Be' ancor per tutto il cerchio vSlto ; 
Perch6, ae cosa n' apparisco nuova, 
Kon dec addur iimraviglia q1 tuo volto. 

Ed io anuor : Maestro, ove ai trova 130 

Flegetonte e Letiio, cht doll' un taci, 
E 1' altro di' che si fa d' esta piova 1 

In tutte tue iiuestion eerto mi piaci, 
Biapoae ; ma il bollor dell' acqua rossa 
Dovea ben solver I' una che tu faci. 135 . 

t oicle, vb; have we not Men 
ifonf Duea not »t fint coDcei' 
ut the riTer of blood (canto li 
I, ftc) can be Pblegethi 
1 blnuelf bRviog deuribed it 

[ Tarlareia Pklei/clAon. .^^^l , vi. 

□ of te«n. 9ee yet. 


r of II 



GASTO xrr. 

thou shalt see, but out of this abyss,^ there where ttie 
spirits go to wash themselves, when their guilt is 
taken oflF by penitence." 

Then he said : " Now it is time to quit the wood. 
See that thou follow me. The margins, which are 
not burning, form a path ; and over them all fire is 

Let^ vedrai, ma fuor di questa fossa, 
lit ove vanno 1* anime a lavarsi, 
Quando la colpa pentuta b rimossa. 

Poi disse : Omai h tempo da scostarsi 
Dal bosco : fa che diretro a me vegne. 
Li margin! fan via, che non son arsi, 

E sopra loro ogni vapor si spegne. 


* Not in Hell, but inPui^tory. 
Purg. canto xxviiL 26-130. 

• See next canto, ver. 1-2. Va- 
poVf both here and at ver. 35, is 

used in the Latin mdm of "beat, 
or fire." Semutta madeseunt Bo- 
bora ; restinctut donee vapor om- 
niSf &c. Mn. v. 697. 


The crimson stream — ^whose course is straight across the ring of 
baming sand, towards the ring of Hell — sends forth a dark 
exhalation that quenches all the flames over itself and its 
elevated margins. Upon one of these Dante continues to fol- 
low his Guide, in silence, till they have got far from the wood, 
when thej meet a troop of spirits coming along the sand by 
the side of the bank. Dante is recognised by one of them, 
who takes him by the skirt ; and, on fixing his eyes over the 
baked and withered figure, he finds it is Brunetto Latini, his 
old master. They speak to each other with great respect and 
affection, recalling the past, and looking forward to the future 
under the pressure of separate eternities. Their colloquy has 
a dark background, which could not be altered ; and it stands 
there in deep perennial warmth and beauty. 


Now one of the bard margins bears na 
and tbe smoke of tbe ri>iilet makes shade abovSf 
BO that from the fire it shelters the water and the 
banks.' As the Flemings between Bruges and Cad- 
sand, dreading the flood that i-ushes towards tbeiOji 
make their bulwark^ to repel tlie sea ; and as tJia 
Faduans, along the Breuta, to defend tlieir towns 
and villages, ere Chiarentana feels tlie lieat :' in like 
fashion those banks were formed, though not so high 

Ora cen porta 1' un de' dnri maigmi, 
E il fiunmo del niacel di sopra aduggia, 
SI uhe dal fnoco salva I' acqua e gli arginl 

Quale i Fiamminghi, tra Guzzaute e Bmggia, 
Temendo il fiotto cho in ver lor s' awenta, 
Faimo lo achermo, perch^ il mar si f^iggia ; 

E quale i Podovan, lungo la Brenta, 
Per difender lor ville o lor castelli, 
Auzi che Chiarentana il culdo senta ; 

A tolo imogino eran fatti tjuclli, 
Tutto cbe n^ si alti n£ si grossi, 

2. Adi^ffia, from vggia, shkde or ahftdow. 

' The eihtJation of tlio livulst I 
"qoencbea >U the fluaci above 
it." CBnto UT. DO. I 

' Tho Jykfi here ftUnded I 

melt on the C41 
■well the Bm 

■trong embanka 

uid to be itill kept up, Cultuiil I Iwd duhiI by il 

e twenty mile* bortb'WWt the I 

vel of tbe plain, liko o 
,ot Italy. 

ano IT. rNTBRNO. 171 

nor 80 large, the master, whoever it might be, made 

Ahready we were so fiir removed from the wood, 
tbat I should not have seen where it was, had I 
turned back, when we met a troop of spirits, who 
were coming alongside the bank; and each looked 
at ns, as in the evening men are wont to look at one 
another under a new moon ;' and towards us sharp- 
ened their vision,^ as an aged tailor does at the eye 
of his needle. 

Thus eyed by that family, I was recognised by 
one who took me by the skirt, and said : " What a 
wonder 1"' 

Qual che si fosse, lo maestro felli. 
Gi^ eravam dalla selva rimossi 

Tanto, ch' io non avrei visto dov' era, 

Perch' io indietro rivolto mi fossi, 15 

Quando incontrammo d' anime una schiera, 

Che venia lungo V argine, e ciascuna 

Ci riguardava, come suol da sera 
Guardar V un V altro sotto nuova luna ; 

E si ver noi aguzzavan le ciglia, 20 

Come veccliio sartor fa nella cruna. 
Cosi adocchiato da cotal famiglia, 

Fui conosciuto da un, che mi prese 

Per lo lembo, e grid6 : Qual maraviglia ! 

* lit.: "The one ia wont to look * Lit.: "Sharpened their eye- 

•i the other under a new moon ;" brows,'" &c. ; puckered them, as if 

whieh givea a f eehle light, so as to , frowning, at us. 

make recognition difficult. ' To see thee here in the body. 

172 DJFERNO. curro 

And I, when he stretched out his arm to t 
fixed my eyes on hia baked aspect, so that i 
scorcliing of his visage hindered not my mind from 
knowing him. And bending my face to Ids, I ait- 
swered: "Are you here, Ser Brmietto?"' 

And he ; "0 my son I let it not displease the0|. 
Ed io, quando il suo Lraccio a me disteae, 
Ficcai gli occbi per lo cotto aspctto 
H\ cbe il viso abbrutiato non difeae 
La coDOSceimt sua al mio iutelletto ; 
£ chinando la mia alia sua faccia, . 
Kisposi; Siete voi qui, Ser Bninettol 
E quegli : ligHuol mio, noD ti dispiaccia, 

teMher ; ■ man nutecl for hia 
Igutiitig in tjuwe times, utd for 
liii poUteneu uiit muiifold d«X' 
leiitf. The Floniotino Ouelpiis 
Hat him u their snib&uailaT to 
Aloiuo X., King of Spain, in 
Ueo'iafaiapini, c im) i vid lie 
vu afterwudii ippointeil WMit- 
tuyunInotSTjottbeaitf. VilLuii 
(viiL 10) (Nklli Iiim " ■ grent phi- 
loHpher, and tupreme miutsr of 
rbetoria, u woU in apwJdug u in 
wiiting," kc. ; but adda that "he 
wu ■ woridJy JatD." The eu-ly 
oomiDeiiUton (Boscnccio, Bbdt. 
(U loioU, ke.) meation that, 
having madi? an emr in some 
Oontraut drawn up by lilm In hia 
■wpiKiity of notary, nad being too 
Iiraud to aolcnawleJgo the pmai* 
biljty of it, be wm aoctiaed of 
Innd, and left Florencfl in high 

diwlaia. He died in I3M. Two 
worka of hii itill remain. One of 
these ia the Tuordto (little Tm- 
■iire), in ehort, jingling, qoaint 
rhymee — too feeble and empty for 
aas asrioai peniaal ; bat ourioiu 
aa a gpedinen of old Ilaliui, util 
as bearing a faint outward meta- 
bUnoe in Mme phnae* and in- 
Didenta to the Cummrdia, Tbc 
other, Lf Triior or Tttorv, U ft 
kind of enoyclopedia, wntMn ia 
the French of thoae tiniea, or, M 
BniDottohiniHlfaayB,ni rwnaiM, 
idon trpatoitdt Fnuia, It had 
neTM been printed iUI 1803, In 
that year a moot elabomte edi- 
tion, by F. Chatailli, ooiuittin^ 
of 730 pages Urgt 410, with 36 ol 
IntrodaetioD, cuuc out in Pttiir, 
entitlod ! lA livrri rfoa Trtwrrpar 
Bntnrllo lialmi. Many HBK, of it 
ore atill extant— one in theBritiah 
UOHum, uid one at Oxford. 


if Bninetfo Latini turn back with tliee a little, and 
let go hia train."' 

I said : " With all my power I do besicecli it of 
vou. And if you wish me to ait down with you, I 
will do so, if it pleases him tliere, for I go with him." 

" my son," he said, " whoever of this flock 
stops one instant, lies a hundred years thereafter, 
without fanning himself when the fire strikes him. 
Therefore go on : I will follow at thy skirts ;^ and 
then will I rejoin my band, that go lamenting their 
eternal losses." 

I durst not descend &om the road to go level 
with hun; hut kept my head bent down, like one 

Se Brunette Latini un poco teco 
Ritoma iudietro, e lascia andor la traccia. 

lo disai lui : Qimnto posso ven preco ; 
E se Tolete che con voi m' asa^gia, 
Farbl, se piace a cestui, chb vo Beco. 

figliuol, disse, qual di questa greggia 
S' arresta punto, giace poi cent' flim" 
Senxa arroatarsi quando il fuoco il feggia. 

Pord va ollre : io ti verrJi a' panni, 
E poi rigiugnoii la mia masnado, 
Che va piangendo i auoi otemi danni. 

Io non osava scenJer della strada 

Per andar par di lui ; ma il capo chine 

' Let hia train, or campnniuiu I S2,&«.], witlioiit powor to (M 

I in&Ie, go DD witboat hini. lumsflf from tha flamea. 

* lies pro«tnit« like the oontu- I 'lit.; "J will come tX 

I idwUru bluphemeis (mito iiT, { dotiiea." On ■ lowsr level. 


who wallvS in reverence. He began : " What chance, 
or destiny, hrings (hee, cro thy last day, down here? 
And who is tins that shows the way ?" 

" There above, up in the clear life, I lost mysetf," 
replied I, " in a valley, before my age was fill].* 
Only yester morn I turned my back to it. He ap- 
peared to me, as I was rettimtng into it, and guides 
me homo again' by tliia path." 

And lie to me : " If thou follow thy star, thou 
canst not fail of glorious heaven, if I discerned rightly 
in the fair Ufa." And if I had not died so early, seeing 

Tonea, com' uom che riverente vada. 45 

Ei comincii) : Qual fortuuo, o destino. 

Ami 1' ultimo d\ quaggiti ti mena 1 

E chi & questi, ctie mostia il cammino ? 
Lasah di aopra in la vita eerena, 

lUspos' io lui, mi smairi' in una valle, 50 

Avonti cho 1' eti mia fosse piena. 
Pur ier nmttina le volsi le apalJe : 

QuBsti m' apparre, ritomaudo in quella, 

E riducemi a ca' per iiucato calle. 
£d egli a mo : So tu segui tua st«lla, 65 

Koa puoi falliro a glorioao porto, 

Se ben m' oocorsi nella vita bella. 
E a' io non fossi el per tempo morto, 

' Lout "tlie itraiglit vr;" be- 
fore I iui'l emae to tlie full matu- 
ntj, LC to the 35th ;ear of my 
•(« ; but ilid not till tbea feel 
tliiit I liftd lost it, or begin la wo 
tho full iniier; uul darlmeu of 
the "vsUst" into which I biul 

[alkn. Spent a long night at 
sorrow, uid <Iid Dot dwiike fnnu 
it till yciter room. See Mltto L 

■ Or : "Brings tne buk to » 
honiei'' Ca' for eata. 

■ Onrenrthljlife; "heftntifal** 


Iieaven so kmd to theo, I wonld Lave cteoreri tliee 
in the work. But tliat ungratefiil, malignant people, 
who of old came down from Fiesole,' and still savouTB 
of the mountain and the rock, will make itself an 
to theo for tliy good deeds. And there is 
for amongst the tart sorb-trees, it befits not 
!et fig* to fructify. Old report on earth pro- 
claims thoni blind,' a people avariciouSj envious, and 

Veggeudo il cielo a te cosi benigiio, 
Dato f avrei all' opera conforto. 

Ma quell' jngrato popolo maligno, 
Che discese di Fiesole alj antico, 
E tieno ancor del monte o del macigno, 

Ti ei fork, per tuo ben far, nimico : 
Ed fe region ; chfe tra gli lazzi sorbi 
81 diaconvien fruttaro al dolce fico. 

Vecchia fama nol mondo li chiama orbi, 
Gente avara, invidiosa, o superba ; 

The old ohronideB Bay tlist 
Florenoe ma fint founded b; 
Bamuu, nhoiis deuonilaiitB, after 
IIUU7 OBDtnriea of perpetual ood- 
with (be citf of Fieiole, 
fDkde iti iuIuibitAnta come dowo 
with iheni, To thii dou- 
ble origin of tbe Florentines Vil- 
fraquentl; nttribuCes all ttieir 

Boccaooio and othuni say that 

Uui &iiii1y of the EHisel, of whiah 

was t, bmneh, had il» ori' 

from tbe Fntngipaoi of Borne. 

i the " rweet fig" allndei to 

the " noble an J virtuous Romans ;" 
the "tort BOrbi," to tho "rude 
aud harab Fioolaiu)." Theeo are 
temn nstd by TilUni in apeoldiig 
of the Komnna and Fiesotoni. 

' Tillani (ii J.) aaya the Flo- 
rentinea "were colled blind ever 
after," from having fooliahly open- 
eri thiLr gatea to Attila, who put 
munyof them to death, and "com- 
mnnrled that the city ihould be 
destroyed, burnt, nnd Inj J waate ; 
so that one atone tnigbt not be 
left BpoD another, ... in the year 

proud : look that thou cleanse thyself of tLeir cus- 
toms. Thy fortune reserves such honour for thee, 
that both parties will have a hunger of thee ; but 
far from the goat shall he the grass.' Let the beasts 
of Fiesole make litter of themselves, and not toach 
the plant, if any yet springs up amid their ranknessj 
in which the holy seed revives of those Romans who 
remained there when it became the nest of bo much 

" Wore my desire all fulfilled," I answered him, 
" you had not yet been banished &um hmnan na- 
ture ; for in my memory is fixed, and now goes to 

Dai lor eoetumi fa che tu tl forlii. 
La tua fortuna tauto onor ti serba, 70 

Che r una parte e 1' altra avranno fame 

Si te ; ma Inngi fia ilal bocco 1' erba. 
Faccian le tieatie t'iesolane etrame 

M lor incdeame, e nou toccliin la piftutu, 

S' nldunu surge ancor nol lor lotame, 75 

In cui riviva la eomenta sauta 

Di quei Eoman, che vi rimaser quando 

Fa (atto il uido di malizia tauta. 
Se fosBQ pieno tutto i] mio dinmndo, 

Bifiposi lui, Toi uon sareste ancora 80 

Dell' umana natura posto in baailo : 
ChS in la mcTite m' v £tta, ed or m' aci'uora 

' TIi« Jferi anil Sittnchi (uoto | "he-gokt:" uul the pawnga vaj 

2d, p. G4) will botli hunger itfter ht traoBUted: " Fitr froni tbe be»k 

tbee ; but neitlier will get tliee to ih^Il be the gtiui ;" for fnuo ita 

tiklie pnrt with them. Thuu iba]t ' poiwuionB teeth, 
ttuid thjielf lUono. Par. ivii. C 

Bttta meaui "bekk" u well 



heart, the dear, kind, paternal iuiago of you, 
-when in the world, hour by hour, you taoglit mc 
Low man maies himself eternal. And whilst I live, 
beseems my tongue should shew what gratitude I 
tave for it. That which you relate about my course, 
I writs ;' and keep it, with another text, for a Lady 
to comment,' who will be able if I get to her. Thus 
much I would have you know : So conscience chide 
me not, I am prepared for Fortune as she wills. 
Not new to my ears is such earnest.' Tlierefore, let 
Fortune turn her wheel aa pleases her, and the boor 
his mattock,"* 

La cara buooa imagine patema 

Di voi, qiumdo nel mondo ad ora ad ora 

M* inaegnavate come 1' aoia s' etema ; 85 

E quant' io 1' abbo in grado, mentr' io vivo 
Convien, che nella mia lingua si scetna. 

Cii che narrate di mio cowo, scrivo, 
E eerbolo a chiosar con altro teato 
A donna che il saprk, a' a lei arrivo. 90 

Tanto vogl' io che vi sia manifesto, 
Fur che mia cosc'ienza non mi garra, 
Che alia fortuna, como vuol, son presto. 

Soa h nuova agli orecclii niiei tnlo arra : 

Perfa giri Fortuna la sua rota, 95 

Come le piuca, a il villan la aua marra. 

* uuwribc it ID mjr meminy. 
M canto ii. H. 

* The " othei text" is the pro- 
pkecj of Ciivcao uiJ FiuinBtn, re- 
gu6ilig Duite'a exile ; and the 
Lkdr, able to eiplun both, i> 
Beatrice, or CelettiiU WUiloni. 

' " Such earueat" of what i» 
eomlng. The data of 1300 (note 
Ist, p. 2) oiugt be conatantly held 
in mind. 

' " Let the boor of Fieaole illg 
and BOW «hat he chooieB." Ol- 
limo Com. Let him do hii trorfit. 


Thereupon ray Master tiu'iied backward on hu 
riglit,' [ind looked at me, then said: "He lieteos' 
well who notea it.'" 

Not the less I go on speakiug with Ser Brunetto, 
and ask who are the most noted and highest of hb 

And lie to nio : " It is good to know of some. 
Of the rest it will he laudahle tliat we keep silence, 
as tlio time would ho too ghort for so much talk. In 
brief, know tliat all woro clertu, and great scholars, 
and of great renown ; by one same crime on earth 
defiled. Priacian^ goes witli that wretched crowd, 

Lo mio Maestro allora in sulla gota 

Destra si volsa indietro, e riguartlommi ; 

Poi disae : Bene oscolta clu la nota. 
Nt: per tanto di men parlando vonmii IOC 

Con Ser Brmietto, e JimanJo chi sono 

Li suoi compngni pid noti e piii sommL 
Ed egli a mo : Saper d' alcuno h buono : 

Degli altri fia laudabile il tacerci, 

CIiu il tempo Boria corto a tanto suono. IDS 

In eonnna sappi, cLa tutti fur clierui, 

E letterrtti grandi e ili gran fnina; 

D' im medeamo pcccato al mondo lerci. 
Priflcian een va con quella turba grama, 

' Lit.: "On his right clieBk 
turned hini»elt back," ka, Dcli- 
oatetj indioiktea tUut Bninettii ie 
all the rigbt buid ; and tlittir my 
va ths right bouli of the Btrouulct, 
See oauto irii , 31. 

' Or : " Mwk* thivt" mnleneB, 

allu^lmg perhapa to 

en't, laptrauda 

ftrrada ctl (.En. v, " 

Dsule hu nuu-kcd with offMl 

' PtiMiian, the gronunBriui <t 
OKortiK, and teacher of gran- I 
tnar ; undentoud by Duite'i x 

Knd Franoesoo d' Accorso;' also, if tkou hadst bad 
any longing for such Bciirf, tliou miglitest have seen 
liim' tliero, wliit by the Servant of servants was trans- 
lated troin the Anjo to the Bacchiglione, where he 
left hii ill-straioed nerves. I would say more, but 
my going and my speech must not be longer; for 
there I see new smoke arising from the great sand.' 
People are coming with whom I may not be. Let 
my Treasure/ in which I still live, be commended 
to thee. And more I ask doL" 

E Franceaco d' Accorso ; anco vedervi, 

S' avesai avuto dl tal ti^oia broma, 
Colui potei, che dal Servo de' aervi 

Fu trasmutato d' Amo in Bacchiglione, 

Ove Iftacib li mal proteai nervi, 
Di pid direi ; nm il veoir, e i! sermone 

Pifi lungo easer non pn6, part) cb' io veggio 

Ik atu^er nuovo fummo dal aabbione, 
Gente vien eon la quale esser non dcggio. 

Sieti ntccomandato il mio Tesoro 

ISel quiJe io rivo ancora ; a pib non obeggio. 


IIL Tigna, LaU tinta 

Ficbo, and the other old oom- 
mentaton, to be put here u a re- 
preaentntivH of the cUss, i. e, the 

iben of s^outh. 

FrancoKo. son of Aocorso (Ac- 
nrttiu) the celebrated Florentine 
bitsrpiaterof Boman Inir ; and like 
him, proEeiior at Bologna. See 
omtDent of Keav. da Imula ; 
knd the accumit he there girea of 
Ui Tiut to Bologiia in VSi&. 

112. Potti, pote^. 

* Andrea do' Mozzi, of the rich 
lorcntiue faniily of that name^ 
tishop of FlorcDce io Dante's 
iiDO ; and, on acoount of hii 
canihitouB babita, tranilated by 
ho Pol* ("Servant of »orvant«") 
Viceuia, on the river Baechi- 
liono, wliere he died. 

' Si»oke raited by a new crowd 

' Le Tn-io 

t TaOTB, 




Then he turned back, and seemed like one of 
those who run for the green cloth at Verona through 
the open field ; and of them seemed he who gains, 
not he who loses. ^ 

Poi si rivolse, e parve di colore 

Che corrono a Verona il drappo verde 
Per la campagna ; e parve di costoro 

Quegli che vince, e non colui che perde. 

tioned in note, p. 172. In the 
Italian version (lib. vi. cap. 31) 
of this work, Brunetto calls the 
sin, for which he is here punished, 
"una diUttazione secolare,^ And 
in the Tesoretto he says of himself : 
Sat che siam tenuti un poco mon- 
danettij " thou knowest that we 
are held to be a little worldly." 
Another work, called II PataffiOy 

a collection of profane Jests and 
Proverbs in terze rime, now hap- 
pily almost unintelligible,hA8 long 
been attributed to him. 

^ In Dante^s time, at Verona, 
fchere was an annual race of the 
kind here alluded to. The run- 
ners were all stript ; and *' none 
but the quickest competed for the 
prize,*' or pa/io, as it was caUed. 


l'I)tDtfl keeps following hia Guide oa tbu same path, and lias 
already got go far as to hear the crimBon stream falling Into 
the next circle, when nnotber troop of iplritB prciwnts Itaelf 
under the burning Tain. They are the »>Dlfl of men distin- 
guiehed in war and council, eulfering piiniitiiTnent for the eame 
orlme as Brunetto and hia companions. Three of them, Geeing 
Dante to be their oonntrjman hy his ciresn, quit the troop and 
run towards him, entreating him to elop, Tliey allude to their 
wretched condition, aa if under a sense of shame ; and make 
tbeir namea known in order to induce him to liaten to their 
•ager ioquirioa. Two of Uiem, Tcgghiaio and Rusticucoi, are 
mentioned before (caoto vi. TO) : alt three were noted for their 
talenta and patriotism ; and the zeal they still have for Flo- 
rence saapenda " their ancient wail" of tormeal. He anawers 
them with great respect; and, in brief emphatic words, de- 
clarea the condition of the "pervert« city." Yirgit then leads 
him to the place where the water lieacends; makes him nn- 
Ioo«e a cord wherewith he had girded himself; and caste it 
down into the abyss, on which a xtrange and monatroas abapa 
comes Bwimming up through the dark nir. 


Already I was in a place where the resonnding 
of the water, that fell into the other circle,' was heard 
like the hiim wliich bee-hives moke ; when three 
shades together, running, quittecl a troop tliat passed 
beneath the rain of the sharp torment. They came 
towards us, and each cried: " Stny thee, tliou who 
by thy dress to us appeai'est to be some one from 
our per^'erse country." 

All me I what wounds I saw upon their limba^ 
recent and old, kindled* by the flames. It pains me 
yet, when I but think thereof 

To their cries my Teacher listened! turned his 

Gia' era in loco, ove b' udia il rimhonibo 
Dell' aoqiin, che cadca nell' altro giro, 
Simile a quel, che 1' amis faimo, rombo ; 

Quando tre ombre insieme si portiro, 

CoTiendo, d' una tonna che passava S 

Sotto la pioggift dell' aapio martiro. 

Venien ver noi ; e ciaacuna gridava ; 
Sostati tu, che all' abito ne ecmbri 
Essere alcun di nostra terra prava. 

Aime, che piaghe vidi no' lor membii 10 

Eecenti e veccLie dalle fiamme incese 1 
Ancor men duol, pur ch" io me ne rimemhri. 

Alle lor grida U mio Dottor s' atteae, 

of pnuulimenttorthetnuduteiit. I >Qd Morohed u 



^m&ce toward me, and said: " Now wait: to these 
" courtesy is due. And were there not the fire, which 
the nature of tlie place darts, I should say the haste 
befitted fhee more tlian them." 

Tliey recommenced, aa we stood still, their an- 
cient wail ; and when they had reached us, all the 
three made of themselves a wheel.' As champions, 
paked and anointed, were wont to do, spying their 
isp and vantage, ere they came to blows and 
Smtsts at one another ; tlms, wheeling, each directed 
B visage toward me, so that the neck kept travel- 
a direction contrary to the feet." 

Volse il viae vSr me, e : Ora aapetta, 

Disse ; a coator bI vuole eeser corttse : 
£ 86 Hon fosso il fuoco che aaetta 

La natura del luogo, io dicerei, 

Che meglio stesso a to, ch' a lor, la &etta. 
£iuomiiiciar, come noi ristemmo, ei 

L' antico verao j e quando a noi f\u giunti, 

Fonno una raota di ee tutti e trei. 
Qual soleauo i campion far nudi ed unti, 

Avrisando !or presa e lor vantaggio, 

Prima che sien tra lor battuti e puuti : 
Co^ rotando, ciascuna il vieaggio 25 

Drizzava a me, si che in contraiio il collo 

Faceva a' pife contiauo viaggio. 

' Lit. : "The Deck m&do coD' 


(ion («mjo) to the feet." They 

turn back nith Dante, u kept turning raund In tluir dr- 

did ; anil they dare not ole, lunl looking with their faoes 

1 «tiU. See canto ir. 37-39. oonituitlf towards Dnnto. 


And one of them begnn : " misery of tliifl 
loose place,' and our dreary and scorched aspect,* 
bring u,s and our prayers into contempt, let our fama 
incline thy mind to tell ua who thou art, that tbos 
securely movest thy living feet^ through Hell. H©| 
in whose footsteps thou seest me tread, all naked and 
peeled though he be, was higher in degree than thoiit 
believest. Grandson of the good Gualdrnda,* liiff 
name was Guidoguerra ; and ui his lifetime he did( 

£, SB miseria d' esto loco soUo 

Eenile iii dispetto noi e iiostri preghi, 
Comincii 1' uno, e il tristo aspetto o hrollo; 

La fama nostra il tuo animo pieghi 
A dime chi tu se', che i vivi piedi 
Cosl aicuro per lo Inferno freghi. 

Questi, r onue di tui peatar mi vedi, 
Tutto clie nudo e dipelato vada, 
Fu di grade mirier che tu non credi. 

Nepoto fu della buona Guoldnuk : 

Ouidoguerra ebbe nemo, ed in. sua vita 

^ "Loom," tadj pUin, irhicb 
" bom iti bed repela all pbmto. " 

' Or: "Sad uid peelwlupect." 
BroUo, ocbmllo, mauu "naked," 
or "bortit naked." See also canto 


■ Lit : " Babbeit tJi^ living 
(oet tbrougli Hell ;" "itl" louder 
■tep than gpirits. 

* Qttaldnida, daughter of Bel- 
linciono Berti, " the greateat 
and moat honoured oaTalier of 
Florence," long famous for her 
beautj, mudutjr, ami noble Frank- 

' nc«. See Vaiani, v.S! ; 1 

I CIO, Latidina, kc. The inoideat 

connected with her marriage, 
' Uted bj them all, will not b 
I the teit of .UtcK, or of wlut 
I Dante hinmolf ujb elwvhen 

[Parad. i». and iri.) ; but it ■ 
. lewt ahewa her fame. Guido* 

gueira led the Guelph oavahj 
^ of Florence at the battle of 

vento, OD the Ust of Pebraaif 
^ 12G5.IJ, end tignallj contributed. 

to the rictury of Charleiof Anjav, 

over Manfred. Ltiiulino, ka. 

<-isro svi. INFERNO. 185 

niucli widi counsel and with swortL The other, that 
ixeads Uie sand behind me, 13 Teggliiaio Aldobrandi,' 
whose fame sbonld be grateful up iu the world. And 
I, who am placed with tliem in torment, was Jacopo 
Itusticucct ;" and certainly, moro than aught else, my 
savage wife injures me." 

Had I been sheltered i'roiu the fire, I should 
have thrown myself amid them below, and I believe 
my Teaclier would have permilted it ; but as I should 
have burnt and baked myself, fear overcame the good 
which made me greedy to embrace them. 

Fece col senuo assai e con la spada. 

L' altro, che appresso me 1' arena tritji, 40 

E' Tegghiaiu jUdobmndi, la cui voce 
Sel niondo au dovrebbe esser gniditii. 

Ed io, cLe poato son cou loro iu eroce, 
lacopo Huaticucci fui ; e certo 
La fiera moj^lie piii cb' altro nti nuocu. 
J' io fnssi atato dal fuoco coverto, 
Gittato mi satei tra lor disotto, 
E credo cbe il Dottor 1' avria eofferto. 

Ma percb' io mi sorei bruciato e cotto, 
Vinse paura la mia buona vogUa, 
Che di loro abbracciar mi tacea. gbiotto. 

1 Tegghiaic (pronoimoed Ttg- 
ffUa' here and nt ler. 79, auito 
n-i, of tho Adinuui family, dia- 
tuigniabed na a HtatcaiDan and 
^■midier. Antungat other tliinga, 
jaloDil; atlempteil to dia- 
» the Florcntinea trooi the 
1 wliicU ended in Uie 

duaatrvui battle of Uontaperto, 
raiani, vi 77. kc 

' A. rich Florentine, of "ple- 
Lt:ian taioily," famous for hli 
tulcute and geaeroaitf . Had to 
■eparate binmelf from that " aa- 
vage wife,"' to vhoin lio owea hia 
uiitonble puniahment. 


Then I began : " Not contempt, but sorrow, yoDS 
condition fixed witliin me, so deeply that it will ndb 
leave mo soon,' when tliis my Lord spake words tV 
me, by which I felt that sucli men as you are migU 
be coming. Of your city am I, and always wili^ 
affection have I rehearsed and heard your deeds and 
honoured names. I leave the gall, and go for the 
sweet apples' promised me by my veracious Guide] 
But to tlie centre it behoves me first to fall."* 

" So may tlio soul long animate thy members, 

: Non dispetto, ma doglia 
La Toatnt condizion dentro mi fisae 
Tanto, cLe tordi tutta si dispoglio, 

Tosto che queato ado Signor mi diasti 
Parole, per le quali io mi peneai, 
Che, quad voi sieto, tol gente veniase. 

Di vostra terra sono ; e Bompro mai 
L' ovra di voi e gli onorati nomi 
Con afiezion ritruBsi ed ascoltoi. 

Lascio Io fele, e vo pel dolci pomi 
Promesai a me pot Io vorace Duca; 
Ma flno al centro pria convien ch' io tomi. 

Be lungamente 1' anima coudaca 
Le membra tne, rispose q^uegli alloia, 

' lit: "PUed jotrour witlun 

ma Ml mncli, to mcli » degree, 

that late, oc kIowI^, it is aU lU- 

id ;" It will oling to me lung. 

bXaal and deep tadnen. 

" OaU of bittemeai, aod the 
i of Iniqnl^." JcU viii 33. 

"3«eet applet" of Futh 
Gvorlutidg Fte«don ; frnita d 
heftTunly Marey, Oraco, and Wb 
dnm. See auto iL p. 23. 

' Mtut go dawn to the 
centre o( Hell, before he o 
gin to ascend. 

t. IKFERNO, 187 

lie then replied, " and bo thy fame shine after thee j 
tell, if courtesy and valour abide within our city as 
they were wont, or have gone quite out of it? For 
Gugh'elnio Boraiere' — who has lieen short time in 
pain with us, and yonder goes with onr companions — 
greatly torments us with his words." 

**The upstart people' and the sudden gains, 
Florence, have engendered in tliee pride and excess, 
80 that thou already weepost tlioreat." 

Thus I cried with fece uplifted ; and the three, 

Lirlio understood this as an answer, looked at one 

lother as men look when truth is told. " If other- 

£ se la &nia tna dopo te luca, 

Cortesia e valor, di', so dimom 
Kella nostra citti si come suole, 
se del tutto se n' 6 gito fuora i 

Chh Guglielmo Borsiera, il quol si duole 
Con noi per poco, e va li coi compagoi, 
Assai ne cniccia con lo sue parole. 

La gente nuova, e i subiti {,'uadagm, 
Orgoglio e disiiusura ban generata, 
Fiorenza, in te, si che ta gift ten piagni. 

CoA gridai colla fhccia levata : 

E i tro, che cii) inleser ijer rispoata, 
Gnatar 1' un 1' oltro, come al voi si goata. 

' A. Flanmtine, disdiigiiuhcd 
for luB " coortcoai iinil elegant 
nuuinen, utd great readiuen uid 

CoBi., tui Dtc. L S. 

* Or : New people," tnob at 
tbe Cerohl, ko. Kesrlj all of 
the White partj, nhloli Dante 
joined in rvriiCiiig the oomlng ot 
Charlei, See note, p. CI 

whilo it costs theo so little to satisfy others,"' they 1 
all replied, " happy thon, who thus apeakest at thy I 
will I Tliercfore, if thou escape out of these gloomy 
regions, and return to see again tlie benuteoos stars ; 
when thou shalt rejoice to say, ' I was,'" see that thou 
speak of us to men." 

Tlicn tliey bruke their wheel ; and, as tliey fled, 
theii' nimble legs seemed wings. An "Amen" could 
not have been said so quickly as they vanished. 
Wlierefore it pleased my Master to depart I fol- 
lowed him; and wo had gone but little, when the i 
sound of the water was so near us, that in speaking 
we should scarce have heard each otJier. 

Se 1' altre volte si poce ti coeta, 

Bisposei tutti, 11 soddtsfare altrai, 

Felice te, clie ei parli o tua posta ! 
Feib, GO campi d' esti luoghi bni, 

E tomi a riveiier le lielle stelle, 

Quando ti gioveri dicere : lo fui, 
Pa ube di noi alia getito favetle. 

Indi rupper la niota, ed n fuggind 

Ale sembiarou lo lor gambe xnelle. 
Un amen non aoria potuto dirai 

Tosto coel, com' ei fiiro apariti : 

Perchi al Maestro parve di parlirei. 
lo lo s^uiva, e poco eravam iti, 

Che il suoa dell' acqua ii' era d vicino, 

Che per parlar aaremmo appena uditi. 

' Thtyhint at hit freedom in 
■puldiig the troth, uid the exile 
ke. which il it to oost him. 

■ ' I «h' in thoH " gloom; 

-egiomi." El hoe nf itn m 
uiiOiit. Xa. i. 103. Vt tritta j 
int tolt donuu, toot tvrbida, ad- I 
ra. Ibid. Ti. 53*. 


As Umt river' — whicli has a pnth of its own, 
first' from Monte Viso toward tlio cast, on the left 
slurt of the Aponiiiue; wliich is called Acqiiachetii 
above, ere it descends to its low bed, and is vacant 
of that name' at Forli — resmuids from tlie mountain, 
there above San Benedetto, in falling at a descent, 
where for a thousand there should be refuge :* thus 
down from a steep bank wc found that tainted water 
re-echoing, so that in little time it woidd have stun- 
ned the ear. 

Come quel fiume, ch' ha proprio cammino 

Prima da monte Veso in ver levante, 95 

Dalla sinistra costa d' Apeunino, 
Che si chiama Acquaclieta suao, avante 

Che si dtvalli giii nel basao letto, 

E a Fori! di quel nome 6 vacante, 
Eimbomlia li sovra Sau Benedetto 100 

DbII' alpe, per caiUro ad una scesa, 

Ilove dovria per mille esaer ricetto ; 
CobI, giii d' una ripa iliacosceaa, 

Trovammo riaonar quell' acqua tints, 

SI cho in poo' ora avria 1' orecchia offesa. 105 

' The Huntnne, vliiiib pnates 
the Abbey of St. Benediot ; lUiJ 
there descenda into the |ihim »f 
Bomitpu, "ils low bud." It ii 
the Gnt of the tivorii, on thu Ivft 
(nuttheni) akirta of the A|icii- 
nmea, that hna n course of tta 
own to the sea, aetii RaFeniuk. 
AH the reat before it, from Uonte 
Vitc eaetwanis, ue tribataries or 
"■ttetid>iit>"ot the Vo. 

' Or: "Before anjioUurriiw.'' 

' Hu loft the uame of Aoqiui- 

ohotit (chda, (till, quiet), and 

taken that of llontona before 

rencliiag ForlL 

' The Abbe; being rich enoujjh 
to Blotter tlioiuuidii, insteati of 
lh« few that itre in it. Duo/ {•a- 
hftpB rcfen to iCMO; and there iji 
H utor; told about some vill^e 
{ccutdlof, " of^ble of oontaia 


I liad a cord' girt round me ; and witli it I thought 
some time to catch the Leopard of tlie painted skin. 
After 1 had quite unloosed it from me, as my Guide 
commaudod me, I hold it out to him coiled and woimd 

lo avava una corda intomo cinta, 
£ con essa pensoi alruna volta 
Prender la lonza alia pelle dipintn. 

Poscia che 1' obbi tntto lia me eciolta, 
8i come il Duca m' nvea comanJala, 
Foraila a lui aggroppata e ravrolta. 

nuuiy people," whinli wu to have 
beoti tinilt "vory near the pluHi 
where this wa(fir falle." Bocc 
Com. ThoK who iuloi>t thia lat- 
ter meaning rend lioivi, instead 
of (JoETia. inUnelOa. 

' In tb« Kble, the eipreisions, 
to " ginl," to bivo the " loini 
ginled obout," to " gird with 
ttrangth," kc, alwujii denote 
pivpamtion for louie work of a 
■erioui kind ; and Dante hinuelf 
{Purg. vit U4) ipeaka at one 
who " wore the oord of every 
virtae girded" ronnJ him. The 
[laiuted Leopard re|ireBent> Fto- 
reneo, or Worldly Pleamrc ; and 
the cord with whioh be had once 
hoped to oatoh her (in many 
leDKs) haa become a thing that he 
miuireB to get rid of. He quite 
unlooaee it, and roUa it up in hiH 
Liicl way ; and Virgil (WUdoni) 
eaiti it with ODergy and dednon 
into the deep abyu, m a Gt lure 
[or tlie niooaler that is to appear. 

The phiiD (olution, If w« en 

t, lies in taking the myitia oord 

, embUm 


' ' righteDUsneisea,''the semhlaneea 
of titrength, with which he had 
unue girt hiuiHelf to do his life- 
battle. Boaden, whodedretofiU 
up the detajla, will tiim back to 
Canto First, and see how he at- 
tempts to amend the bright Hill 
unaided nnd alone ; bow the ajght 
of the Leopard on the way t« it 
strongly attracts hjs atteDtioii, 
pleasea and enoouragcs him ; and 
bow be gets the first lesson nf hii 
weakuesB from the Lion and the 
Wolf. In the cantos that fallow, 
he gets many lessons of the sane 
kind. The propheoies of hia se- 
paration from the Leopard (etile. 
poverty, j£c.) thicken on him. Hu 
sees Fnrinata, Brunetto, Guido- 
guerra,&o. Tbonooasiityofeait- 
ing off all ibams and semblaucea, 
and leeJdng firm footing in the 
Infinitodes and EtemitiBa, be- 
oomea more and more apparrnt 




np. Then he bent himself toward the right side,' 
and threw it, some distance firom the edge, down into 
tliat deep abyss. 

" Surely," said I within myself, " somethiag new 
must answer this new signal, which my Master thus 
follows with his eye." 

Ah I how cautious ought men to be with tlioso 
who see not only the deed, bnt with tlieir sense look 
through into the thoughts ! Ho Bald to me : " What 
1 Bxpect will soon come up ; and what thy thought 
dreams of, soon must be discovered to tliy view." 

Always to that tmth which bos an air of false- 
hood, a man should close his lips, if possible ; for, 
though blameless, he incurs reproach.* But here 

Ond' ei si volse inver lo Jestro Into, 

E alqnouto di lungi dalla sponda 

La gitlfi giufio in quell' alto burrata 
E pui coavien che noyiti risponda, 1 1 5 

Dicoa fra me medesmo, al unovo conno 

Che il Maestro uon 1' occhio si sccoada. 
Ahi quanto cauti gli uomini esser ilouno 

Presso a color, clie non veggon pur 1' opra, 

Ma pet entro i ponaior miran col senno I 120 

Ei disse a me : Tosto yerr^ di sopra 

Ci6 oh' io attoudo ; e ehe il tuo pensier eogna, 

Tosto convien ch' ol tuo viso ei scopta. 
Sempre a quel ver, oh' ha faccia dt nieiuogiia, 

De' r uom chiuder le labbro quant' ei imote, 125 

pBth cho seuza colpa fa vcrgogna; 

I ' "Cm<«e» "luUBe" to himself. 
I byreluting what aeeiuit onlikel}'. 


keep silent I cannot; and, Bender, I swear to thee^ ' 
by the notes' of this ray Comedy — so may they not be I 
void of lasting faTour — that I saw, Uirough that air ] 
gross and dark, come swimming upwards, a figure' 
marvellous to every stedfaat heart ;* like as he returns, 
who on a time goes down to loose the anchor, which 
grapples a rock or other tiling that in the sea is hid, 
who spreads the arms and gathers up the feet.* 

Ma qui taccr nol posse : o per le note 

Di (juesta Commedk, lettor, ti giuro, 

S' cllo nou sion di lunga gmzia vote, 
Ch' io vidi por qnell' aor gtoaso e scuro 1 30 

Tenir notaodo una figura in eoso, 

Mcravigliosa ad ogui coi sicuro, 
Si come toma colui che va giuso 

Talvolta a solver 1' ^cora, ch' aggrappA 

ecoglio, od altro, che nol mare ^ chioso, 13S 
Che in su el stende, c da ph si rattrappo. 

' "Wltb other Hiitn thin bo Ihc i > " The beaat ihall u 

OrpfiS™ Ijto '-andthaytli»tilwEllonUiee«th-l 

I noH o[ Clinu uul ctcrntl ,,,,,._ 

^[^,j, .. Bhall wondor. Ri 

mr.J^Ul.lT. ' Lit. : " Who aboTB" (in ths | 

'Forma Irieorjiorit vtnbra, Mn. npper part of hii bojj) " apraula j 

vL 2S9, "Tho beut that Mccni!- hituelf, and at the feet dnwa | 

eth ont of the bottomleii pH." j himself together," u he ii i 

Aw. sL 17. { ining up from the anohor, 


The monster Geryon is described ; and the Poets leave the rocky 
margin of the streamlet, and go doi^n, on the right hand, to 
the place where he has landed himself. Virgil remains with 
him, and sends Dante, by himself alone (not without signifi- 
cance), to see the last class of sinners that are punished on the 
burning sand, — the Usurers who have done Violence to Nature 
and Art. Canto xi. 94, &c. They are sitting all crouched up, 
tears g^ushing from their eyes ; and each of them has a Purse, 
stamped with armorial bearings, hanging from his neck. Dante 
looks into the faces of some ; but finds it quite impossible to 
recognise any one of them. He briefly examines their condi- 
tion, in the way of duty ; listens to a few words that make 
him understand it completely ; and then turns away without 
speaking at all to them. He goes back to his Guide; and 
Geryon conveys them down to the Eighth Circle. 


" Behold the savage beast widi the pointed tail, 
that passes mcmntains, and breaks through walls and 
weapons! Behold him that pollutes tlie whole world."^ ^ 
Thus began my Guide to speak to mo; and beckoned 
Iiim to eome ashore, uoai' the end of our rocl^ path.* 
And that uncleanly imago of Fraud came onward, 
aud landed liis head and bust, but drew not his tail 
ui)on the banL 

His face was the faeo of a just man, so mild an 
aspect had it outwardly ;' and the rest was all a 
reptile's body. He had two paws, hairy to the arm- 

Ecco la fiera cou la coda aguzza, 

Che passu i mouti, o rompe mum ed aimi; 

Ecoo colei che tutto il mondo appuzza : 
SI cominciJi lo mio Duca a parlamii ; 

£d accennollo cho vcnisso a prbda, 5 

Vicino nl fin do' jiassej^iati maimi : 
E quella sozza imi^ne di froda, 

Son venno, oil arrivti la testa e il buato j 

Ma in su la riva non traase la coda. 
La &ccia sua era faccia d' uom giusto, 10 

Tonto boaigna avea di fuor la pclle \ 

E d' un serpente tutto 1' altro fuato. 
Dao branche avea pQoGa infiti 1' oscelle : 

1 " Duoaui all the world Willi I marbW (atoo; mugtiut of tlw 

■teiicIi;"fiJl<itwitltSbiLiuaofevoT7 i atrouolet) " w^ed oq" bf lu. 

sort and theic rexilt*. Cantn li i ' Lit. : " It had ths itln out- 

' Lil ; " Ntat the end of the ! wardly lo roiliL" 

DJFBRNO. . 195 

; the neck, and tho breast, and both tlie flanks, 
were painted with knnta and circlets. Never did 
Tartars or Turks with more colours make ground 
or broidery' in cloth; nor by Arachne were such 
webs laid on her loom. 

As at times tlie wherries lie on shore, that are part 
iu water and part on land ; and as there amongst 
the gnzzling Germans, the beaver adjusts himself to 
wage his war ;' so lay tliat worst of sarage beasts 
upon the brim' which closes the great sand with 
stone. In the void* glanced all his tail, twisting 
upwards the venomed fork, which, as in scorpions, 
armed the point. 

Lo doBso, e il petto, ed ambedue la costo 
Dipinte avea di nodi e di rotelle. 

Con pid color, sommesso e soprapposte 
Kon fer mai in drappo Tartan vk Turclii, 
Nt fiir tai tele per Aragne imposto. 

Come tal volta stJinno a riva i burohi, 
Che parte sono in acqiia e parte in terra, 
E come la tra li Tedesclu lurchi 

Lo bevero a' assetta a far eiia ^ena ; 
Cosl la fiera pessima si etava 
Sn r orlo, che di pietra il sabbion serra. 

Kel vano tutta eua coda guiz^uva, 
Torcendo in su la venonosa forca, 
Che, a guisa di scorpion, la punta a 

' Soiamate, the groundirark of 
the doth ; uid toprappotte, the 
miied woric, or braidoty. 

* i.e. to cntch hiB ymy. 

• Biog of tuck bctwocn the 

wncluiil tlio i]Eepoentnil"T(«d." 

' The emgit; iiuiue over tlu 

196 nJFERNO. 

My Guide said: "Now must we bend onr way ^ 
a little, to that wicked brute which couches there." 
Tlieii we descended on the right,' aud made ten paces 
towards the edge,* that we might quite avoid tlic 
sand and flaines. 

And when we came to him, I saw upon the sand, 
a little farther onwards, [jcople sitting* near the 
empty space. Here my Master said to me : " That 
thou mftycst carry fiill experience of this round, go 
now and see the state of these. Let thy talk with 
them be brief. Till thou retm-nost, I will speak 

Lo Duca disae : Or convien clie si torca 

La nostra via un poco, in^o a quella 

Beslia mulvngia, (iho caik si cotca. 
Verb scendemmo alia destra mammella, 

£ dieci ]tasai femnio in suUo stremo, 

Per ben ceesar la toua e la fiammella : 
E quando noi a lei venuti semo, 

Poco pib oltro vcggio in sii la rena 

Gen to seder propinqua al luogo scemo. 
Quivi il Maestro : Acciocchfe tatta piena 

Esporienza d' esto giron porti, 

Mi disse, or va, e vedi la lor mona, 
Li tuoi ragionamenti sien ]k corti : 

33. Cmar, eritare. Parail, no. 133. 

I 'UBunm, "(ittingkllonnulied 
, Hp," Canto idv. 23. They an 
neu-tbe end of the nadi aloM to 
the Tim of stone, or inner boniid- 
I aiy of the circle. Yer. 23, 


witb tliis bc'ist, tliat lie may lend us his strong 

Thus also, on the utmost limit' of that seventh 
circle, all alcnie I ivent to where the woful folk were 
seated. Through the eyes their grief was bursting 
forth; oil this side, on tliat, they with their hands 
kept wardiug off,' sometimes the flames, sometimes 
tho burning soil. Hot otherwise the dogs in summer 
do, now with snout, now with paw, when they are 
bitten by fleas, or flics, or breesea. 

After 1 had set my eyes upon the visages of se- 
veral on whom the dolorous fire falls, I knew not 
any of them;' but I observed that from the neck of 

Mentre che tomi, parlerJ) con queata, 

Che ne concoda i auoi omeri forti. 
Coal ancor, au per la stremo testa 

Di quel aettinio eerchio, tulto solo 

Andai eve sedea la gente meata, 45 

Per gli occhi fuori acoppiavu lor dnolo : 

Hi qui, di 1^ aoccorrien coa le mani, 

Qiiando a' vapori, o qiiando ol caldo auolo, 
Kon oltrimenti fan di state i cani, 

Or col ceffo or col pife, quando son morsi 50 

da pulei o da mosche o da tafani. 
Poi che nel viao a certi gli occM porai, 

Ne' quali doloroso fuoco cosoa, 

Is'on no conobbi alcun ; lua io ni' accorsi 

' Aloug tlio "gxtreme head," 
ot itaay border, of that nventli 
dnile, weiit nl>o to h« tbe thlnl 
clftH of nnnen, hitriug already 
teen the other two. 

' Or, "nude help, sometiniiiB, 
^init thoaaiDet>,"&c. 
' The; an all of thsm " too 
an; reoognition 

i 53) ; ■ 

I d«>i|>ioabtc 

198 INFERKO. uxTOxni. 

each there hnng a pouch, wliich had a certain colour 
and a certain impress, and thereon it Boems their eye 
is feasting. 

And as I came amongst them looking, on a yel- 
low purso I saw azure, that had tJie semblance and 
gesture of a lion.' Tlien, my look continuing its 
course, I saw anotlier of them, redder than blood, 
display a goose more white tlian butter.^ And one 
who, with a sow azure and pregnant, had his argent 
sacklet stamped,* said to mo : " What art tliou doing 
in this pit ? Get thee gone : and, as thou art still 

Che ilal coUo a ciascun pendea una tosca, 65 

Ch' avea oerto colore e ccrto segno, 
£ qumdi par che il loro occhio ai pasca. 

£ com' to riguardaudo tia lor vogno, 
In una borsa giuILi vidi ozziuto, 
Che di lione avea iaccia e contegno. 60 

Poi procedendo di mio sguardo il ciirro, 
Vidine un' altra pid che sangue roasa 
Mostrare un' oca bianca piii che burro, 

Ed un, che d' una acrofa aMurra e grossn 

Segnato avea lo suo sacchetto bianco, €5 

Mi diesB : Che fai tu in questa fossa ) 

Or te ne va : o perchfe se' vivo anco, 

for bsing nvued. Hnve nothing 
luFt for etemit; but tbova puism 
■nil ombUiDS of aobility, on 
wliioii their eye leema to foei!. 
Aniamm pieiurd paicil inani, ... 
laifogue htmuelaJJtu ntiiu vallum. 
jEn. 1.464. ConffetlituadigueuK- 
di, Jio. Hot. Serm. I 70, ko. 
I Arms of tlie Qluifl^liAin, 

Florontinei of the Guelph ftrtj. 
Malap. c 168. 

' Aran of the Ubbracbi, ui 
uncient funily uf <ti>titiclioD in 
Floreikce, antl of the OhibeUina 
party, Maiap. a. 137, &a. ; Tit- 
fuui, tL 33, ko. 

■ Tha umi of the Scmrigtil 
{Bcnifa) at Fwliu, 

INFERNO. 19!) 

alive, know tijat my neighbour Vitaliano' sliall sit 
here at my left side. With these Florentines am I, 
a Paduan. Many a time they din my ears, shout- 
ing : ' Lot the sovereign cavaHer' come, who will 
bring the pouch with the three goats V " Tlien be 
writhed hie mouth, and thrust his tongue out," like 
all ox that licks his noBe. And I, dreading lest 
longer atay miglit anger him who had admonislied 
me to stay short time, turned back from tliose fore- 
wearied souls. 

I found my Guide, who had already mounted on 

Sapj)i che il mio vicin Vitaliano 

Sedeii qui dal mio sinistro fianco. 
Con queati Fiorentin son Padovano ; 70 

Sposse fiato m' iiitnionan gli orecchl, 

Gridando : Vegna il cavalier sovrano, 
Che rechet^ la tnsca coi tre beccbi. 

Quindi storse la bocua, e di fiior trsasB 

La lingiia, como bue che il naso lecchi. 75 

Ed io, temendo nol pi!i etar crucciaseo 

Lui che di poco star m' avea ammonitfl, 

Tomai indietro datl' anime lasse. 
Trovai lo Duoa mio ch' era salito 

1 Vitaliuio del Dente, k noli 

Iribui hirgua. ke.. ii the expna- 

Ptduan noblenuui. Dnnte, being 

nou o( Piotro, Dunte'. aoo. 

itm kliva, can report what lie 

> Uark of the lieortieit, u>il 


< Meiaer Qiavumi Buiamunte, 

ing tho real noli of thoH noble 

" the m«t infamous luurer of 

luiiren. OnoMeiityet, withilB 

thou time^" a Florentina of ILd 

Biooi fuuly, whoie kw» were 

lowe.t cliusei in Itolj' ; and it 

three "he.(o«ti;"not "bBsliB," 

comei to them from tho Romans. 

01 Eomo have thoagliC. Hie cuni 

See Pen. Sat. L 6M-00. 

tlie liaanch of the dreadfxd animal ; and Le siud to 
me : *' Now be stout and bold ! Now by sueb stairs 
must we descend. Mount thou in front; for I wiah 
to be in the middle, that the tail may not do hurt to 

Aa ono who has the shivGring of the quartan so 
near, that he has Iiis nails already pale, and trembles 
all, still keeping the shade;' such I became when 
these words were uttered.' But his threats* excited 
in me shame, which makes a servant brave in pre- 
sence of a worthy master. 

Gii Bulla groppa del fiero animalo, 
£ disse a me : Or eie forte e nrdito. 

Omai ai acende per s\ fatte scale : 

Monta dinanzi, ch' io voglio oaser mezzo, 
B\ cbe la coda non posaa far male. 

Qiial 4 colui, ch' ha el praaso il ribrezaj 

Delia qaartona, ch' La gik V unghie smoite, 
£ trema tutto, pur guaidondo il nzzo; 

Tal divenn' io alio parole porte : 

li fer le aae 

a vergogna n 
Che innana a. buon signor fii servo forte. 


> Conttnniiig, nnnerved and 
dUooDroged, in the bIumIo wliioh 
IH oold uid hortfn] to him. With 
a frightfa! lUliui agtto coming 
upon him ; tremblliig oil nvcr, 
and without heart to move till 
■ome uoe force him, 

■ Or, motB Ut. : "At tbavordi 
directed" to me. ■ 

» ThBM ■' thnaiti" of Viijjl, 

looks of liighoit oaltmicu ud 
aeearity (uiero viiihle preHnos 
of Wiiduiu), vliich in^ke Daota 
oaluuned of his trsmhUiig, uid 
give him strength to mount, te- 
al! the eiprewion (JEa. ir. 88), 
Mimrque iturontJH inffOtl^ M> 
much tortured hj comniBntston. 
The reuling foUovsd b; Cuy is 
without ■Dj good ftuthoritj. 


I placed myself on those huge sLouIdera, aud 
wished to say, ooly the vuicc came not' as I thought: 
*' See that thou embrace me." 

But he, who at other times assisted me in other 
difficulties,' soon as I mouuted, clasped me with hia 
arms, and held me up. Theu he said : " Geryon, 
now raovo thee. Be thy circles large, and gradual 
thy descent : thuik of the unusual burden that tliou 

Aa the bark^ goes from its station backwards, 
backwards, so the monater took himself &om thence ; 

lo m' assettai in au t^uoUe spallacce : 
SI voUi dir, ma la voce non venne 
Com' io-credetti : Fa che tu m' abbracco. 

Ma essD che altm volta mi aowonjie 
Ad altro forte, toato ub' io montai, 
Con le braccia m' awiiiso e mi sostenue : 

£ disss : Gerion, moviti omai ; 

Le mote larghe, e Io scendei sla poco : 
Fensa la nuova soma che tu bai. 

Como la naviuella esce di loco 
In dietro m dietro, al quindi b1 tolse : 

' Still nxAble to tpeok fnim 
fear. Inceptiu clamor frutlratui- 
htanltM. J&a. vi 403. 

* lit, ; " ^lio othur time ai- 
■ittod mo vA other iliffltmlt en- 
counter;" tlie word rinoontro, 
pauo, or loiLio raoh, boing uudiu- 
■biod after forU. Man; editious 
luvs Ad alio /orlr, or Ad alto, 
forte, iu lino ilS ; and tlie ooiii- 
mcntaton any Ad aito mouu 

" above, or in one of the higher 

oircles i" and that fo<-te u used 
aclvarbiDll7, and ref era to m' av- 
vintt. FoicqIo gi"^ ^^ eiplo- 
oatian wnrns ; but Buooeedi in 
shewing ttiat tLo Ad attro forte 
of Torelli, kc ninlies a louiBwhat 
butter leadiug. 

' Kocalls tlio wLorrics, or batka 
(dwrefti), of ^erse 19. 

and when ho felt liimaelf qiute loose,' tliere where 
his breast had been he turned his tail, and stretching 
moved it, like an eel, and with his paws gathered the 
air to him. 

Greater fear there was not, I believe, when Phae- 
ton let loose the reius,' whereby the sky, as yet iq>- 
pears,^ was burnt; — nor when poor Icarus felt his 
loins unfeathering by the heating of the was,* his fe- 
ther crjn'ng to him, "An ill way thou goest I"* — than 
was mine, when I saw myself in the air on all sides, 
and saw extinguished every sight, save of the beast.' 

E poi ch' al tutto ai eenti a giuoco, 

lA ov'i?ra U petto, la coda rivolse ; 
E quella tosa, come angulUa, moese*; 
E con le tranche 1' aore a e6 racoolse. 

Maggior paura non credo che fosse, 
Quaudo Fetonto abbandonb U freni, 
Per che il ciel, conio appore onoor, ai cossi 

N6 quando Tcaro miBero le reni 
Seutl epcnuar per la acaldatti cent, 
Gridando il padre a lui : Mala via tieni ; 

Che ia la mio, qimndo vidi ch' io en 
Ifell' oer d' ogni parte, e vidi spenta 
Ogni veduta, faor che della fiera. 

' Or: "Quite ut iilayi" at full 
|)taf in the void. 

' Oclidd/M-midim lora rmiui'. 
Mebun. U. WO. 

' In tlw JlUkyWuy, MociTding 
to the Fjr^higamtu. CompBre 
Coavilo, Tr. ii, cap, 15 ; Mid Pa- 
rait. liT. 90. 

' Raitiiii vicinia toUsMoUit odo- 

ratoj, jM-nnarum Finculo, Mm*. 

Tabneraitt ctra: jradat qaatU 

Hit lattriot, to, MetMi. viU. 235. 

' Lit : " Dl way thoa keepest" 

* "Saw every ugbt qnenchnl. 

t that 

Qothing bat tlie bcul 

ciKTO ivii. ISFEHNO. 20y 

He goes on swimming slowly, slowly; wheels and 
descends ; but I perceive it not, otherwise tlian by a 
wind upon my face and from below,' Already, on 
the right hand, I heard the whirlpool' make a hideous 
roaring under us; whereat, with eyes downwards, 
my head I Btretched. Then was I more timorous at 
the precipice ; for I saw fires and heard lamentinga, 
80 that I cowered all trembling. And then I saw — 
what I had not seen before — the sinking and tlie 
wheeling,* tlirough the great evila which drew neai- 
on diverse sides. 

Ella sen va notando lenta lenta ; 115 

Euota, 6 discenile ; ma non me n' accorgo, 

Se nan ch' al viso e diaotto mi vento. 
lo Bentia giii dalla man destra il gorgo 

Far Botto noi im onibile stroscio ; 

Per cho cou gli occlii in glli la testa epoTgo. 130 
Allot fu' io pid timido alio scoscio : 

Peril ch' 10 vidi fiioolii, e aentii pianti ; 

Oud' io tramaudo tutto mi raccoacio. 
E vidi poi, che uol vedea davanti, 

Lo sccndere c il girar, per Li gcon mali 125 

Che a' appicsaarati da divorsi cauti. 

13L Seoitia, deancnt, predpice. 

123. SttocoKiarc, ixiieadicai ileflocterc See next ctmto, t. I:!2. 

" It blow* on hU faea," tram 
airoUng; uid " benekth," or 
hu feet, from the iiuikiiig. 
* Into which the red streRTD is 
filUng. "On the right hand," in- 
g that Geiyon had tnrmid 

to the right, and keep* eirding 
down with the rocky predpioe On 
that haniL 

> Tlie dmconding antt oircUng, 
which only the wind on hi* faoa 
uid feet had made him feel be- 



cahto xyh. 

As the falcon, that has been long upon his wings 
— that, without seeing bird or lure, makes the &1- 
eoner cry, '^Ah, ah I thou stoopest" — descends weary;* 
then swiftly moves himself with many a circle, and 
far from his master sets himself disdainful and sullen; 
so at the bottom Gerj'on set us, close to the foot of 
the ragged rock ; and, from our weight relieved, he 
boimded off like an arrow from the string.^ 

Come 11 falcon ch' e stato assai su Y ali, 
Che, senza veder logoro o uccello, 
Fa dire al falconiere : Oim6 tu call ! 

Discendo lasso, onde si muove snello 
Per cento mote, e da lungi si pone 
Dal sue maestro, disdegnoso e fello ; 

Cosi ne pose al fondo Gerione 

A piede a pic della stagliata rocca : 
E, discarcate le nostre persone, 

Si dilegu6, come da corda cocoa. 



134. A piede a pii!, ** at foot, at foot." Iteration 
like a randa a randa (canto xiv. 12), vicin v^icino, kc 

fore, he now Bees by the Kucces- 
sion of horrors {gran mali) that 
present themselves. The reading 
of this passage given in the (1842) 
edition of Foscolo seems quite 
unintelligible. E udi* poiy che non 
V udia davante is the Cruscan 
reading of ver. 124. It is less 
simple than the one we have 

adopted ; and rests on inferior 

^ . . . , ** Satan . . . ready now 
To stoop with wearied wings/' &c. 
Par. Latt, ill. 70. 

' "As notch of arrow from 
cord." Geryon has been disap- 
l>ointed of the i)rey he exi)ect€d ; 
and is angry, like the falcon. 


DuriDg tbe " circling aad siokiiig.'' OD the back of Qeryon, Duite 
has observud the outliava of Ihe loweat Hell, and bare brieHy 
dereribee them. He is now far beneath llie circles of Violence, 
ka, ; and haa Ut see the |iDni<hmeDl: of far graver siiiB, Everj 
thing around him i» made of dark eolid rock. The high wall 
□f the great circular ebaft, in which he bru deecended vrith 
Oerjon, forms Ihe out«r barrier of the Eighth Circle, where be 
and his Guide have juet been landed. The circle itself occu- 
pica the whole of a shelving sjiiice, which lien betwwn the foot 
of the high wall and the brim of another (lower) sbkft or 
" wfU" that 13 uxacll; In the centre ; and it is divided (in sao- 
ceMive rings) into ten deep fosses or chasms, reeembUng the 
trenches which begird u fortress, and each containing a dif- 
ferent close of siuners. Across these cbrtnmi, and the banka 
which separate them from one another, run clifEa from tbe 
outer border of the circle down to the central well, forming 
lines of roads and bridges that also resemble those b; which a 
fortress is entereil from different sides. The well contains the 
Traitor?, and Sutao, " Emperor of the dolorous kingdom," in 
the middle of them. Yirgil turns to the left, and conduota 
Dante nlong the outer edge of the fir^ chasm, till they come 
lo one of tlie cliffs. This they B»!end^ and, turning to tbe 
right, ]inHs two of tbe bridges, and examine the cba^ma be- 
neath tliem. Id the First are Panders {Hiijiani) and \y\ug 
Seducers, hurraing along in two separate crowds — meeting 
one naother— nil naked and scourged by Homed Demonib In 
Hit Second, Flatterers immersed in filth. 

CANTO xvm. 

There is a plaue in Hell called Malebolge,' all 
of atone, ami of an iron coloui-, like tlio barrier* which 
winds rouiiJ it, Riglit in the middlo of the malig- 
nant field jawns a well exceeding wide and duep, 
wliose sb-ncture its own place shall telL* The bor- 
der* theroforo that remains, between the well and the 
foot of the high rocky haiik, is round; and it has its 

Luooo h in infurno, detto Malelwlge, 

Tutto di pietra e di color ferrigno, 

Come la cetchia che d' intorno il volge. 
Nel dritto mezzo del campo maligno 

Yaneggin lui pozzo asEuii largo g profondo, 5 

Di cui suo luogo conteri 1' ordigno. 
Quel tinghio, ohe rimane, adim(|Uo fc tondo, 

Tra il pouo e il pie dell' alta ripa dura, 

£ ha diBtinto in dieci valli il fondo. 

' Kuue given to thia Eighth 
CHrcle, on Mwount of the ten 
" Evil" Betffir, or Bolgf, nrhioh it 
oontuiu. Bolyia (Lit bulgo), in 
itM oiiginBl ngDJflfuitioii, "s bug, 
bnilgot, voliie, oi |>artiiuuiteHU, " 
ouiie sfteTwardi to tacan " uiy 
du-k hole, ntst, repoiiUiiT.oliiMun, 
or gulf," Boufft, iu lUrivfttivo in 
French, hu loinGthitis of the hit- 
ter MnAfl ; while iU iliminutive 
bouffcttc (budget) atill rotuni ilie 
origiD&lmeiuiing, Fietro lUDuita 

t^a: Ptrbetgiat, id at, reliMa 

("porohm" or " oonrt«"), in. 

The place of Hutim ia getting 

Deur ; waA all theu mouiingi >iig- 

geit idwu. 
' The " high bulk of rook" 

(ret. 8) vhich diridu it (rom the 

Seven th Cirsle. 
>\Villb« described in ila pUM, 
' Ring of tpaee, or "belt," 

betweeu the brim of the lower 

(oeutnt) well »nd tlw foot ol the 

high bank. 


bottom divided into ten valleys. As is the form tliat 
groujid presents,' wlicre to defend the walls successive 
ditches begird a castle ; such imago these made here. 
And as, from the tln-csholds of the fortress, tliero are 
bridges to the ontwnrd bank; so from tlie basis of the 
rock proceeded cliffs that crossed the embankments 
and the ditehes, down to the well whicli truncates and 
collects them.' 

In this place, shaken from the back of Gei^'on,^ 
we found ourselves; and the Poet kept to the left, 
and I moved behind. On the right hand I saw new 

Quale, dove per guatdia deUe mora 
Pid e pill foBsi cingoti li castelli, 
La parte ilov' ei eon rende figura ; 

Tale immagino (lulvi facean quelli : 
E come a tai fortowe da' lor sogli 
Alia ripa di fuor son ponticelli ; 

Cos) da imo dclla loccia scogli 
Movien, che rioidean gli argini e i fosst, 
Infino al pozzo che i tronca e raccogli. 

In queeto luogo, dalla schiena scosei 
Di Gerion, trovammoci : e il Poeta 
Tenne a ainistra, ed io dietro mi moasi. 

Alia man destra ^-idi nuova pieta ; 


' Ouofcjfyuro la parU rende, 
&«. The wbole lonnd of Hale- 
bulge jireaenU the note upect 
H "thepirt"on Tbioh numerom 
fouei ue miule for defeooe of a. 
outle or fortren. 

» Thew Bintj oliffa thst rivet 
the il*rk eliiuDU together, and 

B tliei 

1 with 

Sutan and hii eiBiaiarieii, ptooeeil 
fnjm '^ihe hoMis of tho i-ock," or 
outer margin of Ualclulge ; and 
ooavetgB m tliey descend towards 
the eentml well which temunatet 
and coll eels them in its ring. 
* Set down ^>y him in anger. 

misery, now torments, and new tormentors, where- 
witli the first chasin wa« filled. In its bottom the 
sinners were naked : from the middle, on our side,' 
they came facing us ; and, on the otlier side, along 
witli U9, but with larger steps.* Thus tlie Romans, 
because of the great Uirong, in the year of Jubilee, 
upon tho bridge have taken means to pass the people 
over ; so tliat, on the one aide, all have their faces 
toward the Ciistle, and go to St. Peter's ; at the otlier 
ledgo, they go towards the Mount." 

On this side, on that, along the hideous stone, 

Nuovi tormenti e nuori frastatori, 

Di che la priniu tiolgia era rupleta. 
Mel fondo erauo jgnuili i pecyatori : 25 

Dal mezzo in qu.^ ci venian verso il volto ; 

Di ]Ji con noi, ma con pasai uiaggiori : 
Como i ]!<iamn, per 1' esercito molto, 

L' anno del CiiubbiliKi, 8u per lo pouto 

Hanno a pnssar la gonte moilo tolto ; 30 

Che doll' un Into tutli lianno la fronto 

Vptso il castello, e vanno a aanto I'ietro, 

Dall' altra sponda vanno verso il monte. 
Di ijua, di Ik, eu pet lo easao tetro 

* In tbe tuUf of the chumi neit 
to HI. Taken length wiie. 

* " Larger gtep* (Aon win," 
Chisod by Denionn, »er. 3a. 

* In the jreu- 1300 (^i>t« of the 
Yiiiaa of Diuitc), when Booifuve 
TUL prooLuuied the Bnt Ju- 
bilee, the conoouiM of pilgrinu 
wu so great that tt becuno ne- 
eettarj to ilii'ide tbp bridge of 

St. Angela leugthwite, and mike 
all those whe were goin^ toward* 
tbe OutlB (of St. Angelo) and 
St. Peter's keep on one dde : and 
tlioae who were returning from it, 
on the other lidc. Tbe "mount" 
il Monte Giordano, or more pm- 
babl; tliat part of tbe Juuculnm 

II whioh the chureh of St. Pietro 

I SIoQtoiio ibuula. 


I saw homG<l Demons' with large scourges, who 
smote them fiercely from behind. AJi 1 how they 
mode them lift their legs at tlie first strokes I And 
truly none waited for the second or the third. 

As 1 went on, my eyes were met hy one, and 
instantly I said : " This one I have seen before. "' 
I tlierefore stayed my feet to recognise liim ; and the 
kind Guide stood still with me, and allowed me to 
go hack a httlo. And that scourged spirit thought 
to hide himself, lowering his face ; but little it availed 
him, for I said : " Thou, that dost cast thy eye upon 
the ground I If the features which thou wearest bo 

Vidi Dimon comuti con gran feize, 
Che li battean cmJelmente di retro. 

Ah' come facean lor Ibvot le bcize 
Alio prime petcosse ! E gii. neasuno 
Le seconds ospcttava nb le terze. 

Ueutr" io andava, gli ocehi miei in uno 
Furo scontroti ; ed io ^ tosto dissi ; 
Gih di veder cestui nou son digiimo. 

Fercifi a figumtlo i pierli afBsai ; 
E il dolcB Daca meco si ristolte, 
£ Bssentl ch' altiuanto indietro gissi. 

£ quel trustato celur ai crodctte 
Bassondo il viso ; ma poco gli valse, 
Cb' io disai : Tu clio I' occliio a terra gette, 

Se le iazion che port! non son false, 


' Homed here only. And kin- 
dmd idtmcn meeting, u in euito 

* Lit. : "Already I am i 
irithoat haring bmd him." 1 

lofromLat. J9U11U4, "empty, 

. Cio. Oral. 30. URed 
he lame leaie, canto 

210 IKFERNO. Cisio iTui. 

not false, thou art Vonedico Caccianiniieo,' But 
what brings thee to such a biting pickle?"' 

And lie to me : " Unwillingly I tell it ; bnt tiy 
clear siieeeh,* that makes nie recollect the former 
world, compels nie. It was I who led the fair Ghi- 
sola to do the Marqiiis' will, however the unseemly 
tale may sound.* And I am not the only Bolognese 
that weeps here : nay, this place is so filled with us, 
that as many tongues are not now taught to say Sipa 

Venedico aei tu Caccianimico. 
Ma cho ti mena a si pongeuti salae 1 
Xd egli a me : Mul voleatier lo dice ; 
Ma sforzami la tua ckiara favella, 
CLe mi fa sovvonir del mondo antico. 
[ lo fui colui, che la Ghiisola bella 

Condussi a far la yoglia del Marchese, 
Come cho suoni la sconcia novella. 
S QOn pUT io qui piango Bolf^asae ; 
Aim u' k queato luogo tanto pieno, 
Clio tantc linguo non sou ora apprese 


> A Bolognese (if tbote fca- 
txaei of hia be real) of ilutin- 
guulied fuoilj, who peimulBci 
111! beautiful alater Ghlsok, ui 
falae preleoaea, to ilo tba will i>f 
Auo HI., Uarqui* of Femra, 
Uut "■tep-ion" of canto lij. U2. 
See DffiiNO Cam.,- Mi.Itbkt of B«nv. 
da ItuoU, wba wiu nt Bologoa iu 
1375, and knew tbe fsuiily. 

• SuUt ("iau<t«»," «uiisoiiing of 
UioU«h)irwabo the ouaeof "n 

very iteep and hollow place" neur 
Dologna. into whioh the bodiei of 
thaw who were ileenieil unworthy 
uf chriitJaD burial uud to be 
thrown. B«nv. ila Imuls Com. 
' "Cloar" living voioa, that 1*- 

Tlie ghndowi have boute, fafut 
voicea. See canto L GJ ; uid other 


between Savena and tlie Reno.' And if thou desirest 
Kssarance and testimony thereof, recall to tliy memory 
our avaricious heart.''* 

And as lie thns apnke, a Demou smoto him with 
his lash, and said: "Away! Ruffian, there are no 
women hero to coin."* 

I rejoined my Escort Tiien, with a few steps, 
wo came to where a cliff proceeded from the hank. 
Thia we very easily ascended ; and, tui'ning to the 
right upon its jagged ridge,* we quitted those eternal 
circles. ° 

A dicer nlpa Ira Savena e il Reno : 
£ w di cifi vuoi fede a testimonio, 
Becati a mente il nostro avaro aono. 

Co^ parlando il [jercosso im Demonio 
Delia sua scuriada, e diBse ; Vin, 
KufBan, qui non son femniine dn conio. 

lo mi reggiimsi con la Scorta mia : 
Foscia con pochi passi diveninuno, 
Dove uno acoglio della ripa uBcia. 

Aaeai leggiemmente quel aalimmo, 
E volti a destra bu per la 
Da quelle certhie eterne ci partiii 

' Bolognn liea Iietwecn the li- 
Ton Snveiu uidKeao, Slpn (or 
ti po) ia the cheerful ";ei|" or 
"tmlj," of the BologneM to the 
preicnt time. 
■ Dante luwl atndied io Bolognn, 
* Or: "tor coin;" to miikB 
mooa; of, M tba OlUmo Com^ 

' Ut.: "ItlBplinter,- Or"it* 
Blilinteml pari," taking u-liri/gia 
for Khri/giata. 

■ Cirdu of tlic violent ko., or 
those gniltf of dirent rioB. The 
Pr»ti take a different waj, in 
tliii circle of theFranilnlent, from 
what tlieyliave taken in the circles 
above. Tber "held to the left" 


When we reached the part where it yawns be- 
neath' to le&ve a passage for tlie scourged, my Guide 
Baid ; " Stay, and let the look strike on thee* of these 
otlier ill-bom sj/ints, whose faces thou hast not yet 
seen, for they have j^one along with us," 

From the ancient bridge we riewed the trftin, 
who were coming towards us, on the other side, 
chased likewise by the scourge, Tlie kind Master, 
without my asking, said to me : " Tjook at that great 
soul who comes, and seems to shed no tear for pain. 
What a regal aspect ho yet retains ! Tlint is Jason, 

Quando iwi fiunmo la, ilov" ei vaneggia 

Di aotto, per dar passo agli sfeKati, 

Lo Duca disse : AttiGnti, a fa che feggia 73 

Lo viso in te di qucsti altri ninl uati, 

A' quali nncor non vodestt la Faccia, 

Perocchi son con noi inaieme andati, 
Dal veccliio ponto guardavam la troccia, 

Che venia vereo noi dall' altra iMUida, 80 

£ cbe la ferza similnieato scoccia. 
n buon Maestro, eenza mia diinanda. 

Mi disse ; Ouarda quel grande clie viene, 

E per dolor uon pax lagrima spaiida. 
Quanta aapetto realo ancor ritiene ! 85 

7S. Fefft;ia, from JItdcTt- Canto i. 135, 
(tbt. 21) rfter GpiTiiii quittwl ' finri that the way (like tli«t of 

; and uow thej turn ' 
the right" in going towiu-di the 
centre of Hell, initeaJ of tnniing 
totbelettwberetofore. CoDiiuue 

(.132; : 


L 115. 

UW; xiT. IW. &c WeeluUaln 

Fianil or ahaoi gooiluws) lead* 
re itirootly to Satan. 
Uliere the cliff fur i 
:r the Gi-Bt cbMin. 
Take ■ lUraoi, MiiI 
w of them too^ See <■ 

painful, ^^M 


who, by courage and by counsel, bereft tlic Colcliians 
of the ram. He passed,' by the isle of Lemnos, after 
the bold mercilcaa women had given all tlieir males 
to death. There, with tokens' and fair words, did 
he deceive the young Hypsipylc, who had before 
deceived aJI the rest.' He left her tliore, pregnant 
and forlorn. Such guilt condemns him to such tor- 
ment ; and also for Medea* vengeance is taken. 
With him go all who practise tfie like deceit* And 
let this suffice to know respecting the first valley, 
and those whom it devours."^ 

Quelli 6 Jason, che per cuore e per senno 

Li Colchi del monton privati fene. 
£llo pass6 per I' isola di Leiuio, 

Foi che le aidit« femmiiie spietate 

Tutti li maschi loro a morte diemio, 90 

Ivi, con Bogni e con parole ornate, 

Isifile ingann^ la giovinett:!, 

Che prima 1' altre ttve-a tutte iiigitnuate. 
Lasciolla qitivL gravida o solutta : 

Tal colpa a tal martiro lui condanna ; 95 

£ anche iH Rledca si fa vendetta. 
Con lui sen va chi da tal parte inganna : 

£ questo basti dcUa prinuv valle 

Bapere, e di color ehe ii 

> On hii wBj to Colohia. 

' Tokeiu of nuirriRgB. 

» By Having tUo lifo of her 
father ThoM. See ber itory in 
atat, Thfb. V. 40, ke. 

* For hufing fonakeo MeilcA. 

° " In auch nststion deueiTe ;" 
cheat with ■imiloi' promu«. 

" "SaUai witb its tuskii i" le- 
eurei for the cleraal roourging. 
Comparo the OMdHHU iu ounto 
Ml 29; ond /"urp. liv. IS. 


We had already come to wliero tlie narrow path- 
way' crossea tlie second bank, and makes of it a j 
buttress for another arch. Here wo heard people 
whining in the other cha^im, and puffing with moutli 
and noatrila, and knocking on themsolvea with their ' 
pahna. The banks were crusted over with a moold 
from the vapour below, which conei-etea upon Uiem, 
which did battle' with tho eyes and with the nose. 

The bottom is so deep, that we could see it no- 
where without mounting to tho ridge of the &rch, 
where the cliff stands highest.' Wo got upon it; aud 
then, in the ditch beneath, I saw a people dipped in 

Gii eravam W 've lo atretto calle 
Con I'argine aeconJo b' incrocicchia, 
E fa di quello ad un altr' arco apalle. 

Quindi sentimmo gente che si wcchia 
Nell' oltra bolgia, e the col muso sbnfiii, 
E B^ medesma con lo pabue piccbia. 

Le ripe eran grommate d' una mufio, 
Per 1' alito di gifi cbe vi si appasta, 
Che con gli occlii e col naso facea zuffa. 

Lo fondo b cupo si, che non ci basta 
Luogo a veder seuza montare al dosso 
Dell' arco, ove lo acoglio pid sovraata. 

Quivi venimmo, e quindi giii nel fos^io 
Vidi gente attuffata in mio stereo, 

• The flinty " oliff" wWoh goes 
■tniight ilovD (o tke wntnl wbU, 
ui4 riiBB into *ii aroh at everj 

* " Unde (trife ;" uuiileil vitii 
pungent ttenoh both the cysi u 
the noatrila. 

■ At tbs centre at the areh. 

excrement, tliat seemed as i/ had flowed from liumiin 

And whilat I was searching with my eyes, down 
amongst it, I beheld one with a head so smeared in 
filth, that it did not appear whcUier he was laj-man 
or clerk.' Ho bawled to me : " Why art thou bo 
eager in gazing at me, more than the others in tlieir 
naatiness ?" 

And I to him : " Because, if I rightly recollect, 
I have seen theo before with thy hair dry : and thou 
art Aleasio Interminci' of Lucca. Therefore do I oyo 
thee more than alt the rest." 

And he then, heating his pate :' " Down to this, 

CLe ddgli umau privati parea mosso : 
E mentre ch" to li giJi con 1' ocehio cerco, 115 

Yidi un col capo'^ di merda lordo, 

Chu non parea s' er laieo o eherco, 
Quei mi sgridj) : Percli6 eei ta A ingordo 

Di rigimrilur pifi me che gli altri brutti f 

Ed io a lui : PercW, ae ben ricordo, 120 

Gik t' ho veduto coi capelli aaciutti, 

E sei Alesaio Intenuinei da Lucca :* 

Ferb t' adocchii) piu che gli altri tutti. 
Ed egli allor, hattendosi la zucca : 


Then wu no seeing whether 
iiul the tooaiue of it pricat or 

The iDteniiinelli (io I.10I) 

were at tLo hoivl o( the Ohibel- 

linea uul Whitei in Lnom (Pil- 

4C) ; aud the grut 

ahibvUiDU chief, Cutraccio Caa- 

traoani, wm of theii family. ['■'//. 
ix. 68, lie Aleuiu " besineu'cil 
every cue with (liitt<^(T, even the 
loeanent of the impulaae. " Omiu* 
»jtgurbai, omita lingcbat, eliam 
vUiufmu. Banv. da Imolit Com. 
' Zaeca, "gourd or pumpkiti," 
in Its origiiuil meaning : itill u 

2113 INFEBSO. ciKTO irm. 

the flatteries wherewith my tongiie was never weary 
have sunk me !" 

Thereupon my Guide snid to me: " Stretch thy 
face a httle forwardsj that tliy eyes may fully reach 
the visage of that unclean, dishevelled strumpet,' 
who yonder with her filthy nails scratches herself, 
now cowering low, now standing on her feet. It is 
Thais, the harlot, who answcreil her paramour, when 
he said : ' Dost thou tliank me much '/' ' Nay, won- 
drously.'* And herewith let our view rest sated."* 

Qiiaggiti ni'hanno sommerso le Insinglie, 
Ond' io non ebhi mai la lingua atueca, 

Appreaso cib lo Duca ; Fa che pinghc, 
Mi disae, un poco il vise piii ovante, 
81 che la faccia heu con gli occhi attinghe 

Di quella sozza scapigliata fante, 

Che I& Bi gral£a con 1' uiighie merdose, 
EH or a' accoscia, cd ora i: in piede etante. 

Taida &, la puttana die riapose 

AI drudo suo, quando dissc : Ho io grazie 
Grandi appo te) Anzi meravigliose. 

£ quinci sien 1b nOGtre viste sazie. 


favoDiitc name, amongst the Ita- 
li&Dfl, for bcadfl of & oert&in de- 

' Omni* ranlirr, qua at fomi- 
cana, quati iCcrviu in via, jto. 
Kcclet (Vulg.te) it 10. 

• In the EuiiucAiM of Terence 

(Mt iiL Bcene I), it i> Gutho. 
and not Thuu iieraelf, who nsea 

tba exprcHion nlludeil tih Tbb. 
Maffiuu VTTo ayere graUa* Tliait 
mihir Gh. Ingmlei. 

* " And now, enougli of thli 
rilf plnco." 


Id Uis Third chnem are the Simoniats, Tbo benrt of Diitile Kems 
slnuMt loo full for utWrmce when he comes in Bight ul them. 
To him they are, as it vere, ■ more baleful specice of paodera 
and Bednoers thao thotw ho has juat left ; and Ihcy Itv beneath 
the vilo flatterera "Uiat call evil good, anil good evil ^ that pDt 
darkneetj for light, and light for darkncB&" It ie they who 
have pnistiLulHt the thinga of Ood for gulil and vilver, and 
made " Hie bouiK: a den of thieveE." They are all fixed one 
hy one in narrow round boles, along the sides and bottom of 
the rook, with the head dorniwarde, ic that nothiDg more than 
tbo feet and part of the legs staode out. The cvleBof them are 
tormanted with flameB, wh[cli keep fliokering from tlie heels 
to the toes, and burn with a brightness and inkneitj propor- 
tioned to the diCEerent degrees of guilt. Doute IK carried down 
by Ml Guide to tbo bottom of Ibe chasm ; and there finds Pope 
Nisbolaa the Third, who, with a weeping voice, declares hia 
n evU ways, and those of hia suci»BEor» Boniface tbe Eighth 
and Clement the Fifth. The Poet answers with a sorrow and 
iddignation proportionate to his reverence for the MysCio Keys, 
spvaUng B« if under Che pressure of it. Virgil then l[ft« him 
up again, and lightly carries him to the rough summit of tbe 
arch which forms a passage over the next chaem. 


SiJKiN Magi-8 I' O wretched followers o/Au J 
and robbera j-e,' who for gold and sUver prostitute I 
tlie tilings of God, tliat sliould bo wedded unto righte- I 
ousnesa ! Now must tlie trumpet* sound for you ; fiw j 
ye are in the third chasui. 

Already we had mounted to tie following grave, I 
on that pai't of the cliff which hangs right* over tba 

SrMos mogo, o miseri seguaci, 
Che le coae di Dio, che di bontato 
Deono oaseru spoae, e Toi rapaci 

Per oto e per argento adulterate : 

Or convion che per vol suoni k tromba, 
Peroocbi nulla terza holgia state. 

Gii eravamo alia eeguente tomba 

Moiitati, dello scoglio in qiiella parte 
Cbe appunto sovra mezzo il foseo piomba. 

' " And wlien Simon lav . 
he offerod them monejr, uy 
Give mo also thii iiovbt . . 
But Fetor eud onto him, Th; 
moDsy periah witb thee, bounBe 
thou hail Ihooght the pft of God 
niiiy be parohued for mDD< 
AcU Tiii. 18. 

' '■ And ye rapadou*" 
lo»en. The t before pot" (i 
(ouiDot well be left out. It aocan 
in too many of the beat klsa. and 
edjtiaiu ; and, though it loter- 

ruptstheBtrlctgramnuitiealHDM, I 
it increuea Ibe force and fire «f i 
tbepusoge- Fietro <Ii Dante, by 1 
wBj of comment, quotes >/oAnx. 
" He that entereth not by ths J 
doorinto tlie ibeepfoM, but climb, i 
eth up Bome other way, the mnB 
ia a thief and a Tobber." 

' " Cry alood, apaie not : lift 
up thy Toico lilie a trumpot," &o. 
Itaiah iTiiL L 

• Lit. 1 "Fliuuba e 
bangi plnmb, &c. 

Tumpot, Oo. ^H 


middle of the fosB. Wisdom Supreme, what art 
ihou ebewcst in heaven, on earth and in the evil 
■world, and how jnstJj thy Goodness dispenses I' 

I saw the livid stone, on tlie sides and on the 
bottom, fiill of holes, all of one breadth ; and each 
was round. Not less wide tliey seemed to mo, nor 
larger, than those that are in my beauteous San 
Giovanni made for stands' to tho baptizers; one of 

Somma Sapionzo, quanta i Y arte 

Che moatri in cielo, in term e net nial mondo, 
E quanto giusto tua Virtii comparte I 

lo vidi, per le coste e per lo fondo, 
Fiena la pietra livida di fori 
D' un lai^o tutti, e ciascuno era tondo. 

Non mi parean meno ampi no maggiori, 
Che quei die sou nel mio bel San (Jiovanni 
Fatti per luogo de' hattez^ntort ; 


Thronghoat tho UoiTene, 
Pute Onda tb>( every ono U 
XSmnled uwl pnnkhed exactly 
Moanling to liis dowrt*, trith *n 
infliuto Goodneu, and infinite 
Joitjse inaapuftble from it. He 
Ii now in view of the SimoniitB, 
Uiil obierrei that tlieir hoailt are 
tnmad dov'nwardi and fixed in 
the groond, as befits their avarice 
«ud low deairei. Compafe Puiy. 

Roimd the oU font in the 
I'VC'Bb John — where 



Uo wells" (oc narrow cirtmlu' 
holet, called ponetti (rora tlioir 
sliBpe) "were miule for the prieata 
to ituid in, when bnptiiing ; that 
they Tni^fht he nearer to the water" 
o( the font, and ftre from the 
preiBore of the Browd. Dante 
broke one of tbcic to lare the 
life of a boy who had got into 
it in aport, apparcetly with head 
downward!, and could not be ex- 
tricated, but «u "ilrowning" or 
"iulfoenting''in it ; and hewaoti 
to let all men right in regard to 
hie real motive for braking Ik | 
See Com. of Benv. da Imola, Tet 1 
latallo, Ottiino, te. Judging 1^ 'J 


H whiclt, not many years ago, I broke to save one tW 

H was drowning ui it : and be this a aeal to undeceive 

H all men. From the mouth of each emerged a ain- 

H ner's feet, and legs up to the calf ; and the rest re- 

H maiiie<l within. The soles of all were both on fire; 

H wherefore the joints quivered so strongly, that they 

H would have snapt in pieces withes and graas-rope& 

H As the Haniing of things oiled moves only on their 

H outer sorfaeo ; so was it tlicre, from the keels to the 

H points, 

H " Master I who is that who writhes himself, 

H quivering more than all his fellows,'' I said, " and 

H^ sucked by ruddier flame ?'" 

^H L' un degli qiiali, ancor non i molt' annj, 

^F Eupp' 10 per un che dentio vi annegava : 

E queeto ua siiggel ch' ogni uomo egamiL 

Fuor della bocca a ciaacun sopcrcbiava 
D' un peccator 11 piodi, e delle gombe 
Tnfin fi al grpsso ; e r altro deutro etnva. 

Le piante erano nccese a tutti intrambe ; 
Percht ai forte guizzavan 1« giunte, 
Cho spezzate avcrian ritorte e stiambe. 

Qual suole il fiammeggiar ddle cose unte 
Muoversi pur 8U per 1' cstrema biiccia, 
Tal ere. U da' calcagni alle punte. 

Chi t coliii. Maestro, clie sj cruccia, 

Guixzoudo pib cbe gli altri auoi consorti, 
Diss' io, e ciil pib rossa liamma succia t 

the old print! [eilition of 1507), | ' " %Vhom n radiUer (rtromse^ 
theie /Hisrfti miut hkve been fluuc Hucka."or dn<M ap, 
tuodo at tha topi of tbort pfllui. | iug ua the aolea of him. 


And lie to me : " If thou wilt have me carry 

vdiee down there, by that lower hank,' thou shalt 

f' learn from him about himself and about his wrongs." 

And I : " Whatever pleases thee, to me is grate- 

fiU. Thou art my Lord ; and knowcst that I depart 

I not from thy will : also thou knowest what is not 


Then we came upon the fourth bulwark.' We 
tamed and descended, on the loft hand, down tlierc 
into the perforated and nairow bottom. And the 
kind Master did not yet dejiose me from his side, 
tin he brought me to the cleft of him who so la- 
r tnented with his legs. " whoe'er thou be that hast 

£d egli a me : 8e tn Tuoi ch' io ti port! 

Laggiii per quelta ripa che piii giace, 35 

Da lui aaprai di sfr o de' auoi torti. 

Ed io : Taiito m' 6 bol, qimnto a te place : 
Tu sb' Signore, e sai ch' io non mi parto 
Dal tuo volere, e sai quel che si tnce. 

Allor veuimmo in su 1' argine quarto ; 40 

Volgemmo, e discendemmo a mano etanca 
Laggid nel fondo foraccliiato ed arto. 

£ il tmon Maestro ancor dnlla sua anca 
Xon lui dipoae, sin mi giunse ol rotto 
Di quei che si piangova con la zanca. 45 

qiial che aei, che 'I di su tion di sotto, 

iL Slanca, ainutrs. See ni 

' "ThntbonkirhichliealDwcr." hence t 
or f> Dearer to tho ccntnJ well. 
The whole of Halebal({e deaceiiilB 
•la^ng toward* the ««ntrc ; nod 


thy upper part benoatt, tmliappy spirit, planted Itke a 
stake I" I began to say ; " if thou art able, speak." 

I stood, L'ke the friar who is confessing a treach- 
erous assassin t!iat, after being fixed, recalls Iiim to 
delay the Jeatb.' Ajid lie cried: "Art thou (here 
already standing, Boniface ?' Art tliou there alrcadjr 
standing? By several yeara tlic writ^ has lied to 
me. Art thou so t|uiekly sated with that wealtii, far 
which thou didst not fear to seize tlie comely Zjtidy* 
by deceit, and then make liavoc of her ?" 

Anima trista, come pal conunessa, 

Comincia' io a dir, se puoi, fa motto. 
Id stava come il £rab! che conl'esstt 

Lo perfido ossoseln che, poi ch' & litto, 50 

Eichiania lui, jiercW la morte eeasa. 
£d ei giidf) : Sei tu gia cost\ ritto, 

Soi ta gi& coatl ritlo, Bonifazio ) 

Di pareccbi omii uii meuti lo scritto. 
6ci tu fii tosto di quell' avot sazio, 55 

Per Id qiial non tcmesti toire a ingmiDo 

La bella Bonna, e di poi fame stKudo 1 

' "For ha delays, or axtadi I VIIL, irbo did aot dia till 1303 ; 
and U mrpriied to flnd him 

'-■tonding" «re«t, ,iiutaul of be- 
ing insUntly pbuited (m > S!inai> 
iat) iriUi feet Dpwuil« in that 
hole which lie liimHlf fill& 

' "Writ," i. e. text or uriptura 
(iF faluro eventa. whigb the qiU 
rit> in Hell are pennitt«d to read 
with thoir "iuiperfeot viaiDn.'' 
Cauti. X. 100, in. 

' Tho beautiful Lad; U the 

the death" a few moineuta longur, 
bj preteniliiig that he hi>« lonie. 
tiling more tu DonfeH. InDaiite'i 

ilovi) hule in tbe sroaad, witli 
their beads downwanli, and bn- 
rieil alivc^" Tbia horrid kind of 
piiniKhimnt vrai called propag- 
aiitare or j-mpum/inr, from the 
mannot of |ibu>tiim vinea. 
< Takea Dante for Bonifa«a 


I became like those who stand as if beraocked, not 
comprehending wliat U answered to tliem, and unable 
to reply. Then Virgil said: " Say to him quickly, 
' I am not he, I ani not he whom tliou thinkeat.' " 

And I replied as was enjoined me ; whereat the 
spirit quite wrenched his feet. Thereafter, sigliing 
and with voice of weeping, he said to me: "Then 
what askest thou of me ? If to know who I am con- 
coroetii tliee so much, that tJiou hast tlierefure passed 
tlie bank, learn that I was dotliod with the Great 
Jlontlo. And vorily I was a son' tiftlic She-bear, 

Tal mi fee' io, ({Uai son coiut che stcinuo, 
Per non intonder cib ch' k lor rispoato, 
Quasi suomati, e risponder uon aanuo. 00 

Altor Virgilio diase : Pilli tosto, 

Son son colui, non son colui che oredi. 
Ed io rispoai cuine a me fu iiajMiBto ; 

Percb^' Io spirto tutti storsc i piedi : 

Poi soqiiraado, e coa voce di pianto, (ij 

Mi dieao : Cunque uhe a me lichiodi t 

So di saper ch' io fiia U cttl cotauto, 
Clie tu ahbi pGi6 la ripa scorsa, 
Sappi cli' io fui vcalito di;I giun manto : 

E veraiaente iai figUuol doll' Ursa, 7<' 

Churob, wMoh Boniface (iii IZH) \ 
htd dared to te'ue by fraud. Ho 
fint indnoed Celeitino to Tusign, 
*nd got hinuelf elected b; MiorcC 

Iagroomrat villi Chiirles II. of 
Blaily ; thun (ecunid Celectiiie in 
prwon, and b«giui Uke > perfoit 
lleni in Suuqd/. Vi't. «iil 6. 

* Nioholu HI. of the Oniui 
iBtart) fuuily. He nos mude 
I'opK in 1277 ; and dieil in Au- 
gust 12H1, Hftet Imvine enrichod 
all llU Dciihowi ("tbe cubs ur 
vilielpa") by "oiien Simony," uiil 
iTory other meiuu in hii power. 



224 INFERSO. cjjrt. 

SO eager to advance the Wliolps, that I pursed wealtli I 
above, and hero myself.' Beneath my head are drag- 
ged the others who preceded me in simony, cowering 1 
along the fissure of the stone.' I too shaU fall down 1 
thither, when lie comes for whom I took thee wheo 
I put the sudden question. But longer is the tima 
already, that I have baked my feet and stood in- J 
verted thus, tlian he shall stand planted witli glo^ 
ing feet.' For after him, from westward there shall 
come a lawless Shepherd,* of uglier deeds, fit to j 

Cupido Bt, per avanzar gh Orsatti, 

Che su 1' avere, e qui nie miai in borso. 
Di Botto al capo mio son gli altri tratti, 

Che precedetter me aimoneggianilo, 

Pet la fessura ddla pietra piatti. 
Lagg;iu cascheib io altieBi, quando 

Verri colui ch' io credea clio tu foasi, 

AUor cb' io feci 11 subito dimando. 
Ma piu 6 il tempo gik che i pie mi cossi, 

£ ch' io son stato coal sottosopra, 

Ch' ei non stari piautato coi pii rosai : 
Ch6 dopo lui verrJi, di jiiii laid' opra, 

Di vQr ponente un Pastor s<^nza l^ge, 

Tal cho convien che lui e me ricopro. 

1 "Above (on cftrth)j)u(ire»lth, 
and hero put myieU in imne." 

' Are dmgBtd, or luckod in, | 
HI it ware through the necit of 
that HcU-purie; uicl lio "iquat" 

' Kleholu died In 1281, » that | 
bo had "ilRKd}^- (in 1300} bwn ! 

there 19 years: nlieroa* Bonif»cfl 
would hftve to "gtsnd pluited 
with hi« feet red" only 11 jreui ; 
or froiu hia de*th in 1303 to tlut I 

* Bertnnd de Ootte, Arohbiahop 
of Bonlenun ; tntJe Pops in I3DA, 
vnder yerj ihuneFul oonditio&i, 

curro XiX. IKFERKO. 225 

cover him and me. A new Jason' will it be, of 
whom we read in Maccabees : and as to that hlijk 
priest his king was pliant; so to tJiis shall be he who 
governs France."' 

I know not If here I was too hardy, for I an- 
swered hiin in this sti-ain : " Ah I Now tell me 
how niucli treasure our Lord required of St. Pet€r, 
before he put the keys into his keeping? Surely 
he demanded nought but ' Follow me !' Nor did 
Peter, nor the others, aak of Matthias gold or silver, 

NuoTo laaon aotil, di cui si loggo 

He' ^raccnbei ; o come a quul fu molle 
Suo lie, cosl fia a lui chi Francia regge. 

lo non so s' io mi fui qui troppo folle, 
Cli' io put rispoai lui a questo mi-tTO : 
Ueh ot nti di' quuiito tcsoro vollo 

Nostro Signore in prima da San Piulro, 
Che ponpsso lo chiavi in sua balla I 
Corto nou chicsa su non, Yiemnu diotra. 

N6 Pier ne gli allri uhiesero a Mattia 
Oro argeoto, quomlo fu aortito 


tbrongU the inSuDoec ot Thilip i 

Uie Fair, uf Fnin^i. Fi'/uni, Tiii. I 
Ho took tlie titlo of Cle- j 
I niontT.; unt itiruhewha trani- 
L fared the hoi; >ce to Av%non. I 
I fitfanmred the (ibibcUiii«,uid 
[ t)M Emperur (Henrj VII.), in . 

I DtDt« took » Uvelj iw 
t Ibtnoat ; bat Qmt ilow nut kelp 
' Litn hem, 

' J»iioii,"tLmtuiig(Hlljwreti;Ii," 

who purcliiued the office dE high 
[iriut, From kin); AiitiachBs, vrith 
Ills "three hundred sod tliree- 
tcate talen-ti/' and diigmdud il 
L; the iDtroductJoa of heathcO' 
iili oottonu. 2Macca6, iv. 7-1-I, 

' King rhilip tV. (note 4, 
|>. 224}-. ths 'Tut u[ FnnM." 
i'ury. vii. 109, Ho tvigned fnini 

1285 lo i;;i4. nil. is. fir,. 


when lie n-a-s eliosen' for flie nffic-e which the guil^ 
soul had lost. Therefore stay thou herr, for thou art 
justly punished:* and keep well the ill-got money,* 
which against Charles made thee bo bold. And 
were it not tliat reverence for the Great Keys thoa 
heldcst in the gind life yet* hinders me, I should 
use still heavier words ; for your avarice grieves 
the world, trampling on the good, and raising u]i 

Nel luogo, che perdii I' anima ria. 
Pert ti sta, che tu se' beu puiiito ; 

E gimtda b«n la mal tolta moneta 

Ch' esser ti fece contra Carlo ardito. 
E ae non fosse cli' ancor lo mi Tiota 100 

La rirorenza delle somme Cluavi, 

Che tu teneati nella vita lieta, 
lo userei parole rnicor piii gravi ; 

Chi la Toatra aTarizia il niondo attrista, 

Calcando i buoni e soUevando i pravi. 105 

> When olioaon b; lot, "to take 
port (if the uiinutrj &nil npoatle- 
■hip, from -whicli .IndM" (Traitor 
tnd blackeit ot SiraoniBta) "fa)- 
tmnigiTMiDn fed." Actt L 35. 

* Pci'dliifiikcrnVfaiaohoTcu- 
dereJ: "Therefore It befiti thee, 
that thou art well punuhed." 

' " Thy money periih with 
thee." AcU viil. 30, Yilluii (viL 
Si) TeUtea how John of Procidu 
gnre largely of the money of the 
Empentr PnheologuB to NichoUi 
nnil his nephew, and thereby ob- ' 
tuned hie lUictioD for the revolt 
ngauiat Charlei I. of Sidly, whicli 

began (the year after Kioholu^ 
death) vitb the Sioilhui Vei- 
pen. " Ill-got money" k1» befora 
thii had made him bold (tgainet 
Chwles, who oontemptnonily re- 
fused sUimee with hi* funiljr. 
Villani, viL Si. 

* "Vet,''iLe. thongh then art tn 
Hell. Duite reverenced tbegrtat 
keyi, uid detested the avarioe 
DTid biweneaa of those who nboHd 
them; u he well might, ooniider. 
Ing what thej rcpreieiited. Un- 
happily for ittclf, the Inqoieition 
of Spain prohibited and nppreea- 
ed tbia whale pueage. 

tlie wicked.' SLepherds snch as ye tho Evangelist 
perceived, when alie, that sitteth on the waters,' was 
seen by him committing fornication witli the kings ; 
she that was born n-ith seven headii, and in her ten 
horns' had a witness so long as virtue pleased her 
spouse. Te have made you & god of gold and silver; 
and wherein do ye differ from the idolater, save that 

Di vol pastor b" aceorse il Vangelista, 

Quando colei, che siede aovra V ac(^ae, 

Puttaneggiar co' regi a lui fii vista : 
Qu^lla che con lo DBtte teste nacque, 

8 diece coma ebbs argoniento, 1 10 

Fin cho virtnte al suo matito piacque. 
Fatto v" avete Dio d' oro e d' argento r 

£ che altro i) da voi all' idolatre, 


■ Compare Crineiln, Tr. iv.B. L 
* Or : " You ShepberJa the 
ErangeUst diiKemeil," in., when 
the angel said to hiiD, "Come 
hither ; I will ahew unto th« 
the judgroani of the great whora 
that »itteth upon man; wBl«r« : 
vitb vhom the kiogi ol tbe eurth 
have CDiiiaiitt«<l fornication, and 
(he inhabitant! of the earth have 
been drank witb the wine oF her 

toniication The watori, . 

vbinh thun laweat, where the j 
whore littctb, are peopliM, and 
mnltitndee, aoil nations, and 
tonguoe." Ret; xvn. 1-16. 

In Purg. xxiiL 143-9, the "Sa- 
cred EdiBue, ttaustanued" bf ita 
profane alUanoe with tomporsi 

things, il dcacrihod u putting 
forth aeven heads and ten horns ; 
nod the Church of Roma Under 
Bonifiice is spoken of as " a looM 
hailot"ga£ing round witb wanton 

" " The Chnroh that was bom 
with saran yirtues. Faith, Hope, 
and Charity, FrudBnoe, ,Tnitiee, 
Forlitnile, and Temperance ; or 
with the seven gifts of the Boljr 
Spirit. The too horns, that is, 
the ten comniuidmenta of the 
Law which God gate to Uosea." 
OUinoCom. AlaoPiotrodi Dante, 
after speaking of these sereu vir- 
tues or gift*, and ten oommanrl- 
mentt, adds: "A quiiut fornfiiiu 
doittc paifor Ecelcna halmil ar- 

228 INFEENO. cuno xa. 

he worships one, and ye a hundred ?' Ah Constan- 
Uue I to liow much ill gave birth, not tliy eonver- 
siou, but tliat dower' which the Grst rich Father took | 
from tlieo I" 

And whilst I sung these notes to him, whether 
it was rage or conscience gnawed biui, he violently i 
sprawled witli both his feet. And indeed I think 
it pleased my Guide, with so satisfied a look did be i 
keep listening to the sound of the true words uttered. 
Therefore with both bis arms ho took mo ; and, when 

Se non cb' cgli imo, e voi n' orato coiil« t 

Ahi Coatantiu, di quanto mal fu inatrfl, 
Kon la tna conversion, mu quella dote 
Che da te ]irese il priiuo ncco patre ! 

£ mentre io gli contava cotai note, 
iro o coacleuza che U mordesse, 
Forte spingava con anibo le piote. 

Id credo ben cb' ol uiio llucn piacesge, 
Con el cuutenta labbia sempre att^ee 
Lo 8Uon dollc parole van ospt&ase. 

Peril con anibo le braccia mi prese. 

f/umcnlum, I'l^ at noroiam it nto- 
dum fiuhrnantji, placuU ti rir- 
tiu," ka. 

' To make an iilol of evety 
piece at ailTBT And golJ, of ever; 
■pcdea of gun. 

' Dante aiffiin nUudin to thii 
pr«tiuided gilt of Coutiuituia in 
Pur?. zulU. 136 i in /'until, xx. 
BG ; ud in hii tmtUo Dt Han- 
arcMa (lib. iil] he •pculiB oT it iw 

a tbing that U donbUiil, a gift 
that the empenit ooold not law- 
fully make, if be ever di<i make 
it. Milton (Proae WoTki| b±a 
truulatad the paaagge in the tett : 
" Ah OonfUJittnc [ of how mndi fll 

m Aril wnJthjr pope n- 

he had me quite upon his breast, remouutecl by tho 
path where he had descended. Nor did he wesry 
in holding me clasped to him, till he bore me away 
to the summit of the arch which is a erossway from 
the fonrtli to the fifth rampart Here' he placidly 
set down the burdenj pleasing to him on the rough 
steep cliiT, which to the goats would be a painful 

Tlieuce another valley waa discovered to me. 

E poi ehe tutto su mi s' ebhe al petto, 
KimoDtJi per la via onde disceae ; 

Ni 8i Btaacb d' avermi a st ristretto, 
SI men portiS eovra il colino dell' arco, 
Clie dal quarto al liuinto argine i- tragetto. 

Quivi souTemento spose il carco, 
Soave per lo sooglio sconcio ed erto, 
Che sarebbe alle capro duro varco. 

Indi un altro vallon mi fu scoverto. 


128, 51 for ainuhg {Parg. xiL 12) ; mot, m 
130. SpoK, (rum iporre, to lay down, ka. 

' "Here," I.e. on the »uroinit 
of the ftToh, be gvreetl; or gently 
laid down tbe burdeo, irhich had 
been k burdea tweet to him idong 
the Qgly eliff. In mich way i< 
Dante lifted ap uid oarried by 

hia myitio Quide troui that deu 
at the Simoniats, The " trae 
wordi wrunij" (cyiwue, Ter. 123) 
from him are brief, uid entiui- 
gled with inGuite disdain nnd 



From the aroh of the bridge, to which his Guide has carried him, 
Dante now sees the Diviners, Augurs, Sorcerers, &o. coming 
slowly along the bottom of the Fourth Chasm. By help of 
their incantations and evil agents, they had endeavoored to 
pry into the Future which belongs to the Almighty alone, in- 
terfering with His secret decrees ; and now their faces are 
painfully twisted the contrary way ; and, being unable to 
look before them, they are forced to walk backwards. The 
first that Virgil names is Amphiaraiis ; then Tiresias the The- 
ban prophet, Aruns the Tuscan. Next comes Manto, daughter 
of Tiresias; on seeing whom, Virgil relates the origin of Man- 
tua his native city. Afterwards he rapidly points out Eury- 
pylus, the Grecian augur ; Michael Scot, the great magician, 
with slender loins (possibly from his northern dress) ; Guido 
Bonatti of Forli ; Aedente, shoemaker of Parma, who left his 
leather and his awls to practise divination ; and the wretched 
women who wrought malicious witchcraft with their herbs 
and waxen images. And now the Moon is setting in the 
western sea; time presses, and the Poets hasten to the next 



Of new punishment behooves me to make verses, 
and give matter for the twentieth canto of the first 
canzone, which concerns the sunken.^ 

I now was all i)repared to look into the depth 
discovered to me, which was bathed with tears of 
anguish; and through the circular valley I saw a 
people coming, silent and weeping, at the pace 
which the Litanies^ make in this world. When my 
sight descended lower on them,^ each seemed won- 
drously distorted, from the chin to the commence- 

Di nuova pena nii convien far vorsi, 
E dar matoria al ventesinio canto 
Delia prima canzon, ch* e do* somniersi. 

Id era gia disposto tuito quanto 

A risgiiardar nello scoverto fondo, 5 

Che si bagnava d' angoscioso pianto : 

E vidi geute per lo vallon tondo 

Yenir, tacendo e liigriinando, al passo 
Che faimo h letanie in questo iiiondo. 

Cuiiie il VLso mi seese in lor piii basso, 10 

Miral»ihnente ajjparve esser travolto 
Ciascun dal mento al priucipio del casso, 

* The spirits sunk in HclL pace of them that in long pro- 

Canzone here, and Cuntica in cession chant the solemn litanies. 

Purr/, xxxiii. 140, arc the terms ^ Viil, ii. 15. 

applied by Dante to the tliree , ' When tliey came nearer the 

great Parts of his Poem. bridge, so that I saw farther down 

- At the slow and mournful ' amongst them. 

1 XX. INFERNO. 233 

ment of the cliest,' so that the face was turucd to- 
wards the loins; and they had to como backward, 
I for to look before tbcni was denied.' Perliaps by 
I ibroe of palsy some have been thus quite distorted: 
but I have not seen, nor do believe it to be so. 

Reader, so God grant thee to take profit of thy 
reading, now think for thyself how I could keep my 
visage drj',' when near at hand I saw our image so 
contorted, that the weeping of the eyes bathed the 
hinder parts at tlioir division ? Certainly I wept, 
leaning on one of the rocks of the hard chff, so that 

Clie dallo teni ura tomato il volto ; 

E indiotro venir gli convenia, 

PercliJi il veder dimmzi era lor tolto. 15 

Forae per forza gii di pftrlaala 

Si tiavolso cost akun del tutto ; 

Ma io nol vidi, n^ credo che sia. 
8e Dio ti lasci. Letter, piender frutto 

I)i tua lezioae, or penza per te stesso, 20 

Com' io potea tenor lo viso asciutto, 
Quando la nostra imagine da preaso 

Vidi «l torta, che il pianto degli occM 

Le oatiche bagnava per lo feaso. 
Certo io piantj'oa, poggiato od un do' locohl 26 

Del diiro Huogho, A che la mia Scorta 

' Or: " Kitortocl" in the neoli. 

* Lit. : "To look (urwanl iru 
takon kwif from Uiciu. " 

* " fitftit B deTomi what been of 

pnkeoqlil bmf 
Plj-iled hrbrM ? Adam could 
Dotitxn mpt, 



my Escort said to me : ^' Art thou, too, like the other 
fools? Here pit}' lives when it is altogether deid.' 
Who more impious than he that sorrows at Grod's 
judgment?^ liaise up thy head, raise up, and see 
him for whom the earth opened herself before the 
eyes of the Thebans, when they all cried, * Whither 
rushest thou, Amphiaraiis ?' Why leavest thon the 
war?' And he ceased not rusliing headlong down 
to Minos, who lays hold on eveiy sinner. Mark 
how he has made a breast of liis shoulders : because 

Mi disse : Ancor se' tu dcgli altri sciocchi I 

Qui vive la pieta quand' e Len morta. 
Chi e pill scellcrato di colui, 
Ch' al giudicio divin passion porta ? 

Drizza la testa, drizza, e vedi a cui 
8' apersu agli occhi de* Teban la terra, 
Qiiando gridavan tutti : Dove rui, 

Anfiarao 1 percbc lasci la giierra 1 
E ikju resto di ruinare a valle 
yiiio a Minos, che ciascheduiio aflcrra. 

!Mim, ch* ha fatto petto delle spalle : 



' The ** Tirchias and Phincua 
proi>hctM old," kc. comes \ix)on 
Daiito tou, uiid makes him weep 
bitterly ; but bid lUblc, in many 
places, s|K.'akjt} clearly of those 
diviners, sorcerers, "wise men," 
t^c, and he does not doubt of 
I heir existence. PUtd means 
* piety' (Lat. i>ictai() as well as 
' pity' in the old Italian. 

- Or perhaps, alluding to the 

crime here pumabed : *' Who 
more wicked than he that bean 
a passion for the decrees of God** 
— that Keeks to look into the 
Future which belongs to Him 
alone ? Tliis meaning agrees best 
with the comment of Fietro di 

^ One of the seven kings that 
besiege* I Thebes. Qui prcecepa per 
inane rui^f Stat. 27<tf6. viii. 84. 


he wished to see too far before him, ho now looks 
beliiud and goes backward.' 

" Behold Tiresias* who clianged his aspect, when 
of male he was made woman, all his Iimba trans- 
forming : and aflerwai'ds lie had again to strike the 
two involved serpents with his rod, before he coold 
resume his manly plumea. 

" Tliat is Aruns* coming baok before liim, who 
in the mountauis of Luni, where hoes' tiio Carrarese 

Percbi ToUe veiler troppo davante, 
Dirietro guatda, e fa rilroso culle. 

Vedi Tiresia, che iuut6 sembiaiite, 
Quaiido di ntascMo fonunina divenne, 
Cangiandosi le membra tutte quaate; 

£ prima poi rfbutter le coavenne 
Li duo serpenti av^-olti con la vetga, 
Che riavesse le mascliili peniie. 

Aronta i iiuei ch' al ventre gU s' utterjra, 
CLe nu' monti di Luni, dove ronca 

' C'ompue Tolgalo of Iiaikli 
xlir. 244 : Sijo nm i>oniniu 
/acieiit omjiio, czfciufeni cirtot 
loliu, ttatiUkim Irrram, H iiuUui 
Bxnin. Jnila /aciait liona di- 
riiionim, tl ariolot ia Juroma 
trrtrnt. Coiarrteat lapltnia rt- \ 
Irortun : tt jcirntjani tontm Mut- , 
turn faeiem. 

'TirFriM,theprDT>hcto(Thob«, I 
Btwonling to tLu unsent mpitia i 
fable, vnM ohtngod into ii mmui ' 
when lie atruck tlio Iwo great 
hfiicdU ; uid dq Hoing them 

agtijx, >( the end of aoren jeuv, 
uid ilriluDg them ia the >une 
iraf, he tecorerod Ma oiigiUBl 
■es and tona. it^am duo, ka. 
Orid. Mil. iii 324. 

* An EtruMan toottuajer, irhu 
predicted to the Itonuuis their 
civil wan and the victoi; of Cip- 
HT. Arunt ineoluit ilaeritt mmia 
Luna, itv, Lncui. L 586. Tho 
moontalua of Luni are above Cor- 
nni. (till funoui for mkrblu. 




I aud oultii'atei the uiL 

236 INFERNO. cj-tTO n. 

that dwells beneatb, amongst white marbles had the 
cave for his abode ; from which he could observe the 
stars and the sea with unobstnietod view. 

" And she that covers her bosom, which thou 
seest not, with her flowing tresses, and Jias all her 
hair on the other side, was Manto,' who searched 
through many lands, then settled there where I was 
bom : whence it pleases me a little to have thee 
listen to me. Aft«r her father went out of life, and 
the city of Bacchus came to he enslaved, she for a 
long time roamed the world. Up In beaiitifiil Italy 
there lies a lake, at the foot of the Alps which shut 
in Germany above the Tyrol, and it is called Bena- 

Lo Comircse ulie di sotto alberga, 
Ebbe tra bianchi marmi la spelonca 

Per sua diiiiora ; oudc a guarilat le steUe 50 

E il mar non gli era la veduta tronca. 
E quells che ricopra le mflmmelle, 

Cho tu non vedi, con le trecce sciolte, 

E ha tli IK ogni pilosti pelle, 
Manto fu, che cerci per tcrre molte, 55 

Poscia si pose lil dovo nacqu' io : 

Onde un poco mi piacc che m' ascolte. 
Poscia che il padre auo di vita usclo, 

£ venne serva la cittk di Baco, 

Questa gran t«mpo per lo mondo glo. 60 

Soso in Italia bella glace un laco 

Appii deir Alpe, cbe sen* Lamagna 

' Muito, duoghter of ^nnsUi, I «d" \tj the tfrwit CraHi, Qnole 
qiiittBd Thebei (irntive city of of Etecwlei uid PolTniow. 
BMcbui], vhen it tm "eniltT. | 

cus.' Through a thousand foiuitains, I believe, and 
more, tho Peiuihie, between (Jarda and Val Caraonlca, 
13 irrigated by the water which stagnates in that lake. 
At tho middle there is a place' where the Trentine 
pastor, and he of Brescia, and the Veronese might 
bless, if they went that way. Peschiera," a fortress 
Ijeautiful and strong to front the Brescians and the 
Bergamese, sits whore the shore around is lowest. 
e all that in tho bosom of Benaens cannot stay, 
has to descend and make itself a river, down tiirough 
the green pastures. Soon as the water seta head to 

Sovia Tiralli, ed ha nome Benaco. 
Per millo fonti, credo, e piii ei bi^na, 

Tra Garda e Val Camonica, Pennino 66 

Dell' aci^ua cho nel dotto lago stagna. 
Luogo ^ nel mezzo li, dove i! Trcntino 

Pastore, e quel di Brescia, e il VeronsBa 

Segnar porla, se fesse quel cammioo, 
Siede Peachiero, bello e forte amese 70 

Da fionteggiat Bresciani e BergamaBchi, 

Ove la riva iatomo piii disceee. 
Ivi convion che tutto quanto caschi 

Cii die in grembo a Benaco star non pai, 

E faasi fiumo giii pe' verdi paschi. 75 

' Mow haep cU Garda. Tbat 
put of tbe Alps, from which its 

rs flow down " in niDre thim 
> thoiuaiid itreuDi," were fur- 
«rlj Oklled Alpa Puna (Pun- 
ine AIpi). TLnilti, or TlntUo, 
alio the niune of a tuwo thcru ia 
DmiId's time. Vill. xji. Ki. I 

' WhorB the Jioceiei of Trent, ' 

Brcaoi* nnd Verona meet ; imd 
the three bishopi misht " oroM," 
01 give tbe sign of benediction to 
their floelu. 

' Feacliicra still "riti ■ tor- 
trna," at the head uf ihe Uiucio. 
Tbe water it rapid and beauti- 
fottf clear u it flows from tlm 


run, it is no longer named Benaeus, Lut Minclo, — 
to GJovemo where it falls into the Po. Not &r has 
it flowed, when it finds a level, on which it spreads 
and makes a marsh thereof, and 19 wont in simimer 
to be at times unwholesome.' The cniel* virgin, 
passing that way, saw land amidst the fen, unculti- 
vated and naked of inhabitants. There, to shim all 
human intercourse, she halted with her ministers to 
do her arts ; and there she lived and left her body 
vacant.^ Afterwards tlie men, that were scattered 

Toflto che r acqua a correr mette co', , 

Non piii Bonaco, ma Mincio si chiama 

Fino a Govomo, dove cade in Fo. 
Ifon molto ha corso, che trova una lama, 

Ifella qiml si distende e la impaluda, 80 

J. suol di state talora esser gmma. 
Quindi passando la veigina cruda 

Tide terra nel mezzo del pantano, 

SouM cultuni, e d' abitnnti nuda. 
li, per fuggiro ogni consoniio umano, 8S 

Eietette co' auoi aervi a far sue arti, 

E visse, e vi hacib suo corpo vano. 

li nomini poi, cho intomo erano eparti, 

76. MctU m', mette raixi ; ibucco. 

: "AMiativfl, or KinroB- 1 repiam patrra pnrlibat langiii- 

fal." on ftocomit ot the milaru nenL, H, omnct Tcr einvm aeta 

Knd ferer it prodniRa. | pyrtu, saneli de more partnlit, 

' "Cruel" or fall. like Bricbtho I Scmintett ^nu, et adkm! tpirait- 

(ouito ix. 23), from the Llooily lia rcddit ViKtra, 

•ooompMiiments of her oODJnru- I Thtti. W. 403. 

tioiu. Tune innvba Mantiio Ej:- ■ Left ber bodf *old of 

>. Stat ^1 
dlHt. ^M 

round, gathered together on that spot; for it wa« 
Btrong by reason of the marsh it had on every aide. 
They bnilt the city over those dead bones ; and for 
her who first chose the place, they called it Mantua" 
without other auguiy. Once the inhabitants wero 
denser in it, ere the folly of Casalodi was cheated by 
Pinamonie.' Tlierefore I charge tliee, if thou ever 
hearest other origin given to my ci^, let no false- 
hood defraud the truth." 

S' accolaero a quel luogo, ch' era forte 
Per lo panton ch' avea da tutte partL 

Fer la cittk sovra quell' ossa morte ; 
K per colei, che 11 luogo prima eleaeo, 
Mantova 1' appellar aenz' altra sorte. 

Gik fur le genti sue dentro piii epeaae, 
Fiima che la niattla di Casolodi, 
Da Pmamonto ingaiuio rii^vesae. 

Peri t' assenno, che bo tu mai odi 
Originar la mia terra altrimenti, 
La verity nulla menzogna Ixodi. 


' Coiu|iu« ^'in , X. lOD, bo. 
Fatidiet UantUt rf Tiuci filua 
omnu, Qui murot malrUqut dtdil 
IfU, MoMtwi, nomtn ; Mantva 
diva avii, ttd non {Tcntu omni'^ji 
mam.- Omt iili tri^rx, ko, 

* Pinunimte de' Baouacoeai, 
who (oboat 1276} craftily poi- 
■OHleil Alberto de' CubIihU, 
Lord of MantTU, and chief of the 
aotiilitr, thftt be might pacLf; 
tbe people hj buuiMng tho n 

odioiu iLDil powerful of the nohloB 
(or n time to their own outliw. 
"Thie being done, PinamoDto 
bimielf loUed the goTenuucnt, 
with greit tnniiUt and applause 
of the people ; and forthwith 
orually eitemunated nearly all 
the noble and renowned familiei. 
with BWOnI and firs lajing waite 
theiiLouieii,''iio. Beav. ila Imola 
Com. Othei leu aure detula in 
Montori, Bit. HaL t. xi. 


And I : " Master, thy words are to mo bo certain, 

and 80 take hold of my belief, that all others wonld 
be to me extiugiuEhed coals.' But tell me of the 
people that ai-e passing,'' if thou seest any of them 
worthy of note ; for to that alone my mind recurs."' 

Then he said to me: "That one, who from the 
oheefe stretches forth liis beard upon his dusky shool- 
ders, was an augur, when Greece v/as so empty of 
males, that hardly thoy remained even in the cra- 
dles ;* and in Aulis he, with Calchas, gave the time 
for cutting the first cable. Emyjiylus his name ; 

Ed io : Maeatro, 1 tuoi ragionsmenti 
Mi son si certi, e prendon b1 mia fede, 
Che gli altri mi eanen carboni spenti. 

Ma diniini Uulla gente che precede, 
Se tu ne vedi alcun degno di nota ; 
Chb Bolo a ciii la mia mente ri£ede. 

Allor mi disse : Quel, che dalla gota 
Porge la barba in su le apalle bnme, 
Fu, quando Grecia fa di maschi vota 

Si ch' appena rimaaer per le cime, 

Aagnre, o diede il pimto con Colcanta 
In Aulide a tagliar la prima fune. 

• Would have nBither light nor 
heat for me. 

* Lit, ! " TliBt proooed," or go 
on liko thou "procemoDi of the 
DtMiiea." B«c note, p. 232, 


> "Strik™b« 
reCnma, Compa 
and Parg. xvi. 101. 

* When Greeoc «™t jta " thou. 
uuct ihipi" to Trof. 


and my high Tragedy thus sings him in some place :' 
well knowest it thou, who knowest the whole. 

'' That other who is so small about the flanks was 
Michael Scot ;* and of a truth he knew the play of 
magic frauds. 

" See Guido Bonatti f see Asdente,' who now 

EuripUo ebhe nome, e cosi il canta 

L' alta mia Tragedia in alcun loco ; 

Ben lo wii tu che la aai tutta quanta. 
Quell' altro che ne' fianchi 6 coal poco, 115 

Michelo Scotto fii, che veramento 

Dello mi^clie frode sejipe U giuoco. 
Vedi Guido Bonatti, vedi Asdcnto, 

' SvtpennSurj/pi/tvtn»cilatam 
oramda Phabi Jlillimiu, &o. £a. 
iL 114. The Maeii u tsolled e. 
Tragedy on uconut of it> ele- 
vated style. See tbe reuon* 
whicli Dante givei, in bu Letter 
to Cnoi Grande, tor Bailing hi< 
■iim Poem a Comudy. Alio Dt 
Vvlij. Eloq. iL 4, 

* Our own Sir Micbmel Scot of 
Balweuie, whoso "niomoiy stili 
mrvitas in nuuy a legend." He 
wu phyudui and utiologer to 
the Emperor Frederick II., who 
died in 1350 ; and not leu fam- 
oni iu Italy than in Bcotland. 
VnUni {e. 101, 137 ; liL 19, ka.) 
mentioni M>me of hii propheoies 
mi haring been fullUled in the 
next oentniy ; and with awe otll* 

it philoHOphei 


Not long since 
there was in this city (of Flurenee) 
a great maator iu nccromuney, 
who wiu called Michelo Scotto, 
bmaaati he wu uF Scotland ; and 
from uiany noble peoplo he ro- 
oeivod Tury great hononr," tc 
Dtf. Qioi-n. vul 9. 

' Ajtrologer of Forli ; itood in 
high favour with Guido du Mon- 
tefeltro, and was prcaent at hia 
memorable defeat of the Prenoh 
bsforo that city on the lit of Hay 
1282. See canto ixviL 44 ; and 
Vill. viL 8L 

* " Asdente the ghoemaliet of 
Paima," Dante elsewhere dia- 
daiufoUy 1^1, "would he more 
noble than any of hia fellow- 



would wish he had attended to his leather and his 
cord, but too late repents. See the wretched women 
who lefl the needle, the shuttle, and the Epindle, and 
made themselves diviiierosses. They wrought nntcli- 
crafl with herbs and images. 

" But now come ! fur Cain and the thoma' al- 
ready holds the confine of both hemispheres, and 
under Se\Tlle touctes the wave ; and already yester- 
night the Moon was round : well must thou remem- 
ber ; for she did not hurt thee any time lu the deep 

Ch' avere iuteso al cnoio ed alio spago 
Ora vorrehbe, ma tardi ai pente. 

Yedi 1q triste che lasciaron I' ago, 

La spola q 11 fuso, e fecersi indoTtne ; 
Fecer matle cou erbe e eon imago. 

Ma vienno omai ; ch5 gia tieue il confino 
D' amenduo gli emiapori, e tocca 1' onda 
Sotto Sibilia, Caino e le spine. 

E gi^ iemotte fii la Lmia tonda : 

Ben ten dee riconlar, ch6 non ti nocqne 
Alcuna volta per la selra fonda. 

oitiieiis,*' if aobleneiB coniUtnl 
nsrcl; in being tuuoh kjiown unit 
talked o[. Convito, Tr. iv. cap. 

1 The Han i' the Mood of Italian 
ohildreii in thoto old timei : here 
pottortboMooQitBolt. "Ronnil" 
or tail "7Ditertiigbt :" ui<l oonse- 
(|UBnUf eiMtl; oppoBito to the 

nm— letting aa he riiei. Koirai 
the mns, and fartfaei ewt; m 
that the time hers indioalad \if 
the Moou'a being on the ^'eoufina 
of both bemispherei,'* or touching 
the ware beyood SeviBa on the 
weBtera horiEoii, is about an hour 
after inniiH on tlio Satnritaj 




wood."* Thus he spake to me, and we went on 

SI mi parlava, ed andavamo introcque. 


190. Introcque, frattanto ; Lat. inter hoc 

' Somewhat helped thee in the 
Dark Wood, before thou sawest 
the Hill '* clothed with the rays 
of the Sun." Canto i 

The Moon is "the lesser light*' 

(PhiloBophy in the mystio sense, 
or mere human Knowledge, pure 
but oold and feeble reflex of the 
Sun), '* made to rule the Night." 
Otn. 1,16. 

The Poets coma to the arch of the Fifth Chftam or Badget which 
holda the BartererB or Barrators, the mulefactors who madu 
secret and vile traffio of their Public offices mod authorit;, in 
order to gain money. And wi the Tyrnntfl and AasaaBina (canto 
zii.) are steeped in boiling Btood, and have tlie Centaurs {em- 
blems of Violence) watching them with arrows, and kecpisg 
each at his proper depth ; so here the Bartercrs lie covered with 
filthy Pitch which clings to them, and get themselvea tent in 
pieoea hy horrid Demons — Shadows of their sins — whenever 
the; appear above its surface. The chasm is very dark, and 
at first Daote can see nothing but the pitch boiling in it. A 
Demon arrirex «ith one of the Seaators of Lucca on his shoul- 
deiB, throws him down from the bridge, t«lls what a harvest 
of Barrators there is in that city, and haateuD away for more. 
Other Demons, hitherto concealed beneath the bridge (like 
secret sins), rush ont and fiercely teach the poor snealclog 
senator under what conditions he bus to swim in the pitch. 
After some parley with Malacoda, chief of the Fiends, the 
Poets are sent on, along the edge of the chasm, with an ugly 
and questionable escort of Ten. 


Tb0s from bridgQ to bridge we came, with other I 
talk wliich iny Comedy cares Dot to recite ; aiid held i 
tlic snmmit,' when we stood bUU to see tlie other ( 
cleft of Mak-bolge and other yain lamentiogs : and 
I found it manellously dark. 

As ill the arsenal* of the Venetians boils the ] 
clammy pitch, to caulk their damaged sliips, in win- 
ter when tliey cannot navigate ; and, instead tliereof,* 
one builds liis ship anew, one plugs tJie ril>a of that 
which hath made many voyages; some hammer at 
the prow, some at the stem ; some make oars, and 

Co^ di ponte in ponte, altro parlaudo 

Che la mia Conunedla cantor non com, 

Veninmio ; e tonevamo colmo, quando 
Riatemmo per veder 1' altra fosBUra 
_n i' Li Maloholge, e gli Bltri pianti vani : 6 

£ vidila ciirabilmonte oacora. 
Quale Dell' Arzan^ de' Viniriani 

BoUe r invemo la tenace pece 

A nmpalmar li legni lor non sani, 
Che navitar non ponno ; e in quella voce 10 

Chi fa sao legno nuovo, e chi ristoppa 

Le coste a quel che pih viaggi fece ; 
Chi ribatte da proda, e chi da poppa ) 

■ Of Ihe fifth arah. SoMUton: 

How the lop << tlaivai dMb bold." 

I ' Biineat of AimiulIi in IhoM 
tinei, •thaa Duito uw it> dr- 
Ntnd u tha Tenetiui nuae. 

I * luitokd of voj^Ksiug. 

some twist ropes ; one mends die jib, and one the 
mainsail : So, not by fire but by art Divine, a dense 
pitch boiled down there, and overgiued the bants 
on every side. It I saw ; but saw nought tlierein, 
except the bubbles which tlte boUing raised, and the 
heaving and compressed subsiding of the whole.' 

Whilst I was gazing fixtly down on it, my 
Guide, saying, " Take care, take care I" drew' me 
to him from tho place where I was standing. Then 
I ttu-ncd round, like one viho longs to see what he 
must shun, and who is dashed with sudden fear, so 
that he puts not off his Bight to look ; and behind 

Altri fa remi, ed altri volge sarte ; 
Chi terzeruolo, od artimon rintoppa : 

Tal, non per fuoco, ma per divina arte 
fiollia leggiuso una pegola speaso, 
Cho inviscava la ripa d' ogni parte. 

lo vedea lei, ma non vedeva in eaaa 
Ma'che Ic boUe cho il boUor levava, 
E goufiar tutta, e riseder compreasa. 

Mentr' io laggiii fisanientc niiravo, 

Lo DucA mio dicendo : Guarda, guarda I 
Mi trasse a si del luogo doV io atava. 

Allor mi volai come 1' uom, cui tarda 
Di veder quel ohe gli convien fu^ire, 
£ cui paura snUta sgagliarda, 

Che, per veder, non indugia il partire : 

lit. : " And taw the whole 
(Well, and lubiide oompresicd." 

* "DcBw mo" with llist 137 of 
bin; nuule ms nuh to him, like 

one vha it lo daunted by & lad- 
den fear that " ha delays not hii 
deporting" to look — nuu fint, 
kud then looki rmuid. 

248 INFERNO, cA^rro xxi 

113 I saw a black Demon come rnnrung ap the cliff. 
Ah, how ferocious waa hia aspect ! And how bitter 
he Bccmed to mo in gesture, with bis wings oat- 
BpreaJ, and light of foot !' His shoulders that were 
sharp and high, a sinner with both haunches laded; 
and of each foot he hold tJie sinew* grasped. ** Ye 
Malebranche' of our bridge I" he said, "lol one of 
Santa Zita'e Eldei-a.' Thrust him under, while I 
return for others' to that city which is well pro- 

E vidi Jietro n noi un Diavol nero 

Correndo au per lo acoglio venire. 30 

Ahi quonto egU era nell' aepetto fiero ! 

E quanto mi paroa nell' atto acerbo, 

Con r ale aperte, e sovra i pifi leggiero ! 
L' omero auo, ch' era acuto e supurbo, 

Carcava nn peccator con umbo 1' auche, 

Ed ei tenea de' pi6 ghermito il nerbo. 
Del noatro ponte, disse, o Malebranche, 

Ecco on degli Anzian di Santa Zita t 

Mettetel sotto, eh' io tomo per anche 
A queUa terra che n' i ben fomito. 

■ Or: "Light upon bii feet" 

* A (inius Uded the gibbaiu 
■bonldera of hiin ; luui he heli 
the " uDcV (tendon of Achillei 
tliat lift! the heel) gnsped id lita 

' italibr<mehe,i.t. Evil dutches 
ottoloDi. NameoftheFiolldiill 

* Elden or ohlof nugiitnte* of 
Lnook, where Suita Zit* i> atill 
Tmented. Tradition Mfi ahe 

the PatiaeUi UmiJj, nai for 1m* 

hoi; life GUDODued in 

of Dante. The Elder h( 

it probkbl; one Mftrtino BottajOi 

■ho "wu in offloe at that 

(1300), tad died suddenly," 

uid Ottino Con. 

' Other barterera. The >di 
anfkr, anto, an atteD uied {(».• 
allri, allrv. See Oinonio ParH- 

Vided with them. Every man thore is a barrator, 
acept Bonturo :' there they make ' Ay' of ' No' for 

Down he tltrew him, tlien wheeled along the 
flinty cliff; and never was mastiff loosed with such 
% haste to follow thicf.^ The sinner plunged in, and 
dame up again wrilhimj convolved.^ But tlie De- 
bions, who were under cover of the bridge, cried : 
** Here the Sacred Face beateada not ; * here swim 

Ogni uom v' 6 "barattier, fuor che Bonturo : 

Del no per li denor vi si fu ita. 
Laggiii il buttft, o per lo BoogUo duro 

Si Tolse ; e mai non fi mostino sciolto 

Con tanta fretta a aeguitar lo furo, 
Quei b' attufEtJ, e toni6 bu coavolto ; 

Ma i Demon, che del ponte avean coverchio, 

Gridar : Qui non ha luogo il Santo Volto ; 

' Irookall;, Bonturo cle' Dati 
being the greatest of all burutor* 
or oomijiterB of Lnoen, uid well 
kDown Bi moh. Benv. du ImoU 
Com. ; tuA Muntori Jier. IlaL 


B Iiombudl, Bingialii&c KnnevliBt 
■rbitnril; make eoKvoUo ueui 
*' tunieil with beiul uid feet 
downmtrds ;"Mid Lcmbudi nyt. 


■mil tm 


a, BmUar to that of 

The seme of " besmeared, rolled 
in the pilch" has an air of pla- 
titnila bere, in epite of all tba 
irrelevant eiamplaa cited by tba 
CniHwuB. The neareit and plain- 
oit meaning il obiriatul; tbat of 
the Lat. cuniofului, from which 
the word i> immodiatelj derived. 
* So hyjwcritioal prayen can 
help thee here. The " Volto 
Sanio," a vecy uiuent Crudfli, 
■till standing ia the Cathedral of 
Locco, and venerated thera. 


ye othcrwiae tlian m the Sercliio.' Therefore, nnlees 
thou wishest to make trial of our drags, come not 
out ahovo the pitch." Then thoy struck him with 
more than a hundred prongs, ojid said : " Coyered 
thou must dance thee here ;' so that, if thou canst, 
thou mayost pilfer privately." Not otherwise do 
the eooka make their vaaaals dip the flesh into the 
middle of tlie boiler with their hooks, to hinder it 
from floating. 

TliG kind Master said to me : '* That it may not 
he seeu tliat thou art here, cower down behind a 
jagg which has some screen for thee ;' and whatever 
outrage may be done to mo, fear not thou; for I 

Qui si Buota oltrimenti cho dqI Serchio : 

Peri 88 tu noa vuoi de' noatri graffi, 60 

Ifon fej sovra la pegola Boverchio. 

Pol r addent4r con pih di cento rafli, 
DiBser : Coveito convien che qui Wli, 
SI che, Be puoi, nascosameute accolfi. 

Ifon altrimenti i cuochi a' lor yasaoUi &6 

Panno nttufTare in mezzo la caldaia 
Xa came cogli uncin, porchi non galli, 

Lo bnou Maestro : Acciocchi uon si paia 
Che tn ci aii, mi disse, gid t' acquatta 
Copo uno echcggio, che alcun echermo t' haia ; 60 

£ per ualla afieosioD, che a me aia fatta, 
2loa temer tu, ch' io ho le cose contc, 

1 lUrertiiKt puMBuearLlunK. | * Or: " So tlut thou mojert 

' Hurt IwTg thy apart here hftve tome meen for tiiTwdf." 

under oorer of Ihe boiUiiB i^tafa ; Tu poit {" dopti") tarwta laUtoti 

and barter in it if thou o&iut. I Bolog.iiLQO. 

u. DJFBBNO. 251 

know t}ieae matters, having once before been in the 
IHto aflray."' Then he passed beyond the head of the 
bridge ; and when he arrived on the sixth bank, it 
was needfiil for him to have a sfedfost front. With 
that fiiry and that storm, wherewith the dogs rush 
forth upon the poor man who where he stops sud- 
denly seeks alms, rushed those Demons from be- 
neath the bridge, and turned against him all tlieir 
crooks. But he cried: "Be none of ye outrageom. 
Before ye touch me with yonr forks, let one of you 
come ibrth to hear me, and tlien take counsel abont 
liooking me." 

AH cried : " Let Malaooda* go." Thereat one 

Perch' allra rolta fiii a tal barattn. 
Poscia pQsa6 di li dal co' del ponte, 

£ com' ei gimise in au In ripa segtit, 65 

Meatier gli fu d' aver sicura fronto. 
Con qual furore, e con quelk tempesta, 

Ch' oaoono i coni addosao al poverello, 

Che di subito chiede ove e' arreata ; 
Usciron i^uci di sotto al ponticeUo, 70 

E volser contra lui tutti i roncigli ; 

Ma ei grid6 : Nossiui di voi sia felio. 
Innanri ohe 1' uncin vostro mi pigli, 

Traggaai avanti 1' un di voi che m' oda, 

E poi di ronciglianni si consigli. TS 

Tutti gridarou : Vada Malacoda ; 

"OBoe before I wm down I ' Or; "Eril-tail," their OhiBf, 

Well do I know the Smooth >t Bnt lilcc Fraad (uuito 

" Bm onto ix. 32-30. | xviii), uid ending 1»d1f. 

moved himself, (io oUiers standing Brm, and c 
to him, saying : " Wliat will this avail him ?" 

" Dost thou expect, Malacoda," said my Master^J 
" to find I have come here, secure already again^l 
all your weapons,' without will Divine and fate prcnl 
pitious ? Let me pass on ; for it is willed in HeaveB I 
that I shew another this savage way."* 

Then was his pride so fallen, tliat he let the liook 1 
drop at his feet, and said to the otliers : " Now strike ! 
him not 1" And my Guide to mo : " O thoa that 
sittest cowering, cowering amongst the great Bptinters 
of the bridge, securely now return to mo 1" Whereat 
I moved, and quickly came to him ; and the Devils 

Perch' un ei moase, e gU altri stetter fermi ; 

£ veime a lui diceudo : Cho gli approda ? 
Ctedi tu, Malacoda, qui vedermi 

EasGi venuto, disse il mio Maestro, 

SecuTO gill da tutti i vostri schemti, 
Senza volar di\Tno e lato destro? 

Lasciami andar, chi nel Cielo b voluto 

Ch' io moBtri altrui queato cammin sUvestro. 
Allor gli fu r oigoglio M enduto, 

Che at ]asci6 cascai 1' uncino ai piedi, 

E disso agU altri : Omai non aia ferato. 
E il Dnca mio a mo : O tu, che aiedi 

Tra gli scheggion dei ponte quatto qnatto, 

SicuratuentH oiuai a me ti riodi. 
Perch' io lui mossi, ed a lui venui ratto ; 

rn. INFERNO, 253 

all pressed forward, so that I feared they might not 
hold the compact And thus once I saw the footmen, 
who marched out under treaty from Caprona,' fear 
at seeing tJiemselves among so many enemies. 

1 drew near my Guide with my whole body, and 
turned not away ray eyes from the look of thera, 
which was not good. They lowered their drag-hooks, 
and kept saying to one another: " Shall I touch him 
on the rump ?" and answering : " Yes, see thou nick 
him."* But that Demon, who had spoken with my 

E i Diavoli si feccr tutti avanti, 

Si ch' io temetti non tenesser patto. 
E cosl Till' io gii temer U fanti 

Ch' usciviin putteggiati di Capronii, 95 

Veggendo ek tra nemici cotantl 
Io m' accostai con tutta la persona 

Lunga il mio Duca, e non tortevs gU occhi 

Dalla aembianza lor, ch' era non buona. 
Ei chinavan gli raffi, e : Vuoi ch' io '1 tocchi, 100 

Diceva I' un con 1' altro, in eul groppono 1 

£ riapondean : S\, fa che gliele accocchL 
Ma quel Demonic, che tenea aennone 

' The fortrau of Caprotin on 
Ihe Amo, belonging to tbo I^suii 
(OtubelliDcs), wu Uken hy tbe 
Gnelphs of Lacca and Flarenoe 
in Augurt 1289. ViU. riL 137. 
Duito, >t that tima 24 yean of 
age, wu prvaent (jn-obBblf u one 
of the "400 gentlemen troopen i 
frotn Florenco") during the brief I 
lUid tudona aiege. Crowili of the i 
eomiuoQ peot>1e, it i* wud, hail I 

ooma to wee tbe gamioD march 
out, and tenified them by ibout- 
ing : Appkca, appicea I " Hang, 
hang 1" See Oom. of Benv. da 
ImoU, Ottimo, So. 

' Properiy, "nick it foe him.'" 
tHieU, ia all the oliier autbora, 
U indeclinable, itanding equally 
for ijlielo (ns here), j/tifta, jrfwji. 
Cinon. Panic, e. Ut9. Compare 
eantoi i. U ; uiiiL 149, kis. 

254 ESFERSO. cjuno zn 

Guide, turned instant round, and ssid : '* Quiet, 
quiet, Scaramigiione 1'" 

Then he said to us : " To go farther by this cliflF 
will not be possible ; for the sixth arcli lies all in frag- 
ments at the bottom. And if it please you still to go 
onward, go along tliis cavern :' near at hand a anotba 
cliff which forms a path. Yesterday, five hours later 
than tliis hour, a thousand two hundred and sbtty-Hbt 
years were fulfilled sine© the way here was broken.' 

Col Duca mio, ei volso tutto presto 

E disse : Posa, posa, S4:anaiglione. 105 

Fin disse a noi : Piii oltre andar pet queeto 

Scoglio non si potti ; perotchfe giaae 

Tutto speEzato al fondo 1' arco seato : 
E Be r andare avuiti pur vi piace, 

AndatevGDe su per quests giotta : 110 

Fresso h uu altro scoglio che via fiicc. 
lei, piii oltro cinqu' ore cLe quest' otto, 

Millo dugento con eesaanta eei 

Anni conipi^r, clie qui la via fa Totta. 

112. OUo (worn; (till ii»oil in Tiuoiny. 

*" Great DnkBmpt,"OT"To<r- 
l«" {teamigliare) ; ibaJowj re- 
prManUtiro ol tho duordu and 
tool pnetioe of bamtiy. 

' "Qratto,''ohuiD of tbe pitoli. 

* Thii puHw« (liks TeiM Ut, 

> LI i 

tlM t 

Dsnta'i dnoant. Th« "wayhere 
WM brolieo" after tbe Crudfixioa 
[cuitu iii.40}, irbea "tbe eaiili 
did qtulio and the roolu tent." 

To 1266 add 34 (the oninbeT of 
jean from tho Natiritf to Hm 
UrudSiiaD), and it p,mm UOO: 

Hell "trembled in eranntt* 
attbegT«at event, wbai«br"D«stli 
vai ■wallowed up in Ylotof; ;" bat 
the ■booli wu mort felt in the 
(rirole* of the Violent (canto nL) 
and of the Hjpociitoi (nan, «Tili ) 
—liBteful amniiHin and anuifien 
of tbe Meek and Siiotleu. 


I Thitlierward' I send some of these my meti, to look 
if any one be ont airing liimaelf. Go with them ; for 
they will not be treacherous. 

"Draw forward, Alichino* and Caloabrma," he 
then began to say, "and thoa, Cagnazzo; and let 
Barbariccia load the ten. Let Libicocco come be- 
sides, and Draghigiiazzo, tusked Ciriatto, and Graf- 
fiacane, and Fiirfarello, and furious Bubicant«. 

lo nmndo verso lit di questi miei 
A riguaidar s' alcun s 
Gite con lot, ch' ei no 

Tiatti avanti, Alichiuo o Colcabrino, 
Coniinci6 egli a dire, e tii, Cagoazzo, 
£ Barbariccia guidi la decina, 

Libicocco vegna oltre, e Draehignazzo, 
Ciriatto eannnto, o Graffiacane, 
£ Farfarello, o Itubicante pozio. 


> ToirerdtliBt"otliBrclifiwtuch 
fumu k path," Tiina IlL 

< In the nunei oC than ten 
Fiends Ihiu niuatcred bj MhIu- 
codk, lAcdiiia and othcn find 
that Ouitc "eipRaaea the pU' 
lioiu, hkliti, and d«eda o( Ilu- 
nton" The derivsliuui are 
partly fanciful, jet Dot without 
•omo ihadow of real ligiiiQiiBiiGa. 
Thoa ; Aliohiuo (a;> china], "bendi 
hia winjp,"Teadj to"atooi>," and 
pooiuM. Caltnbriiiaii "Tnunple- 

«x«iL 70), 

' Dogfaoa," Barba- 

riooia (baria onveiaW), " Criq>- 
beard ;" tor, "aooordiag to phj- 
UDgnotuiBti, the oiiiped or mrled 
beard denotoe fraiidDleoD]'." U- 
biflocoo {Lffiia a)eco}, " Blaokrcd' 
□r "3earlutinDor ;" veaiiag the 
liter; of HeU. DrsghignaxaD 
{drnga), " DragDoface ;" Ciriatto 
(xi>VO>, ciro atill vulgarly uaed 
for porro), " Swinj ;" GfaffiaoaiiOk 
''Dogaoratoher ;*" Farfarello i/ar- 
falla, butterfly, or farfaront), 
•' Hellbet" or " Babbler ;" KuM- 
aanle, "Kuby"or"B]«ier,"'r«4^ J 
bot and mad with bamtiy. 
them in aotlon, canto xxiL 

256 INFERXO. ciSPTi 

Search around the boiling glue. Be these tieo gmdid 
safe to the other crag, whioh oil unbroken goes across 
the dens."' 

" Oh me 1 Master, what is this that I see ?" aud 
I: " Ah, without escort let us go alone, if thoa 
knowGst the way; for aa to me, I seek it not I If 
thou beest so wary, as thou art wont, dost thoa not 
see how they grin their teeth, and with their brows 
threaten mischief to us?" 

And he to me : "I would not have thee be 
afraid. Let them grin on at their will ; for they do 
it at the boiled wretches."' 

Cercote intomo le bollenti pane ; 

Costor aien salvi insino all' altio acheggio, 

Che tutto intcro va sovm te tone. 
mo ! Maestro, che k quel che io reggio t 

Diss' io : deh eenza scorta andiomci soli, 

Bo tu aa' ir, ch' io per nte non la che^o. 
Se tu sei si accorto come suoU, 

Non vedi tu ch' ei digrignaa IS denti, 

£ con le citjlia ne misaccian duolil 
Ed egU a me : Non vo' oho tu poventi : 

Laeciali digrignsr pure a lor sonno, 

Ch' ei fanno oi6 per li Ifssi dolenti. 

124. Pant, puiiG, birdlime, pitch. 

> Otber cUfT {vsno 
of bridgM, which < 

• lit : " Th«y do tlui for 
boiJed dolefnl,'' t.<. for the da- 
Den boiled in tha iiitob. 5om« 
good olitiuDB rcwl lui, lute»d c< 
(coi, in rent 135. 




By the sinister bank they turned ;^ but first, each 
of them had pressed his tongue between the teeth,^ 

toward their Captain as a signal ; and he of his 

. had made a trumpet^ 

Per r argine sinistro volta dienno ; 

Ma prima avea ciascun la lingua stretta 

Co' denti verso lor duca per cenno : 
Ed egli avea del cul fiatto trombetta. 

136. Dienno, diedero ; ai /enno, feoero. 

1 Along the part of the bank 
which lies on the left hand in de- 
scending from the bridge. 

* The Demons think that Vir- 
gil and Dante are caught by the 
lies of Malacoda ; and here among 
Barrators they make the same 
base signal, with their tongues, 
as the Usurer in canto xvii 74. 

The Poet mentions these things, 
says Pietro di Dante, ut ostendcU 
turpes moret et aettu horum tali- 

urn, '*in order to shew the yile 
habits and acts of such people.** 
The Avaricious and Prodigal 
(canto vii), the Usurers (canto 
xvii), and the Barrators, de- 
scend in regular degradation. AU 
of them have " lost the bright 
life" through worship of Money, 
which is with Dante the basest 
of idols. 

* ^dXiriy^ 6 irpMtr6s icriv, &c. 
Aiistoph. Ifuhes, 165. 


The Demons, under 'Uieir" great M&rshnt" Burbftriccin, lead the 
way, along the edge of the boiling Pitch ; and Dante, who 
keeps looking sharply, rc1at«B how he saw the Garrnlors Ijing 
in it, like bogi in ditch-water, with nothing but their " mui- 
eW out, and instantly vaniehing at sight of Garbariccia ; and 
how Oraffiacanc hooked one of (hem and hauled him up like 
a freah-Bpeared titter, all the other Demons gntheriug round 
and tarring on Hubicante to mangle the unlucky wretch. At 
Dante'B requeet, YirgU goes forward, and aiks him who he \i ; 
and no sooner does the pitchy Ifaief mention bow he took to 
barratry in the service of worthy King Thibault of Navarre, 
than he h toade to feet the bitter force of Ciriatto's toilu, 
Barbaricola now olaspB him with both arms, and orders the 
rest to be quiet, till Virgil has done with quertioning. But 
" licsrletmoor" loses patience; " Dragontaoe" too will have a 
clutch at the legs ; Farfarella, " wicked Hell-bird" that be Is, 
glares ready to strike; and their " Deourion" has difficulty 
in keeping them off. At last the cunning barrator, though 
Cagnazzo raises his dog-face in scornful opposition, plays off 
a triok by which he contrives to escape. Thereupon Cnlcsbrina 
and AUohtno fall to quarrelling, seize each other like two mad 
vulturoa, and drop into the burning pitch ; and the whole troop 
is left in fitting disorder. 


I HAVE ere now seen liorsemen moving camp, 
and coiDincuciug tlio assault, and holding their mus- 
ter, and at times retiruig to escape : (Xiursers have 
I seen upon jour land, Aretiues !' and seen tbfl 
marcli of foragers, tbe sliock of tournaments and 
race of jousts, now with trumpets, and now with 
bells,' with drums and castle-signals, and wi'ii ua- 

To vidi gi^ cavalier muover campo, 
E cominciare stormo, e for !or mofitra, 
E talvolta partir per loro 8cain]K) : 

Corridor vidi per !a terra vostra, 
O Arotini; a Tiiii gir giialilane, 
Ferir toraeatnenti, e correr gioatra, 

Quando con tromhe, o quando con campane, 
Con tamhuii e con cenni di castellaj 

' The people of Areuo, ohiefiy 
GUbotliae, wero nlmoit contiou- 
ally at wu- vitli tlio Florentmo. 
TLej and Uieii- slliei were lonly 
defeated in the menionible battle 
of CuDpaldiDO, on Saturdn;, lat 
June 1289. I'iH. vii. 13L Dante 
wai there, u he tajs, " no chilil 
in txmt (non fanciuUo ntW anni); 
utd htLii much drend, &ad in the 
ead great joy, through the vaiioui 
cbaocet of that buttle." See Bi- 
troot from ■ Lcttei (mitten in hi* 
exile). L. Amtino,riVudii)an(e, 

* Buoh u the " MartineDa," 
the bell " to sound of which tbs 
Ftorantinei uied to maick" in 
Dante'g boyhood ; and which the; 
haughtily "rung day and night" 
before" nukrching, in oidar "to 
give the enemy duo naming to 
■ prepare, " See tbe onrioni deacrip- 
tion of their old Cairoodo, "all 
painted vemiilien, and dr>Wn by 
a luge pair of oicn, dtatined 
■olel; for that poipoaa," &a. Jf<i. 
Icapini, e. 10-1 ; Mpied bf VUL 

oiaw nil. IKFEBKO. 261 

dve tilings and foreign j but never yet to so uncouth 
a comet saw I cavaliers nor footmen move, nor ship 
by mark of land or star, 

Wo went with the ten Demons : Ah, hideous 
company ! but, ' In church with sointe, and with 
guzzlers in the tavern.'^ Yet my intent was on the 
pitcli, to see each habit of the chaam and of the 
people that were buniing in it. 

As dolphins, when witli the arch of the back 
they make sign' to mariners that tlioy may prepare 
to save tlioir ahip; so now and tlien, to case the 

£ COR cose nostrali, o con istiime ; 
NJi gii con al diveraa cennamellu 10 

Cavalier vidi mover, ii6 pedoni, 

Nil navo a seguo Ji terra o di atdla, 
Ifoi andavam con li iliuci Dimoni : 

Ahj flora compagnia I ma nella chiesa 

Co' Banti, ed in tavcma oo' ghiottoni. 15 

Pure alU pegola ero la mia int«aa, 

Per voder della bolgia ogni contegno, 

E della guato ch' entro v'era incesa. 
Come i ileLliQi, quando fanno segno 

Al muriimr can 1' orco dclla Bchicno, 20 

Che s'argomentin di campur lor legno; 
XaloT cosl ad alTeggiar la pena 

' And, in till* dutmi of tbe 
Bomtora, with low uivage Iic- 
moiu ; whoM compan;, thuitgh 
oitremily detcKUblo, muit bo oa- 
dured for ■ thus. 

' WTien Uic dolphini ("b«iJod 

I dolpluiis" of MilloD) riiQ &boTe 
the nCcr with their KTchcd bofikl, 

I it is a sign of Apjiniiiching ntflniL 
Pliny ufi : DciiJiini (rarujuill'i 
mart luiiHin^ala JItUum pnaoffi- 

\ «nt, ko. Hilt. Nat. xTiiL 35. 

pmushiueiit, some sinner shewed his back and hid 
in lesa tune than it lightens. And as at the edge 
of the water of a ditch, the frogs stand only widi . 
their muzzles out, so that thej hide their feet and 
other bulk; thus stood on every hand the sinnere. 
But as Barbariccia approached, they iuatantly retired 
beneath the seetliing.' I saw, and my heart still 
shudders thereat, one linger so, as it will happen 
that one ftwg remains while the other spouts awav. 
And Graffiacane, who was nearest to him,' hooked 
his pitchy locks and haled him up, so tliat to me 
ha Beomecl an otter." 

I already knew tlie name of every one, bo well 

Mostrava alcim de' peccatori il dosso, 

E noscDndova in men chu non balena. 
E come all' orlo dell' acqua d' iin foeao 25 

Stan li lanocchi pur col muso fuori, 

SI che celano i piodi o 1' altro grosso ; 
S atavan d' ogni parte 1 peccatori : 

Ma como s' appressava Barbariccia, 

Cosl si ritraean sotto i bollori. 30 

lo vidi, eil anche il cuor mi b' accapriccia, 

TTno aapettar cosi, com' egli incontra 

Che una rana rimano, e I' altra apiccia. 
E Gmffiacan, che gli era piJi di contro, 

Gli aiTonciglif) le impegolate chiomo, 35 

E trassel su, che mi parve una lontra. 
lo sapea gik di tutU quanti il nome, 

I " Boiljngi" of the pitch. I ' Glittering vitb pitch, uid 

' Lit. : "WiiB moat oppodta to writhing, lika aa otter n 

hit",** and tbcmfcrre nearest. I speared Aiid<ltsg{[edoulofwiter. 

curro nm. INFERNO. 263 

I noted them as they were chosen, and when they 
called each other, listened how. " Hubicante, 
see thou plant thy olutehcs on him, and flay him !" 
shouted togetlier all tlie accursed creio. 

And I : " Master, leam if thoii canst, who is 
that piteous wight,* fallen into the hand of his ad- 
veTBaries." My Guide drew dose to him, and asked 
him whence he canio ; and he replied : " I was bom 

the kingdom of Navarre. My mother placed me 
aa servant of a lord i for she had borne me to a ribald 
waster of himself and of his substance. Then I was 
domestic' with the good king Thibault:' here I set 

Si li Qotai qnando furono clctti, 

E ]K>i cho si i:hiamaTO, attesi come. 
Eubicante, fa the tu gli metti 40 

Gli unghioni addosso st che tu lo scuoi, 

Gridavan tutti insieme i malailetti. 
£d io : Klaefitro mio, fa, so ta puoi, 

Clio ta sappi clu 6 lo scioguiato 

Vetmto a man degli aweraarj suoi. 45 

Lo Duca mio gli s' accosts a lato, 

Domandollo ond' ei foKse ; o quci rispose : 

lo fui dol regno di Navaira nato, 
Mia modre a servo d' on signor mi poso, 

Chfe m' avea generato d' un ribaldo 50 

Distruggitor di si e di sue cose. 
Foi fui famiglia del boon re Telialdo ; 

' The Mnunnitktoi* mil thta | hold of." /'ami'0fiamMiu4Utha 

rtom Ciampolo or OUmpolD, «emLDta of a lioaie, or ooe ODlf, 

<.(. John P*iiL ' ThibnulC IL of NiT&m, bom 

Ori "SerTut In the haaat- ' in 1240,uitllaaiiekiiiSKtI3 yeum 

264 IKFCRKO. cuno an. 

myself to doing barratry, of which I reader reckoa- 
ing in tliis heat" 

And Ciriatto, from whose mouth on either ade 
came forth a tusk as from a. hog, mado him fed 
how one of them did rip. Amougst evil cata the 
mouse had come ; but Barbariccia locked Mm in his 
arms, and said: "Stand off whilst I cnfork him!'" 
And turning his face to my Master : " Ask on," he 
said, " if Uiou wouldst learn more &oin him, before 
flome other undo him." 

The Guide therefore : " Now say, of the other 
sinners kno^f est thou any that is a Latian,* braisatli 
the pitch ?" 

Quivi mi misi a, £ar baratteria, 

Di che rendo ragione in questo caldo. 

F. Ciriatto, a cui di bocca uacia 55 

D' ogni parte una samio, come a porco, 
Gli fe' aentir come 1' una sdracla. 

Tn toale gatte era vcnuto il Borco ; 

Ma Barbariccia il chiuse con le braccia, 

£ diBsc : State in I^ mentr' iu lo ioforuo. 60 

£ al Maestro mio volae la faccia : 
Dimanda, disao, ancor, bo piii didi 
Saper da lui, prima ch' altri il disfuccia. 

Lo Duoa (Imitjue : Or di', degU allri rii 
S Conosci tu alciiu che eia Latino, 66 

of ^^fra» Dt Ttmu with St. i ' HoliI Mm imuni^idupliim 

LonU. uul WW him die in 1270. with artiu utd logi. 

Sod of tlie TlulHkult whoae veraea ' An Italiiui, LaliHoheiBg lusd 

DMit« quot« in tho Trciitue Dc , bf Virgil in thii eente, u eantiM 

Vulg. EUq. L 20 ; iL 5, 0. iivii 33, ixa. 88. to. 


And lie : " I parted just now from one who was 
I neighbour of theirs.' Would I sti]] were covered 
with him, for I ehould not foar claw nor hook 1" 

And Libieocco cried: "Too much have we en- 
idored I" and with the hook seized his arm, and m&n- 
■igUng carried off a part of brawn. Drsghignazzo, 
■ lie too, wished to have a catch at the legs below; 
■whereat their Deeurion' wheeled around around with 
I evil a<<pect 

When they were somewhat pacified, my Guide 
without delay asked liim that still kept gazing on his 
wound : *' Who was he, from whom thou sayest that 
thou madest an ill departure to come ashore?" 

Sotto la pece 1 E quegli : lo mi partii 

Pooo 6, da un che fu di li vicino : 
Coal fosa' io ancor con lui cijvorto, 
Ch' io noE teincrei unghia, nh uncino. 

E Libieocco : Troppo avem sofferto, 

Disae; e preaegli il btaccio col ronciglio, 
81 che, stracciando, ne port^ un lacerto. 

Dn^hignazzo auch' ei voile dar di piglio 
Gih dalle gambe ; onde il decurio loro 
Si volao intomo intomo cos mal pigUo. 

Quand' elli un poco rappaciati foro, 
A lui ch' ancor mirava sua ferita, 
DinianJ^ il Duca mio senza dimoro : 

Chi fa colui, da cut mala partita 
Di' che iaueati per vouiie a proda 1 

thsu.orinSu'dlDu. Seen 

And he answered: "It was Friar Gomita, he of 
GaJlura,' vessel of every fraud, who had his master's 
enemies in liand, and did so to them that they all 
praise Iiim for it. Money took he for himself, and 
dismissed them smoothly,' as he snys; and in hm 
other offices besides, he was no petty but a 
barrator. With bim keeps company Don 
Zanche of Logodoro f and In speaking of 
the tongues of them do not feel weaiy. Oh me t bob 
that other grinning : I would say more ; but fear he 
is preparing to claw my scurf." 

And their great Marshal, turning to Farfarello 

Ed ei nspose ; Fu fhtte Gomita, 
Quel di Galium, vasel d' ogni fi'oda, 

Ch' ebbe i nimict di euo donno in mono, 

£ fe' lor ei, cho cinscim se ne locla : 
Denar si tolse, e laaciolli di piano, 85 

6L com' ei dice : e negli altri iiticj ancbe 

Baiattier fu non picciol, ma sovnmo. 
ITsa con esso donno ACchel Zanche 

Di Logodoro ; e a dlr di Sardigna 

Le liugue lor non si sentono stnnche. 90 

me I vodete 1' altro che digi'igna ; 

lo direi anche ; ma io temo ch' ello 

Xon s' apptvrecchi a grattomii Ib tigna. 
E gran proiMsto, volto a Farfarello 

> Tlio goTemmeDt of OiUlara, go. Di piano, (Lt,t. tit piano, 

one of tbe fooi Juiiiiiiotitni* of SpuL de llano,) then m Icpl, «r 

Sjudinia, itiu giien to thii Gomita perhipi SanUuian phiaie. 

liy Nina de' TiiooDti of PIm. ■ Logodoro, uiotliat at llw Jn- 

* Toole B bribe, uid let tbem ritdioliaiu of Sardinia. 

cuno XXU. INFEBKO. 267 

who rolled hU eyes to strilve, said: "Off with thee, 
vUlanous bird I" 

" K you wish to see or hoar Tuscona or Ldm- 
barde," the frighteDed sinner then resumed, "I will 
make them come. But let the Malobnuiche stand a 
little hack, that they may not feai' their vengeance;' 
and I, sitting in this same ptuce, for one tliat I am, 
will make seven come, on whistling as is our wont to 
do when any of us gets out" 

Cagnazzo at those words raised his snout, shaking 
his head, and said : " Hear the malice he has con- 
trived, to tlu^w himself down !" 

Whereat he, who had artifices in great store, 

Che stralimava gli occhi per feriro, 95 

Disse : J'utti in costi, malvagio uccello. 

So Voi volote vedere o udire, 
Eicomincifi lo apaurato appresso, 
Toacbi o Lombitrdi, io ne £ir6 reoire. 

Ma aticn lo Malcbrancbe im poco in ceaao, 100 

SI che non teman delle lor vendett* ; 
£d io, seggendo in qiieato luogo atesso, 

Per un ch' io son, ne far6 venlr sette, 
Quando 8ufoler6, coin" i noatr' uao 
III fare allor che fuori alcun si inette. 

Cagnazzo a cotal motto Iov6 il muso, 
CroUiindo il capo, c diese : Odi malim 
Ch' egU ha pensato per gittaisi giuso. 

Ond' ei, ch' avea lacciuoli a gran divizia. 

' Let tba Deinaiu with Uitir i Uut mj feUoin nuy tv. 
"evilolutduM liv* wajralittl*," | 

replied ; " Too malicious indeed ! when I contriTB 
for my companions greatei" sorrow." 

AlicLino held in no longer, and in opposition to 
the others said to him; "If thou stoop, I will nob 
follow tliee at gallop,' but beat my wings HlmVH 
pitch. Let tho height be left, and be the bank I 
screen ;* to see if tliou alone provailest over 

Reader, thou ehalt hear new sport. All turned 
their eyes toward the other side, he first who hsd 
been most unripe* for doing it. The Navarreae choee 
well his time; planted his soles upon the groosd^ 
and in an instant leapt and from their purpose £ 

Eispose : Jlolizioso son io troppo, 
Qmindo procuro a" miei maggior tristizia 1 

Alichin uou ai tcnne, e di rintoppa 
Agli altri, disse a lui : Se tu ti call, 
Io non ti verr6 dietro di galoppo. 

Ma battei'i sovra la pece 1' ali : 
Lasciai il coUo, o sia la ripa ecado, 
A veder se tu sol pii di noi vali. 

O tu, che loggi, udirai nuovo ludo : 

Ciasr^un dall' altra costa gli occhi volso ; 
Quel prima, ch' a ciii fare em piii crudo, 

Lo Navarreae ben buo tempo colse ; 
Fenn6 le piaute a terra, e in un punto 
Salt6, e dal proposto lor si sciolse : 


' Will not mn, but &j after 
thoe ; have wingi m well u feet 

^ Banki high in ths loidiUe, 
imd cnpnble o( being ■ acrecn vr 
" shield" to Itido the dmnona. 

hod bMn Iiuil«t 

who toniod up hi! imonl, n 

ing tbetricJi atoDiM. OuJo; 


imself. Tliereat each suddenly waa stung with rage; 
but he most wlio bad been cause of the mistake.' 
He tlierofore started forth, and shouted ; " Thou'rt 
caught !" But little it availed ; for wings could not 
outapoed tlie ten'or. The sinner ivent under ; and 
lie, flying, raised up his breast' Not otherwise 
the duck suddenly dives down, when tlie falcon ap- 
proaches ; and lie returns up angiy and defeated. 

Calcahrina, furious at the trick, kept flying after 
him, desirous that the sinner might escape, to have 
a quarrel ; and, when the barrator had disappeared, 
he turned liis talons on his fellow, and was clutched 
with him above the ditch. But the other was in- 

Di che cinscun di colpo fu compunto, 

Ma que! piCi, che cagion fu del difetto. 125 

Peri si moBse, e gridf> : Tu se' giimto. 
Ma poco volse ; ch& 1' ale al Bospetto 

Non potcro avonzar : queglj and5 sotto, ' 

E quei drizi!6, volnndo, suao il petto. 
Non oltrimetiti 1' anitra di botto, 130 

Quando il falcon e' appressa, gid b' attuffa, 

Ed ei ritonia sii cnicointo o rotto. 
Irato Calcabrina dellxi bui!'a, 

Volando dietro gli tonne, invagbito 

CbB quel campasse, per avor tn zuffa. 135 

E come il bnrattier fu disparito, 

Cos\ Yolse gli artigli al suo compagno, 

£ fu con lui aoTTa il fosao gbemuto. 

1 AliehiDO (■«« vene 112, Lo.), | * Wheeled opinud* *cud, like 
I liho nude Uu rat retiie. I mi «igi7 falooo. 

270 INFERKO. c**r 

deed a sparrowliawk to claw Mm well ; and both 
dropt down into the middle of tlie boiling pond* 
The heat at once vincliitcbed' them; but rise they 
could not, their wings were bo boglued. Earbariccw 
with the rest lamenting, made four of t}iem fly over 
to tlie other coast witli all tlicir drags: and most 
rapidly, on this side, on that, they descended to the 
stand. They stretched their hooks towards the limed 
^iV, who wore already scalded within the crust.* And 
we left them thus embroiled,* 

Ma r altro fu bene eparvier grifagno 

Ad aitigliar ben lui ; o ambeUue 

Caddt-T nel mezzo del bollente stagno. 
Lo coldo aghennitor eubito fue : 

Ma per6 <Ji levarai era niento, 

81 aveano inviscate 1' ale sue. 
Barbariccia con gli oltri auoi dolente, 

Quattro ne fe' volar dall' altia costa 

Con tutti i laffi : o assai prestainent« 
Di quit di la discesero alia posta ; 

Potser gli uncini verao gV impaniati, 

Ch' eran glii cotti dentro dalla crosto. 
E noi lasciauimo lor oosi impacciatl 

' The ironl ighennUvr (nn- 
dntoher, wparetor) oomM from 
ghermirc, to gripe, dutch. Some 
editioiii hate $c!iermxtor, inite&d 
of tgherm il-ir, in vcne 142, 

* Of boiling jiitoh that im 
clinging to tlieiQ. VenealU-i. 

> The siiiiilD of the frog Kod 
raouw, ia out cuibi. »iU ba 
Dante's lut porting nroke. He 
hiniMir nu exited, u wa knaw. 
uniter a miierable chupi of 
ratiy" which he neTor took Iha 
trouble of disufing. 


Dante keeps followiDg his Guide in silence, with head hent down, 
meditating on the things he has had to witness in that chasm 
of the pitch. The fable of the Frog and the Mouse comes into 
his mind ; then fear that the ugly Demons may seek vengeance 
for their misfortune. He sees them coming with outstretched 
wings, when Virgil takes him in his arms, and rapidly glides 
down with him into the next chasm. Here they find the Hy- 
pocrites walking along the narrow bottom in slow procession, 
heavy-laden with cloaks of lead, which are gilded and of daz- 
zling brightness on the outside. Dante speaks with Catalano 
and Loderingo, two Friars of Bologna, who had been appointed 
chief magistrates of Florence under trying circumstances, and 
brought memorable disasters on that city by their hypocrisy 
and corruption ; and has just begun to tell them what he thinks 
of their evil deeds, when he observes Caiaphas stretched across 
the narrow road, and fixed to it, in such a way that all the 
other Hypocrites have to trample on him as they pass. The 
sight of that High Priest and his ignominious punishment is 
enough. Hypocrisy did its very utmost in him and "the others 
of that Ck>uncil," for which the Jews still sufifer. The Poets 
hasten away to another class of sinners. 

CANTO sxm. 

Silent, apart, and -without escort we went tm, 
the one before and the other after; as the Minor 
Friara' go their way. My thought waa turned, by 
tho present strife, to ^sop's fable where lie speaks 
of the frog and mouse;' for Ay and Yea pair not 
better,' than does the one case witli tho other, if 
with attentive mind the beginning and end o/mcA 
be well aeeoupled.* And as one thought from the 

Taciti, Boli, e BCnza compagnia 

H" andflvam 1' un dinanzi o V altro dope, 

Come i frati Jlinor vonno pet via, 
Volto era in au la favola d' Isopo 

Lo mio pensier per la presente rissa, 5 

Dov" ei porlb ddla rana e del topo : 
Chb piit non ei 2>are^gia mo ed issa, 

Che r un coll' altro ta, bc Ijen a' accoppia 

PiiiKjipio line con la mente &bba : 
E como r un pensier dell' altro suoppia, 10 

' SQent and bent like linmbU 
Frun; thaiightrnL 

• In the foble (here attributed 
to jEaop), A countrr mouse makea 
f riendilup witb a trencberoui frog, 
Thej apend loinc time pleauiutl; 
and dine together, and the frog 
geti the foot of the inoou tied to 
hii own ; ibea, omuing to a hike 
and DimkiDg joyfull;, he takei 
tbo vtter with his f liand ; but a 
kit« «eei the mouae od the lor- 

fftco, iHioaaen on him, poll* out 
tlio frog too, and deTonn both. 

• Or: " MB not more alike," Ae. 
The Bordi in the original both 
mean " now," uid they often no- 
our in Dante, ifo (Lat. SMMb) ia 
■till ueed in Lombard;, and iMa 
{hde iptd hard) in Tucoaajr. 

* " Bronght t<^the[ and ootD- 
pared." The one DunOD gUdlj 
B«ki to injure the othar, and 
both fall into the [atch. 

ouiTO xnn. DirEBNO. 273 

other springs, so arose from that another then, ■which 
made my first fear double. I thus bethought me: 
These through us are put to scorn, and witli damage 
and mockery of such sort, as I believe must greatly 
■vex them. If rage be added to their malieo, they 
will pursue us, fiercer than a dog that leveret wliich 
he snaps t" 

Akeady I felt my hair all rise with fear; and 

i looking back intently,' aa I said : " Master, if 

thou do not hide thysflf aaid me sijeedily, I dread 

the Malebranclie : they are already after us. I so 

imagine them that 1 hear them now." 

And he : " If I were of leaded glass,' I should 
not draw thy outward image more quickly to me, 

CoaV racque di qnello un nltro poi, 
Che la prima pauni mi fe' doppio. 

lo pensava ca^ : Qnesti per noi 

Sono schomiti, e con donno e con befia 

SI fiittft, ah' asaai credo che li>r nfli. 15 

Se r ira aovra il mal voler s' aggueffa, 
Ei ne verranno dietro piii crudeli, 
Che cane a quolk levre ch' ogU accefla. 

Gi& mi scntia tutto uricciar li peli 

Delia pauni, e stava iudietro intento, 30 

Quando io cUssi : Maestro, se non cell 

Te e me tostamente, io pavento 

Di Malebranche : noi gli avem gii, dietro : 
Io gti immagino ^, the gii'i gli eunlo, 

£ quei : S' io fossi d' impiombato Totro, 26 

L' immagme di fuor tua non trarrei 

'* ^M bwkvrarda intont." | ■ U I were « ndmr-gUit. 



CASIO zzm. 

than I impress* that from within. Even now thy 
thoughts have entered among mine, with similar act 
and similar face; so that of both I have made one 
resolve. In case the right coast so slopes, that we 
may descend into the other chasm, we shall escape 
the imagined chase." 

He had not ended giving this resolve, when I 
saw them come with wings extended, not far oflF, in 
will to seize us. My Guide suddenly took me ; as 
a mother — that is awakened by the noise, and near 
her sees the kindled flames — who takes her child 
and flies, and caring more for him than for herself, 
pauses not so long as even to cast a shifl about her. 

Vih teste a mo, chc quella dontro iinpetro. 

Pur nie venicno i tuoi i)ensier tra i miei 
Cen siiiiilo atte e cen simile faccia, 
Si che d* entrambi im sol censiglie fcL 

S' egli e, cho si la destra costa giaocia, 

Che noi i)ossiam nell' altra bolgia scendere, 
Noi fuggirom 1' immaginata (.'aceia. 

Gill non comj)lo di tal consiglio reiulere, 
Cir io gli viJi vonir con V ah, 
Xoii molto hmgi, per volenie i)renJei*e. 

Le Diica mio di subite mi prese, 

Comci la madro cli' al romore e dosta, 
E vedo presso a sij le fiamme accese, 

Che preiule il figlio, e fugge, e non s' arresta, 
Avende pifi di lui clie di so cui-a, 
Tanto cho sole ima camicia vesta : 




' Hcccivc ami imprint in mc, 
as in itonc, that inward image of 

thino wliich thoa bast deaoribed. 
See verse 21, &c. 


And down from the ridge of the hard bank, supine 
he gave himself to tlie pendent rock,' wliich dams up 
ooe aide of the other chasm. 

Never did water nm so fast through epout to 
torn a land-mill's* wheel, when it approaclies nearest 
to the ladles, aa my Master down tliat hank, carry- 
ing me away upon his breast, as his son and not as 
his companion. Scarcely had his foot reached the bed 
of the depth below, when tboy reached the height 
above us : but no fear it gave him ; for the high 
Providence, that willed to place them ministers of the 
fifth ditch, takes tlie power of leaving it from alL 

E gii lial colio doUa ripa dm* 

Supin si diede alia pendente roccia, 

Cho r un tie' lati all' altra bolgia tura. 45 

Ifon corse mai lA tosto acqua per doccia 

A volger ruota di mulin terragno, 

Quand' elln piii verso le pale approocia, 
Come U Maestro mio per quel vivagno, 

Portandosene me aovra il auo petto, 50 

Come auo figlio, e non come coiapngno. 
Appena iiiro i ■pih suoi giunti al letto 

Del fondo giii, ch' ei giunsero in sul coUe 

Sovresso noi : ma non glj em sospotto ; 
Che r alta Providonza, che ior vollo 55 

Porre miiiistri della fossa quinta, 

Potcre indi paitirsi a tutti tolls. 

' Pluwd bimBelf lopfne, imd I it trough or iprat. Dimto here 

■hot down the rtoep rook, ot . tftkeehk immgo from the pooreit 

outor bouQikry of next ohuni, kind oF uiiUi : u he took tbal of 

' Mill on load ; whore water is the mother from wme humble 

HDNe. Uid led to the vheil in | Italian outtage an fire. 

276 INFERNO. CIXTO xxm. 

There beneath we founJ a painted people, who 
were going round with steps exceeding slow, weep- 
ing, and in their look tired and overcoma They 
had cloaks on, with deep hoods before their eyes, 
made in the shape' that they make for the nionka 
in Cologne. Outward they are gilded,* so that it 
dazzles ; but within all load, and so heavy, that Fre- 
derick's compared to them were straw.' weary 
mantle for eternity ! 

We turned again to the left hand,* along with 
them, intent upon their drearj' weeping. But that 

Laggifi troTammo una gente dipinto, 
Cho giva iutomo bssbi con leuti pas^j, 
Piaugeudo, e nel sembiftnte stauca o vinta. 

I!gU aveoa cappe con cappucci bassi 
Dinanzi agli occM, fatte della taglia 
Che per li monoci in Cologna fossL 

Di fiior donite son, si ch' egli abbaglia ; 
Ma dentro tutte piombo, o gravi tanto, 
Cbo Fedorigo le mcttoa di pagliu. 

in ot«riio faticoao manto ! 

Jfoi ci Tolgenuno oncor puru a man manca 
Cou loro ineieme, iutenti al tristo pianto : 

' Le. with large hoodi oroovlj. 

' " Woe unto you, Scribei uid 
Phuiieei, hypocrites 1 f or ye uro 
like unto wliit«i1 lepulobrea, which 
iniloeil appear li«autifiil outward, 
but are within full o( dead men'i 
boneaudall unglcaiuieu."jlfiitr. 
ixiii 27. " God shall unite thee, 
then whited wall " Acl4 iiUi. 3. 

' lii 1 "That Frederiok pat 
them ot itnir," light 
FreJenck II. ia luid to have burnt 
in letideD cloaks thoK who 
gnjjty of high treaooD ; and 
of the Fopei are uid to han tol- 
lowod liis Diaiuple. See Doouge, 
O/oi. y. Capa or eappa 

' Aabeture. Cauto x 

1 urn. INFERKO. 277 

people, tired by their burden, came so slowly that 
onr company was new at every movement of the 
hip. Wherefore I to my Guide : " See that thou 
find some one who may by deed or name be known ; 
and move thy eyes around as we go on." 

And one, who understood the Tuscan speech, 
cried after us : " Stay your feet, ye who run so fast 
Ehrough tlie brown air. Perhaps thou shaJt obtain 
from me that which thou askeat" Whereat my 
Guide turned round and said : " Wait, and then at 
Ilia pace proceed." 

I stood still, and saw two, shewing by their look 
great haste of mind to be with mo ; but the load and 
the narrow way retarded tliem. Wlien they camo 
upj long with eye askance they viewed me, without 

Ma per lo peso quella gente stanca 70 

Tenia d pian, cho noi eravam nuovi 

Di eompagnia ad ogni muover d' nnca. 
Per ch' io al Duea ndo ; Fa the tu trovi 

Alcun, ch' al fatto o al nomo si conosca ; 

E gli occhi, e\ onilaiido, intomo muovL 75 

Ed un, che intese la parola Tosca, 

Dirietro a noi grid6 ; Tencte i piedi, 

Vol, cho correte si per I' aura fosca : 
Forae ch' avrai da mo quel che tu chiedL 

Onde il Duca si volae, o diase : Aspetta, 80 

E poi secondo il auo passo procedL 
lUstetti, vidi duo mostrer gran iretta 

Dell' aninio, col viso, d' essox ineco ; 

Ma tordavrigli il carco e la via stretta. 
QuBudu fur giuuti, aaaai cou 1' occliio liieco 85 


uttering a word. Thou tiey turned to one another, 
and said betw-cen them : " This one soeins alive by 
the action of hia throat I And if they ore dead, by 
what privilege go tlicy divested of the heavj stole?" 
Then they said to me : " Tuscan, tliat art < 
to the college' of the sad hypocrites 1 to tell na who 
thou art disdain not," 

And I to them: "On Amo's beauteous riyer, 
in the great city' I was bom and grew ; and I 
with the body that I have always bad. But you, 
who are yo from whom distils such sorrow as I see, 
down your cheeks ? And what punishment is on ye 
that ghtters so ?" 

a Bonza far parola ; 
Poi si volsero in s(^, o dicean seco : 

Cofitui par vivo all' atto dolla gola. 
E s' ei son morti, per qual privilcgio 
Vanno acovorti della grave atola 1 

Poi diasonni : Tosco, ch' al collegio 
Degl' ipocriti triati ee' venuto, 
Dir ehi tu se' non avere in dispregio. 

Ed io a loro : I' fui nato e croaciuto 

Sovra il bel fiume d' Amo alia gran villa, 
E eon col corpo ch' i' ho sempre avuto. 

iSa. vol chi siete, a cui tanto diatilla, 

Quaat' io vqjgio, dolor gi!t per le gnance 1 
E che pona ^ in vol, cho el efavilla I 

'"Congregalionodijfpocritoi." "Hypocritoi, of» Bud 
ooontenMioo" {hypcierita: tritta 
ViUg.)- ■*'■''"■ vi. 16. 

"Tho tuTMt uid tawt funooa 

daaghtfTof KotDC.PloniDoa. . . In 
vrhioh I wu bom, and nou 
even to tha lummtt of mj 
Le. 8«e Cvnt-Uo (Tr. i. 3), 
ha ipcaki of bii oxUv, 


And one of them replied to me : " Our orange' 
^^mantles are of lead so thick, that the weights thus 
cause their scales to creak. We were Jovial Friars,* 
and Bologneae: I named Catalano, and Loderingo 
he ; and by thy city chosen together, as usually one 
solitary man is chosen, to maintain itg peace. And we 
were such, that it yet appears' round the Gardingo," 


Q napose a me : lie cappe ranee 
Son di piombo al grosso, che li peai 
Fan cosl cigolar le loi bilance- 

Frati Godenti t'lunmo, e Bologneai, 
lo Catalano, e coatm Loderingo 
Ifomati ; e da tua terra iusiemc presj, 

Come auole esscr tolto tin uom solingo 
Per conservar sua pace : e fiinuuo tali, 
Ch' ancor ai pare intomo dal Gardingo. 



1 •'Gi]deJ"(ver. 64);Midof» 
wdglit to roake at tremble liko 
an overohused telaoco. 

* Friora or " Enighta ot St, 
M«7," initituted by Urban IV. ; 
ejid allowed to retain their worldl; 
gooda, onder a soleiun vow ot be- 
ooming "Peaceniikem, defenders 
of all orphaaa and widows," Jeo. 
HieknAmeii Fnti Oodsnti (jovulI 
Man) from their actiuJ life. Sea 
Benv. da Imola Ciin. 

In 1366, the newa of the <lefeat 
and deatli of Manfred eaiued great 
■gitAtJoii in Floreniw : and the 
Ghibelline* (at that time mnstorB 
of the oity), " in order to aatisff 
the people," ohoea both CstiJjuio 
Loderingo (one a Gnelph &nd 

tbe DtheraGhibelline)ta be shiet 
magiitrntei, initeod of chooaing 
In the Biual waj anlf ons chief 
magiitrste or Podettil— one atran- 
ger ("■atitary" or partf-free), aa 
the Idw roqoired. "Theie two 
fnara under cover of fslae bypo- 
crisy were in concord, more for 
their own giiin than for the pnb- 
lio gooiL" Ma!apiRi, c. 183 ; Vti- 


' " It yet nppenrs wW lee 
infrt." Bimton nnd hypooritet 
at tho lanie time, wo took il bribe 
from the Gnelphi who bamt and 
laid wsite nil the hoato of th« 
Dierti &0. in the itreet called 
Oordinso. BeuT. da Imola Con. 
Bee aUo not*, p. lOS. 

I began : " Friaxs, your evil" — But eaid no 
more, for to my eyes came one, cross-fised in tlie 
ground with three stakes. When ho saw me, he 
writhed all over, blowing into his beaid with oighfl. 
And Friar Catalano, who perceived tliis, said to 
"That confixed one, on wliom tliou gazest, 
the Pharisees that it was expedient to put one 
to tortures for the people.' Travci-se and naked ha 
is upon the road, as thou seest ; and has to feel tlia 
weight of every one that passes,' And after tho like 
fashion his fathor-in-law^ is racked in this ditch, and 

lo cominciai : Frati, i voatri niali .... 

Ma pifi noa diasi, eh' agli occhi tni corae 

TJa croci£s3o in terra con tre poli. 
Quando mi vide, tutto si distorse, 

Soffiando nella barha co' eospiri. 

£ il &iite CatnlaD, ch' a aih a' occoise, 
Mi disse : Quel coiifitto, cbe tu miii, 

Consiglii i Farisei, che conveoia 

Porre uu uoin per lo popolo a' inartiri. 
Attraversato e nudo h per la Tin, 

Come tu vedi ; ed e mesticr che souta, 

Qualimque passa, com' ei j^sn prlo. 
E a tal modo il suocero si atenta 

13L Si ilrnla U ittctched ot nwked. Sttiitart 
m>w meULH bi toil, ■nffvr, lotik, be itiat«d of| kc 

t CuaphM, who laiil; "It U 
eipedient for a> tlut one mui 
■hoold die fat the people." Joint 

' Lit.: "It uiioe«iiM7tluthe 

feel ha» whoever puaoi wtigha 
bofore" putiDj;. Tlie hrpociite^ 
witli tUuiF boBv; lowls tai ihort 
step*, Lave all to truujila on hi] 
* Anuu. John xviii. 13, Si. 


the others of that Council, which was a seed of evi! 
for the Jews." 

Then I saw Virgil wonder oyer him that was dis- 
tended on the cross so ignomiiiiously in the eternal 
exile. Afterwards he to tho Friar addressed these 
words : " Let it not displease you, so it he lawful for 
yon, to tell ua if on the right liand lies any gnp by 
which we both may go out licnco, without constrain- 
ing any of the Black Angels to come and extricate ua 
&om this bottom." 

So he answered : " Nearer than thou dost hope, 
there is a stone that moves from the Groat Barrier,' 
«nd bridges all the cruel valleys, save that in this 
'tis broken and covers it not. Ye may mount up 

In queata fossa, e gli altri del Concilio, 
Che fu per K Giudei mala sementa. 

Allot rid' io mararigliar Virgilio 
Sopra colui, ch' ora diateso In croce 
Tanto vilmento uoU' otemo esilio. 

Foscia drizz^ al Frate cotal voce : 
Kon dispiaccia. Be vi lece, dirci 
8e alia man destra giaco alcuna foco, 

Onde noi ambedue possiamo nscirci 
Senza costringer degli angeli ueti, 
Che vegnim d' esto Ibndo a diporiarcL 

Eiapoae ailuni[UB : KU ehe tu non speii 
S' apprcssa mi sasao, che dalla grau cercbia 
Si muove, e ■vatca tutti i vaUon feri. 

Salvo cb' a queato h rotto, e nol coperchiu. 

by its ruins, wliicli slope down the side, and on the 
bottom make a lioap.'" 

The Guide stood still a while with head bent 
down, then said : " Falsely did he' tell tlie way, who 
hooks tlio sinners yonder." 

And the Friar : " I heard oneo at Bologna* muiT 
of the Devil's vices ttild; amongst which, I heard 
that lio is a liar and tlie father of lies." 

Tlien with large stejis my Guide went on, some- 
what disturbed with anger in his look : wliereat I 
from the laden spirits ported, fallowing the prints of 
his beloved feet 

Montar potrete su per la ruina, 

Gkh giace in costa, e nol foudo soperchla. 
Lo Suca Btotte un poco a te^ta china, 

Poi disse : Mai coatava la bisogna 140 

Colui, clie i pecoator di IJi uncina. 
E il Frate : lo udi' gifi dire a Bologna 

Del Diavol \Tzj assai, tra i qiiali udi', 

Ch' Bgli 6 bugiardo e paiire di menzogna. 
Appre«so il Duca a gran paesi sen gl, 11$ 

Tuibato un poco d' ira nel sombiante : 

Ond' io dagl' incarcati mi parti' 
Dietro alio poate delle caie piant«. 

' Tngmenti ot the bridge, 
whioh 1^ "lie on the ddo. Mid 
liM above the bottom" of the 
ohium, u wben they feU. 

■ Ui:"Biuilrtotahetbe nut- 
ter." MokcoiLk, umto xii. lOti. 

' BologBB mare noted for teHIng 
the Doril'a vioea tbuifor&Toidiiix 

tbem 1 " College" of faypooritea 
(reno 01), with their tcriiitunl 
phniiea and gruid thealii|[T t 
Cou.p. couto xviii. 58, ten. 


In this canto, the vehement despair of the poor Italian peasant, 
who has no food for his sheep, and thinks he is going to lose 
them, gives a livelj.image of Dante*s dependence on his mystic 
Goide; while the Sun with freshened hair (Ormittu AjfollOf 
JEjl ix. 638) points to the real Virgil. Here too on the shat- 
tered bridge, as at the foot of the Hill in canto first, help in 
many senses is necessary ; and Dante, put quite out of breath 
by climbing from the den of the Hypocrites, sits down ex- 
hausted. Virgil reminds him of their Errand— of the great 
things which lie beyond this painful journey through Hell — 
and he rises instantly ; and *' keeps speaking,** as they go on, 
" that he may not seem faint." In the Seventh Chasm, which 
is very dark and filled with hideous serpents, they find the 
Thieves ; and get speech of Vanni Fucci, who pillaged the sa- 
cristy of St James in Pistoia, though another was hanged for 
it. He is ashamed at being foimd amongst the Thieves, and 
recognised by Dante, who had " seen him a man of blood and 
brutal passions ;" and he foretels the disasters that wiU lead 
to the PoeVs exile. 

CAKTO xxrv. 

In that part of tlie youtlifiil year,* when the Son 
tempers his locks beneath Aquarius, and the nights 
already wane towards half the day; wben the hoar- 
frost copies his white sister's image on the ground, 
but short while lasts the temper of his plumes :* 
the peasant, whose fodder fails, rises, and looks, and 
sees the fields all white ; whereat he smites his 
thigh,^ goes back into the house, and to and fro 
laments like a poor wight who knows not what to 

In quella parte del giOTinetto anno, 

Che il Sole i crin sotto 1' Aijuario tempra, 
E giA le notti al mi>zzo dl sen varmo ; 

Qoando la brina ia bu la terra aBsempni 

L' immagine di sua eorella bianca, 5 

Ma poco dura alia sna pensa tempra ; 

Lo Tillanello, a cui la roba manca, 
Si leva c guardo, c vede la campagna 
Biancheggiar tutta, ond' ei ei batte 1' anea ; 

Bitoma a caea, c qua o lit si lagna, 10 

Come il tapin cha non sa che si iaccia ; 

■ In Febra&r;, when tha Sun 

"froheiu liu hKir" (giTes varmir 
myi) nndflr the sign of Aquatiua ; 
ulien t]iBiiiglit«"Boaw»y,"Brow 
■borter tonartk the eqainoi; anil 
tlia hoar ' froata look like mow, 
but we KK)D molted. In Ital; 
the d«j i* tMkonedfrvm tniwot 

is twclvo boon after tunaeb 
' Or: "FaJiion of hii pen." 
• " Qy and howl .... Dnite 
tberafoic upon th; thigh." £xk, 
n. la. M h ■""' #«f* T, 
Ko! i) TflrA^yfTD ia)p£, Iliad. 

do; then cornea out again, nnJ recovers hope, ob- 
serving how the world baa changed its face in little 
time ; and takea liis staff, and chases fortli his lambs 
to feed. Thus tlie Master made me despond, when 
I saw his brow so troubled ;' and thua quickly to the 
sore the plaster came. For when wo reached the 
shattered bridge, my Guide turned to me with that 
sweet aspect which I saw before at the lout of the 
mountain.* He opened his arms after baring chosen 
some plan witliin himself, first looking well at tlie 
ruin, and took hold of me. And aa one who works, 
and calculates, always seeming to provide before- 
hand; so, lifting me up towards the top of one big 

Poi riedo, e la spcrania ringavugna, 

Voggendo il mondo aver cangiata faccia 
In poco d' ora : e prcndo suo vincaatro, 
E fiior le pecorello a paacer caccia ; 

Cosl mi fece abigottir lo Mastro, 

Quaud' io gU vidi b\ tnrbar la froute, 
E coal tosto al mal giunse lo impiaatro. 

Chfe come noi veniinmo al guaato ponte, 
Lo Duca a me si volae con quel piglio 
Dolce, ch' io vidi in priiua a pi^ del monte. 

Lo braccia aperse, dopo alcim consiglio 
Eletto seco, riguardnndo prima 
Ben la niiua, o diedenu di piglio. 

E come quoi che adopeira ed istitaa, 

Che Bompre par che iimanzi si proweggia ; 
Cosl, kvando me su ver la ciina 

28fl INFERNO. Ci 

block, lie looked out another splinter, saying : " Noi 
clamber over that, but try first if it will carry thee." 
It was no way for one clad with cloak of'Uad 
for scarcely we, he light and I pushed on, coal 
mount up from jagg to jagg. Anil were it not tl 
on that precinct' the ascent was shorter tlian on t 
other, I know not about him, but I certainly I 
been defeat^. But as Malebolge all hangs towBrd* 
the entrance of the lowest well, the site of e 
valley imports that one side rises and tlie other de- 
scends.' We, however, came at length to the point 
from whicli the last stono^ breaks ofi*. Tlie breath « 

D' un ronchtone, avvisava un' altra sclif^gia, 

DiuenJo : Sovra quuUa put t' aggrappa; 

Ma tenia pria s' u IaI ch' ella ti reggio. 
Non era via da veatito di cappo, 

Chfa noi a peiio, ei liovo ed io soapinto, 

Potuvam eu montar di chiappa in chiappo. 
£ Be non fosse, che da quel preciuto, 

rid che dall' altro, era la uosta uorts, 

Non so di lui, ma io sarei ben vinto. 
Ma porchi Malebolge in vur la porta 

l!)el bassissimo pozzo tutta peude, 

Lo sito di ciascuna valln jwrta, 
Che r una costu surge e 1' altra scendc : 

Noi pui veninimo ol line in su la puuta 

Onile r ultima pietra si scosconde. 

' That inner bonnduy. i atttep tumging e^unil, ban Ih* 

< The wholo plu» tmib iloiTD- i>nt«r aide bigh und tbo i 

vwilii to Stttiin ; luij tha tkUbjh, Compare canto xriii. 

Ijring lii« *aaocM*B ringi on the | ■ Lut itono ol the n 

BO exhausted &om my lungs,' wlion I wtis up, tliat 
I could no farther ; nay, seated mo at my first ar- 

" Now it behooves thee thus to free thyself from 
sloth," said the Master ; " for Bitting on down, or un- 
der coverlet, men come not into fame; without which 
whoso consumes his life, leaves such vestige of him- 
self on earth, as smoke in air or foam in water. And 
therefore rise I Conquer thy panting with the soul, 
that oonquers every battle, if with its heavy body it 
sinks not down.* A longer ladder must be climbed.* 

La lena m' era del pobnon d munta 

Quando fui su, ch' io noa poten piii oltre, 
Ann m' assist ncUa prima gitinta. 

Omai convien che tu coal ti spoltre, 

Disss 11 Maestro ; chh, seggeudo in piuma, 
In &ma non ai vien, nil sotto coltte : 

Sanza la qual chi ana vita consuino, 
Cotal veatigio in terra di sli laacia, 
Qua! fmmno in aoro, o in aciiua la Bchiuma : 

E per() leva an, vinci 1' ambasoia 

Con r animo che vinco ogni battaglia, 
So col Buo grave oorpo uon a' accaeeia. 

Pid lunga ecala & 

' Lit : " So milked from my 

■ Thiu, b; Ihu hud uid toil~ 

tome joumej, luat thou to ruuks 
thjielf, to oaat oS all iloth utd 
nil pollroonery for ovor. Spollre 
iipoUnn or wpoltrirt) from pol- 
trire, "to lie idle, inert." Henoe 

also iinllnine, " a, do-nothing, an 
idler or jwltrooD." 

• ■' The ooimptiblo body preu- 
oth down the soul, Bnd the enrthly 
tabenucle weishetb dawn tho 
miad that muHsUi upon muiy 
tlmifi*."' Wud. ii. 15, 

' Compare auito L 118, ic. 

To have qiiitted these is not enough. If thou i 
derstaudest me, now act bo fliat it may profit thee." 
I then rose, shewing myself better fiimished wid 
breatli than I felt, and said : " Go on ; for I am strong 
and confident." We took our way up the cliff, whiol 
waa rugged, naiTow, and difficult, and greatly steeper] 
than the former. Speaking I went,' that I might noil 
soem faint ; whereat a voice came from tlio other fosS| J 
unsuitahlo for forming words,' I know not what i 
said, tliough I already was on tlio ridge of the arch] 
which crosses there ; hut ho who spake e 
moved to anger. I had turned myself downwards ; 1 
hut mj living eyes could not reach the bottom £ir] 

Non Lasta da costoro esser partito : 

8q tu m' intenili, or la s\ cho ti v^lia. 
LevJimi allor, mostrandomi fomito 

Megliti di lena ch' io non mi eentia ; 

£ disai : Ya, cli' io son forte e ardito. 
Su per Io BCOglio prendemmo la via, 

Cii' era roncliioso, atretto e nialagevole, 

!Ed erto pill aasai che quel di pria 
Parlando anilttva per non parer fievole, 

Onde nna voce OBcio doll' altro fosso, 

A parolfi fonnar disconvenevole. 
Non so che diisse, ancor che sovra il dosso 

FoBsi dell' arco giJi, die varca quivi ; 

Wa chi parlava ad ira parea mosso. 
Io cm volto in gill ; ma gli oceW vivi 

Non poteon ire al fondo per 1' oacuro : 

' Spoke ■■ I want on. | ' Coofund with ngc 


the darkness. Wlierefore I : " Master, see thou get 
to the other boundarj,' and let us dismount the wall ; 
for as I hear &oai hence and do not understand, so I 
Bee down and distinguish nothing." 

" Other answer I give thee not," he said, " than 
the deed : for a fit request should be followed with 
the work' in silence." 

We went down the bridge, at the head where it 
joins with the eighth bank ; and then the chasm was 
manifest to mo. And I saw within it a fearful tlu-ong 
of serpents, and of so sb'ange a look, that even now 
the recollection scares^ my blood. Let Libya boast 
no longer with its sand; for, tliough it engenders 
Chelydri, Jaculi and Fares, and Cenchres with Am- 

Perch.' io : Maestro, fa che tu orrivt 
Dall" altro cinghio, e dJamoatiam lo muro ; 

Chh com' io odo quinci, e non inteudo, 

CobI gih veggio, o niente affiguro. 75 

Altra nsposta, diase, non ti rendo, 

Se noa lo far : cb6 la dimando onesta 

Si dee seguir con 1' opera tacendo. 
Uoi discendemino U ponte dalla teato, 

Ove a' aggiimgo con 1' ottava ripa, 80 

E poi mi fu la bolgia nianifeata ; 
E vidivi entro terribile stipa 

Di serpenti, e di si divcrea meno, 

Che la memoria il sitnguo ancor mi scipa. 
Pib non si vanti Libia cou sua rena ; 85 

Clit 88 Chelidri, lacnli a Faree 

phisbxna,' plagues so numerous or so dire it nc 
shewed, with all Ethiopia, nor with the land tiiat 
by the Red Sea," 

Amid this cruo! and most dismal swarm wert 
people running, naked and terrified, without hops 
of lurking hole or heliotrope.^ They had their h 
tied behind with serpents : these through their '. 
fixed the tail and the head, and were coiled in knots 
before. And lol at one, who was near our shore) 
sprang up a serpent, which transfixed him thura 

Produce, e Cencri con Anfeaibena, 
Non tante pestilenze, nfc al ree 

Mostrb giaumiai coo tatta I' Etiopia, 

Kit con ciii che di sopra il mar Bosso ie. % 
Tra questa cnttla e tristisaima copia 

Correvan genti nude o spavontalc, 

Senza Bpeiar pertugio o elitropia. 
Con serpi le man dietro avcau legate : 

QuoUc ficcaTon per lo rea la cmla 

E capo, ed eran dinanzi aggroppate. 
Ed ecco ad un, ch' era da nostra proda, 

S' awcnt6 un serpente, che il trafiase 

I Some of Lnnan'i Mipentc 
Phan. ix. m, ka, Chilydrvi 
(x'Xt^i). > water- iniJio, that 
leave! a hldeoui amell on ita 
tnck. •romZiu, dtut-wrpent " two 
OQbita in length," and so called 
beoaiue i t tLrows itielf on iti pre; 
■tietched out, like a dart. Fartia 
(n^Ioi), ^copper- inaka, "that 
Eou'diea on iM t«il ;" or oobn 
At oqiello. Caicltrit (i^rxpu), 

stitf apecUed make ; and "Ani' 
lihialHena dire" (fit^ and AaJtsX 
which " ban a head at each end,' 
and goes either waj. 

■ Lit : " With that which i* 
(^ tor i) on the Ked Sea :" Uw 
land of £g7pt with it* tDud-rfrer 
and " Serbonian bog." 

*A KTBCn (tanaorgeinwitli red 
ipoti, "aaid to render ita bwmr 


where the neck is bound upon the shoulders. Nei- 
ther * 0' nor ' I' was ever written eo quickly as he 
took tire, and burnt, and dropt don'n nil changed to 
ashes.' And ailor he waa thus dissolved upon the 
ground, the ashes reunited, and of themselves at 
once resumed the former shape,* Tims by groat 
sages 'tis eonfest the Pliojnix dies, and then is bom 
again, when it approaches the five -hundredth year. 
In iU life it eats no herb or grain, but only tears 
of ini^nse and amomum : and uard aud myrrh are 
its last swathings." 

And as one who falls, and knows not how, 
through force of Demon which drags him to the 

U dovH il coUo alle spallc s' uimoda. 
KJ si tosto inni, d6 I si scrisso, 

Com' ei s' accese, e arse, e cenor tutto 

Convenno ehe cascando divenisse. 
E poi che fu a terra si iliatrutto, 

La cener si raccolse, e per fife ateasa 

In quel medesmo ritoni6 di butto, 
Co^ per 11 gran savi si coufesaa, 

Che la Fenice muore, e poi rinasce, 

Quando el cin<]ueceQtesiino anno appressa. 
£rba u£ biada in sua vita non paace. 

Ma sol d' iscQuao lagrime o d' auiomo ; 

E nardo e mirra boh 1' ultime fusc:e. 
£ quale h qnei cho cade, e non sa corao, 

Per forza di Demon ch' a t*rm S tiia, 

Lit. : " And nil uiiM It be. I oiw |T>ne 97) kt ■ blow," n 
liooTed bim fKUJui) to becDme." ■tantlj'. Bulla for holla, 

lUtuniedtothatMms ! > Compare JTcIum. it. 3Bl,ftD. 

202 D-'FERNO. TiVTO I 

groimd, or of otlier oppilatiou' that fetters hk 
who, when he rises, looks fixtly round him, nil 1 
wildered by the great anguish ho lias unilergtxVL 
aiid looking sighs: such was the sinner whMi i 
rose. Justice of God I how severe, that sh«i 
such blows in vengeance I 

The Guide then asked him who he was, Wliei» 
Hpon he answered : " I rained fi-om Tuscany, Rhork 
while ago, into this fierce gullet. Bestial life, j 
human, pleased mc, mido that I was. I am Vai 
Fucci,' savage beast; and Pistoia was a fitting ^ 
for me." 

d' altra oppilazion cliu lega 1' uomo, 

Qimsdo si leva, cIib iutomo si niira, 
Tutto smarrito dalla grande angoecia 
Ch' egli ha solferta, e guanliindo sospira ; 

Tal era il peceator levato poscia. 
Giuatizia di Dio, quant' b eovera ! 
Che cotai colpi per vendetta croscia. 

Lo DitCQ il dimandJi poi elii egli era : 
Perch' oi rispoae ; Ii> piowi di Toscana, 
Poco tempo t, in queBta gola fera. 

Vita bestial mi piacque, o non umana, 

SI come a mul ch' io fui : son Vanui Fucci 
Beatia, e Pistoia mi fu tU-gna tana. 

' " Obitmotlon" of the TiUl i iiiaii,"uijg Beov. ■]> 

■pirita, " Hut faindi s man" in I most during in ereiy kind «f 

Stt, like thou of Epilepqr or wickeflness. And becmise he 

"poueidan of a deviL" of noble fuuil;, he often oom- 

* Tuukl (Oioiauii} Fuooi, bu- initted naay eioeuM with iin< 

lard ion of M. Facel de' Luarl panitf. And though frvpanQT, 

uf ristoia. " A must TiEUsont bamihed 


And I to tho Guide : " Toll Kim not to budge ; 
and aek what crime tlirust him down here, for I saw 
him once a man of rage and blood."' 

And the sinner who heard, feigned not ; but di- 
rected towards ine his mindi and face, with a look of 
dismal shame.' Tlieu he said: ''It pains me more 
that thou haat caught me in tlie misery wherein thoa 
eeest me, than when I was taken from the other life. 
I cannot deny thee what thou askest : I am put 
down so for, because I robbed the sacristy of its 
goodly iiimitnre ; and falsely once it was imputed to 

£d io al Diica ; Dilli cho non mucci, 

E dimanda qual colpa quaggiJi il pinae ; 

Ch' io il vidi uom gik di sangue e di coirucci. 
E il peccatOT, che inteso, non e' inlinse, 130 

Ma drizzfi verao ine V animo o il volto, 

£ di triata veigogna si dipime. 
Poi diaae r Pid mi duol clie tu m' liai colto 

Nella miseria, dove tu mi vedi, 

Che qoand' io fui dell' altra vita tolto, 135 

Io non posao negar ijuel clie tu chmU : 

In giii son mesao tanto, perch' io fui 

Ladro alia eagrestia de' belli arredi ; 
E falsameiite gilt fu appoato altrui 

fce., he iJwByi contrived to re- 
He wu d( the Nsri faa- 
ftt tbd time vhen Dante 
took part with the BianoLi (mo 

(i); but T, 

Itare doae to 1 
See Londino, Tellut., Ottimo. &c. ; 
Uiuat. Ser. Ital torn. iL 

' Hi» " bartial rngo" might 
have brought hini to the miirah 
with Fi!ip]Ki Ai^enti, or down to 
Fhliigolhoii u "a inurderer and 
luuuuiBUi i" but he robbed the Ctr- 
theilral bnjdiu. 

■ Lit. : " And puntod bimaelf 
with diioul >h&me. " 

2i)4 INFERNO. Ciirro 

others.' But tliat thou iiiayost not joy in this eif^t, 1 
if over thou escape the dark abodea, open thy e 
aiid hoar what 1 announce. Fistoia first is thinned ] 
of Neri;' fJiou Florence renovateB her people and her I 
laws.' Mars bruigs from Valdimagra a fiery vapour,* j 
which is wrapt in turbid clouds, and on Piceno's fieU-l 
shall be assailed with angry and impetuous stormy 
whence it suddenly shall rend the mist, so that e\"ery J 
Bianco shall bo wounded by it. And I have said tlus, I 
for it must grieve thee." 

Ma perclii di tal vista tu non goJi, 
Se mai sarai di fuot de' luoglii biii, 

Apri gli orecchi ol uiio nnnunzio, e odi : 
Pist«ia in pria di Neri si dimagra, 
Poi Firt'nze muiova genti e modi. 

Tragge Maite vapor di val di Ttfagra, 
Ch' k di torliidi nuvoli involute, 
E cou tempesta impetuosa ed agra 

Sopra campo Picon fia combattuto : 
Oud' t'i repeate spezzerJi la nelibin, 
SI ch' ogiii Bianco ne eara foruto : 

E detto I'ho, peR'be dolur ten dobbia. 

140 1 

> To Eunpino who mi pa 
the turtore, uid to Valmi dellk 
Notu who mt lumged for it. 

> "In H*; 1301, (ho ButicU 
jHtrt; of PigtoU, vith ud uid 
favour at tha Buudii who ruUd 
Flarenoe, drove out the Neri, and 
deitrored their hooaei, pakcea," 
te. Fi/i. viit ■IS. 

* The Biuuhi will loae their 
power in Flurcnoe when Chmrlei 

de Yaloii eomea (Ifov. 1301). aod 
be expelled in April iSOl. IHd. 

• The lightniog-TBponr whiob 
Man bring!, i* Morello Hal»- 
■pioo, who ihtll oome (in 1304) 
fnm bit Ma^n vnller, (ntlur. 
iag the Neri ("toibid ebuidi'^i 
Mid utterlj defeat the ksgi? 
Bianchi on Cauipo Pioano dmi 


At the end of hi9 angry prophecy, Fuoci rieea into a bonndleas pftlc 
vagc. guuh fta is banllj knovra in nortlicrD couutries; and like 
the aacrilegiouB thief anil brute that be ie, gives vent to it tn 
tlie wildent btaspbetiiy. TliG Herjivuts instantly act upon him, 
and inflict «ucb puniahment, liat Dante regatde Uiem as frieuda 
ever after. Cacua too, with a toad of eerpenla on hiB haunch 
and a fiery dragoD on his shoulJcrB, comce abouting in purmit 
of liim, Dante aftemai-ds finds Jive of bis own cuuutrymen — 
firtt three in human Blinpe, then two chanj^ into reptiles — 
and by dint of great Bttention learns the names of thtnn all. 
and very accurately sees tbe unheard-of traneformationf they 
have to undergo, The reptiles are Cianfa de' Donati and Ouercio 
de' Cavalcanti ; the three in human &hapu are Agnello de' Bru- 
nelleschi, Buoso degli Abati, and Puccio de' Gullgai— all five 
of very noble kindred, " all from Florence, and great thieves in 
their time" (ffnmc* de Floreatia, et magni fvra no tempore. 
Pietro). Cianfa, and Agnello whom bo attaokt, ftre of [ntniliet 
that ^ded with the Neri ; Gaorcio and Buoso, who exchange 
shapes, are of famJUes that belonged to tbe Bianchi, or oppo- 
iite party. VUl. viiL 39, Our Poet equally recognisea the baie 
malorials of both factions. The party of Puooio is unknown, 
and bo is the only one of the three, in human shape, who re- 
mains unchanged. 


At tic conclusion ofliis words, the thief raised I 
lip Ilia li.inda with Loth the figa,' ahoutlng: *'Takeg 
tJifim, God, for nt thee I aim them !" 

From this time forth the serpents were my ] 
friends ; for one of them then coiled itself about liia I 
neck, as if saying, ' Thou shalt apeak no fiirthcr V* | 
and another about Ills arras ; and it tied him again,* 
rivetting itself in front so firmly, tliat he could not 1 
give a jog witli them. Ah, Pistoial Fistoial why J 

Al fine delle sue parole il ladio 
Le mani ak6 con ambedno le fiche, 
Gridando r Togli, Dio, cli& a t« le squadro. 

Da inili in qua isi fur lo aorpi omiche, 
Perch' una gli s' awolse allora al collo, 
Come dicCiSSG : lo non to* che pid diche ; 

£ un'oltra idle braccio, o rilegoUo 
Eibadendo ei stessa A dinanzi, 
Cho non potea con esse dore un croUo, 

Ah Piatoia, Pistoia 1 ch^ non staiizi 

' CleDchitig both kii G<ti, anJ 
thnuting the tbiunbt between tbe 
faro and middle Sngen ; ' miLkliig 
thu Sis' ^tb both, like the filth; 
semeleu mule that hg wu. Hi> 
tawnnDGQ {in 1-228) hod " a tower 
■eviuit]i cubit* high, on the rock 
of Cumignauo ; knd at thu tup 
uf it wore two mai trt mu-ble 


' Ualap. c U0; rUL 

* Lit. : " I will not that thoa 
nj more," Diclu for difn. 

■ With hwil and taU throu^k 
hia body, tl»d hii imu agkia so 
that booould not itir tbem. Com- 
pare oouto nir. H. 


do8t thoa not decree to turn thyself to ashes,' that 
thou mayest endure no longer, since thou oufgoest 
thy seed* in evil-doing? Tlirough all the dark cir- 
cles of Hell, I saw no spirit against Gtod so proud, 
not even him* who fell at Tliebea down from the 

He fled, speaking not another word. And I 
saw a Centaur, full of rage, come crying: " Wliere 
is, where is the surly* one?" Maremma, " I do 
believe, has not so many snakes as ho had on his 
haunch, to where our hunum form^ begins. Over his 
ehonldors, behind the head, a dragon lay with oat- 

D' incenerarti, si che pifi non duri, 
Poi che in mal foi- lo st^me tuo avanzi I 

Per tutti i cercM dtllo Inferno oacuri 
Spirto non vidi in Dio tanto supcrbo, 
Kon quel che cadde a Tebe gid de' muri. 

Ei si fiiggt, che non parl6 piii vetbo : 
Ed io vidi un Centauio pien di rabbia 
Veair gridando : Ov" k, ov' ii V acerbo ) 

Maremina non cied' io che tante n' ahbio, 
Quante bisce egli avea su per la groppo, 
lufino ovo comuicift nostra labbia. 

Sopra le apoUe, dietro dalla coppa, 
Con r ale aperte gli giaceva nn draco, 

To bom thjaeU to ub«a it 

onse. The futioiu of Piitoia, u 

they BltenUitBtf prenuled, uaed to 

bum each other'a bouse*. 

L ■ Thy Hucciton, the "luwkei] 

Kaad luaimsd" refuse ut Ciitiline'B 

Kuiowen. See r>a. i. 32l 

' The heathcniih bluphemer 
Cspiuieiu. Cuito av. 4&65, 

< Lit. : " Tbe Merb ;" Mtu', 
and unripe like Cftpaneni. 

' A fenn; tract in Ttuiuiiif, 
immning with reptilei. 

' Oouipuce ^n. tuL 

298 DJFERNO. oiWT 

atretehed wings; and it aete on fire every one li« 
meets.' My Master aaid : " That is Cacas, who, bfr- 
neath the rock of Maunt Aventine, ftdl often mttda 
a. lake of blood. He goes not with his brethren oi 
one same road,* bocauBe of the cunning theft he maAo 
from the great herd tliat lay near him; whence hiB; 
crooked actions ceased beneath the club of Herculea, 
who gave Iiim perhaps a hundi'cd blows with it; and 
he felt not thejirst ten." 

Whilst he thus spake, the Centaur ran past, and 
also under us there come three spirita, whom neither 
I nor my Guide perceived, until they cried : " Wltq 

£ quello affiioca ijualtmque s' intoppa. 

Lo luio Maestro diese : Quogli h Caco, 
Che sotto il sasso di monte Aventino 
Di sangue fece epesse volte laco, 

Non va co' suoi fiatei per un cammino, 
Per lo furar froibleutc ch' ei foce 
Del grande annento ch'egli ebbe a vicino ; 

Onde cossar le Bua opere biece 

Sotto la mozza d' Ercole, cbe forae 
Gliene dife cento, c non senti le diece. 

Mentto che el parlova, ed vi trascoree, 
E tro Bpiriti vonner sotto noi, 
De' quai nh io, n^ il Duca mio s' accoiBO, 

Se non quando gridar ; Chi siot« voi f 

'JL Bit«* for liieiihe ; IM, oMii/ua. 

' Lit. : " And whoever is met. 
him IqucUo) it uta on iie," Sea 
^n. liii. 1!«, kc 

' Goes ngt nlong the tirsr of 

blood (canto ui. 65) witli 1 
uther Coatatin ; bwaou), I 
Voniii Pucci, he wu ■ thief ' 
■icic* being what Uiej wont 

INFEBKO. . 299 

are ye ?" Our story therefore paused, and we then 
heed to them alone. I knew them not; but 
it happened, as usually it ha])penB by some chanee, 
that one had to name another, saying : " Where haa 
Cianfa' stopt?" Whereat I, in order that my Guide 
might stand attentive, placed my finger upwards 
from the chin to tlie nose." 

If thou art now, Header, slow to credit what 
I have to tell, it will be no wonder; for I who saw 
it, scarce allow it to myself. Whilst I kept gazing 
on them, lo I' a serpent with six feet darts up in 
front of one, and fastens itself all upon him. With 

Per che nostra novella si ristotte, 
E intendemmo pure ad essi poi. 

Come auol aeguitar per olcun caao, 
Cho r uu uoniaie all'altro convenctte, 

Dicendo : Cianfa duvo fia rimaso t 

Perch' io, acciocuh^ il Duca stease attento, 

Mi posi il dito au dal mcnto al iiaao. 45 

Se tu sei or, Lettore, a creder lento 
Cii ch' io diri, non aori maraviglin. 
Chi) io, che il vidi, appuna il mi consento. 

Com' io teuea levatu in lor lo cigllo, 

£d un scrpento con sei pie si lancia 60 

Dinanzi nil' uno, e tulto a lui a' appiglia, 

W. Sti/atfte, legal, 42. Coavautlt^ eooieaaa. 

Cumfa de' Donnti, who fiM '. ' Signal for idlonoc. 

u oomiiig with the other three ; ' lit.; "Kept my ejehroit* 

md U hero trunrfonued, ae wo miieil at thiini, lo I" Ed for two. 

lIuU«ee,mtoatii-foat«dieipeni \ Cinou. Partiallc 

ita middle feet it clasped bis belly, with the anterior 
it seized his arms ; theu fixed its tcetli in both Us 
choeks. The hinder feet it stretched along Iiia thighs 
and put its tail between the two, and bent it upwards 
on his loins behind. L'y was never ho rooted to a 
tree, m round the other's limbs the hideous monster 
entwined its own. Then they stuck together, as if 
they had been of heated was, and mingled their co- 
lours : neither the one, nor the other,' now seemed 
what it was at first; as up before the flamo on paper^ 
goes a brown colour wliich is not yet black, and the 
white dies away. 

Co' pit di mezzo gli awinse la pancift, 

E con gli anterior le braccia prese ; 

Poi gli aJdenti'j o 1' una e 1' altra gBancia. 
Gli diretani alio coBce distese, 

E miseli la coda tr' omendue, 

E dietro per le ren an lo ritcee. 
Ellera abbarbicata moi non fue 

Ad albur si, come 1' orribil fiera 

Per 1' altmi membra avriticchii le sue. 
Poi a' appiccor, come di calda cera 

FoBsero stati, b miachiar lor colore ; 

Ni 1' un, ni 1' altro gii parea quel di' era ; 
Come procede ionanzi doll' ordore 

Per lo papiro auao un color bnino, 

Che non 6 nero ancora, e 11 bianco muora. 

I HdUur tho one ooIodt (the \ white paper, the brown ■ 

mui'i) nor the other (the rep- tlut goes before the flame, n 

tUe'i) rcmiuned what it hsul been : tho white rapicUj vaniih i 

»■ when jDH kindle a pieee of [ tnuuition to black. 


The otlicr two looked on, and each cried: '* O 
me I Agnello,' how thou chaiigeet ! Lo, thou art 
already neitlier two nor one I" Tlie two heads liad 
now become one, when two shapes appeared to us 
mixed in one face, where both were lost. Two arme 
were made of the four lists,' The thighs with the 
legs, the belly, and tho chest, became such members 
were never seen. The former shape was all ex- 
tinct in them :^ both, and neither, tlie per>"erse image 
seemed ; and such it went away with languid step. 

As the lizard, beneath tho mighty scourge of the 
'Camoulor days, going from hedge to hedge,^ appears 

Gli oltri duo riguardavano, e ciaecnno 

Gridava : me, Agni^l, come ti muti I 

Vedi che giJi non se' ni duo n6 uno. 
Gii eran li duo capi un divenuti, 

Quando a' apnarver duo figuru misto 

In una faccio, ov* eran duo perduti. 
Fersi le braccia duo di quattro liate ; 

Le cosco con le gambo, il ventre, e il cosso 

Divenner membra che non fur mai vista. 
Ogni primaio nspetto ivi era caeso : 

Duo e nesaun V iiumagine perversa 

Parca, e tal sen gla con lento passo. 
Come il nunarro, Botto la gran fersa 

Dei di canicular, cangiando siepe, 80 

Agnello BruaelloKlu. i ' lit. i "All fomieiMpMthero 

lAt. : "Tbe umii, from being (iu them) vu quwhed." 

(bur list!, were made two." itite * "ChiuiBinB beilga,"lit Tho 

(lilt*, bandft, or fillets) is tlio imago will bo u livel; oiiit lo thou 

loe giveo to tbe lerpesfa whu have aeen ItiJiuu liiunli thiu 

■nd the liiuisi'ii anus. moTiiit; under the hot KoorKO 

a flasli of liglitniDg, if it cross the way ; so, cominj 
towards tlie ImdwcIs of tlie other two, appeared a litllA 
reptile' burning with rage, Hvid and black as pepper 
com. Ajid it pierced that part,' in one of them, at- 
whicli no first receive our noorlslimoDt ; then fell 
down stretched ont before him. Tlie pierced thi^ 
gazed on it, but said nothing ; nay, with his feet mo- 
tionless, yawned only as if sleep or fovor had oom& 
upon him. He eyed the rejitile, the reptile himc 
the one fi-om hie wound, the other from its montb, 
smoked violently, and their smoke met. Let Lucao- 
now he silent, where he tells of poor Sabellna and. 

Folgore par, so la via attravBrea : 
CobI parea venendo verso 1' epo 

Cegli oltri due un seipentello acceeo, 

Livido 6 aero come gran di pepe. 
E quella parte, donde prima ^ preso 

Kostro alimanto, all' un di lor trafisse ; 

Poi cadde giuso iunaiud lui dieteso. 
Lo trafitto il mird, ma ntdla disee j 

An^i co' pi^ fermati ebadigliava, 

I'ur como aonno o fetlire 1' aasaliase. 
Egli il aerpente, e ([up.i lui riguardava ; 

L' nil per la piaga, e 1' altro per la bocca 

Fumavau forte, e il fumo b' incoutrava. 
Taccia Lucano omai, 1^ dove tocca 

Del misero Sabello e di ^Naaaidio, 

of tlie nui ID JqIj and Angnit. 
" Tlie liTing ore&lBTei nm and 
returneil m the nppeonuiee of a 
flnih of lightiung" (/u/jnirti po- 
nMcanfitViUe.). Exklli. 

' OuflTcio CaTklcutte. 
» The n»™l ; which be 
jajwtic nouriihment— " 
s TheFt, thit 
t. leipent." 

ixr. INFERNO. 303 

^Tasidius ;' and wait to henr that wliich is now eont 
fertli. Of Cadmus and of Arothusa' be Ovid silent ; 
for if he, poetizing, converts the one into a serpent 
and the otlier into a fount, I envy him not For never 
did he so tranamuto two natures front to front, that 
IkiUi forms* were ready to exchange their substance. 
They mutually responded in such a way,* that the 
reptile cleft its tail into a fork, and the wounded 
ijpt'nV drew his steps together. The legs and the 
ihighs along with them so stucJ< to one another, that 
soon thoir juncture left no mark that was discemihle. 

E attenJa a udir quel ch' or ai acocca. 
Taccia di Ciulmo e d' Aretusa Ovidio : 

Clife se ijuello in serpents, e quella in fonte 

Converte poetando, io non 1' invidio : 
Chi! dtio nature mai a fronte a fronte 100 

Son tmsmuti, al clt' ouienJue le forme 

A cambiar lor raatc-rie fosser proute. 
Insieme si rispoacra a tai nomm, 

Clie il aerpente la coda in forca fesse, 

E il feruto ristrinae insieme 1' orme. 
Le gambe con lo coace aeco etease 

S' appiccar A, che in poco la giuntura 

Xon fucea s^no atcun cbe ai paresse. 

' Sktielliis, irho melts av&y tike 
" mow under a hot toath-wind ;" 
;Ujd NftiidinB, who nrells lo u 
to bunt hia annomr, on being 

AtuiiH by iwriieTiti in the libjui 
ileiort. Phan. ii, 763, io. 

• SiniMtfaBt.W.S^;y.S!% 

• OrfonruvtiTcpowere. "K»ery 
ciBtnitiftl Form prooH<l> fn>m It* 

fintounie, vbieh i> GoiL" Ctmv, 
'rr.iiL2,&o. " Tbe bunuui (ool, 
whiiiL il the nohleit nf kU Forma 
thai are mule iiador hovon." 

' Ut.; " They cOtTBipoudeJ t« 

h other by » 

;h rolaa at a 



Tbo cloven tail assnmed the figure that was lost ia 
the other; and its skin grew soft, the other's hsrd, 
I saw tlie arms enter at the armpits, and tlie two 
of tlie brute, which were short, lengthen tliemselvM 
as much as those anns wore shortened. Then the 
hinder feet, twisted togetlier, became the memhet 
wtiich man conceals ; and tlie nTetch from his tuA 
two' thrust forth, 

Whilst the smoke with a new colom' veils theni 
botli,' nnd gcnenttes on one part hair, and strips it- 
from another ; the one rose upright, and prostrate tbS' 
other fell, not tlierefbre turning the impious lights^* 

TogUea la coda fessa la Itgum, 
Cho si pcrdevQ 1^ ; e In sua pelle 
Si facoa molte, e quclla di Iii dura. 

lo vidi entrar le bniceia per 1' ascellu, 
E i duo pit della flora, ch" eran corti, 
Tanto ollungar, i|iuuito acconiavau quelle. 

Poacia 11 piu dirietro inaieme attorti 
Diventaron lo memhro che 1' uom cela, 
£ 11 misero del suo n' avca duo portL 

Mentre che il fiuiimo 1' uno a 1' altro vela 
rii color uuovo, e genera 11 pel siiso 
Por r ana parte, e dall' altro il dlpelu, 

L' un si lovi, e 1' altro cadde giuso, 
Nou torceudo per6 lo lucerne empie. 

' Two hmiler feet. Porii fmm 
pOTiKTt, Lat. fvrrti-ti. 

* The ungiy unoke ■p(s«dil]' 
Ipret tlis Bi&D ■ niitile'i doIddt, 
the ivptile ■ miui'k 

■ " The li|[ht [Inptna) of tLe 

body i( the eje." Matl. vL 22; 
They did not Hhifl their iUriiig 
eyoi— pregnftBt with thiovishucu 
— rraui Dae uiothur, tor tlut 
ohuige of pDiture, tiU the tnai' 
furmitioD wu comiilcted. 

under wliicli tliey mutually exchanged visages :' he 
that was eroet, drew his towftrda the teni]iles; and 
from tlie too much matter that went thither, ears 
came out of the smooth' choeka. That which went 
not back, but was retained, of its snperfluity formed 
nose, aud enlarged the Ups to a fit size. Ho that 
lay prone, thrusts forward his sharpened risage, and 
draws back his ears into the head, as the snail does 
ita horns ; and his tongue, which was before united 
and apt for speech, deaves itself; and in tlio other the 
forked tong'ie redoses ; aud tlio smoko kow rests. 

The soul that had becomo a brute, 6ies hissing 
slong the valley, and after it the other talking and 

Sotto le quai cioscun conibiava muao. 

Quel ch' era dritto, il trasae in v^t .le tempie ; 

£ di troppa materia, cho in \k vonne, 125 

XJscir gli oreccM delle gote scempie : 

Ci6 che non corse in diatro, e si ritcnuo, 
T)i quel soverchio fo' naso alln fiicoia, 
E le labbra ingross6 qunnto convonnp. 

Quel, che giaceva, il muso innanzi caccia, 1 

E gli orecchi ritira por la t^eta, 
Come face le coma la lumaeda : 

B In lingua, che avcva nuitn o prE'eta 
Prima a parlar, si fende ; e la forcutn 
Nell' altro bI richiude, e il funmio rcsta. 1 

L' anima, ch' era fiera divcuuto, 
Si fugge fiufolando per k valle, 
E r altro dietro n lui parlando sputa. 

306 m 

sputtering. Then he turned his novel slioulden tv 
wards it, and said to the other: *'Buoso' shaQ n 
crawling, as I have done, along this road I" 

Tims I beheld tho seventh ballast' change ai 
rechango ; and hero let the noveltj' excuse me, if n 
tongue goes aught astray.^ And though my eji 
were somewhat peqslcxed, and my mind dismnye 
they could not flee so covertly, but tliat I well 
tingnished Puecio* Sciancato : and it was lie alom 
of the three companions thiit first came, wl 
changed. Tho otlicr* was he whom tliou, Gavilli 

PoRcia gli Tolae le novelle apallo, 

E disse all' altro : I' vo' che Buoso corra, 
Com' ho fatt' id, carpon per queato calle, 

Coal vid' io la settima aivorra 

Mutare e trasmutore ; e qui mi scusi 
La noviti, ee fior la lingua abborra. 

E awegnacbfe gli occhi miei confuai 
Fossoro alquanto, e I' animo amagato, 
Non potcT quel fuggirsi tanto cMiud, 

Ch' io non acorgessi ben Puecio Sciancato : 
Ed era quoi che eol, de' tre compagni 
Che venner prima, Aon era mutato : 

L' altro era. quel che tu, Gaville, piagni. 

' Buom il^li AljatL I borra (Lat alrtran), ' 

' The otf-MOUiingi, doiplialile , deviates" 

ooil of thiorSM uid Berpenta *t tbs < Puecio do' Galigal 

' bottom. Zamrra, Lnt. nbum. i ' Guoraio de'C&valoMiti,killai 
kt tbe viUage of Otivllla in Td 

* Or goet into too great de- . damo, irlitch "veep*" for tlw 

Fior at fion, idTerb; ab- \ 


Dant«, after bating Been and miogDiied the five Noble Tbievea^ 
oddrefees hU native city in bitter concentrated Borrow and 
ebaioe, mJngleil with beart-felt lon^gB and affection. The 
calamities wliioli miitgovuniment, faction, and crime 
preparing for miiny yeara before the date of his mjBtic Vision, 
and which he himeelf as Chief Magistrate in 1300 bad done 
Ilia utmost to pruvent, are notified in form of prophecy, HiB 
own exile, though not directly alluded to, and hie hopes of 
"morning" — of deliverance for Florence and himself, and of 
juBtice on their anemiee — were nearly connected with those 
catamitiei. And when be sees the fate of Evil Couneelloni in 
the Eighth Chasm, to wbioh hie Guide now leads him, he 
"curbs his genius," aad deeply feele he has not to seek that 
deliverance and justioe bj fraud. The arts of the fux, on how- 
r great a soale, are extremely hateful to him. To employ 
that eupcrior wisdom, which is the good gift of the Almighty, 
in deceiving others, for any purpose, is a Spiritual Theft of the 
moat fearful kind ; and the siimera, who have been guilty of 
it, are running along the narrow chasm, eaab "stolen" from 
view, wra|>t in the Flame of his own Consclouaness, and tor- 
mented by its burning. Ulyiees and Dioned, who went together 
by night, cheated and slew Dolon, and stole the mythic Palla- 
dium of Troy, are also here unitvd in punishment The former, 
speaking through the Flame, relates the manner and place of 
hie death. 


Joy, Florence, since Uiou art so great that ovce 
liuid uiid Bea thou beatcst tliy wlugs, oud tliy 
throuyli HeU expands itself!' Among the thieves I 
found five 8ueh, thy citizens ; whereat sliai 
on me, and tliou to great honour mountest 
tljcreby. But if the trutli is dreamed of near the 
morning,' thou shalt feel ere long what Prato, not 
to apeak of others, craves for thee.^ And if it were 

GoDi, Firenze, poi cho aei b1 grande, 
Che per mare e per terra batti 1' oli, 
£ per lo lufemo il tuo nome si spande. 

Tra li ladron trovai cinque cotali 

Tuoi uittadini, onde mi vieu vctgogna, 
E tu in grande onranm non ue aah. 

Ma 86 prcsso al mattin del Tcr si sogna, 
Tu Bentiroi di qua da picciol t«mpa 
Di quel che Prato, iion ch' altri, t' agi^na. 

> Tme, thj eaergiea, &rt«, and 
wooltli curry tliea triumpliuit far 
and vide; but mark the fame thoa 
hut in Hall tool 

' If morning dreiuni ore trau. 
Jfamqiir i«bAu rorct m,jam dormt- 
tanlt Iwtivit, Sumiiia quo ctmi 
Itmporr rem tolenl. Orid. Stroid. 
lii. The aame Mtdent bulief it 
■poksn of, Purg. ix. 13. 

* "Wliat, not only othen, but 
treii Prato," tbe neuMt town, 
"Mgerijnriihn tlioc" The Pact 

here uuioitneea, with minifoU 
emotion and bievit]i, the eiil thai 
nviiiti lui native city — doe al- 
Teulj, aa the ineritablg 
qnenoe of follf and crim 
wiahea it were come, aa Time *fU 
make him leaa able to bear it Ihaa 
nov (io 1300), "at the lainmit <t 
hi> Ufo-BToh. ' See note lit, p. 2. 
TliD diaiuten of 1301, in aomi 
of which Praia wu DOnoanked 
■re more iwgiiwiallf alludoil to, 
InFobroarf ofthat 

already come, it would not be too early. So were 
■it I since indeed it moat be; for it will weigh the 
heavier on me as I grow older. 

We departed theuce ; and, by the stairs which 
Hie bourns' had given us to descend before, my 
Guide remounted and drew me up. And pursuing 
'Our solitary way among the jaggs and branches of the 
cliff,' the foot without tlie hand sped not 

£ Be giii fosse, non Barin [leTf^mpo. 
Coal foas' ei, da che pure esser dee ! 
Cli6 pill mi graveri com' pii m' attempo. 

Noi d partimmo ; e su per le acalee, 

Che n' avcan fette i bomi a scender pria, 
Eimonti il Duca mio, e trasse mee. 

E proseguendo la soliiiga via 

Tra le scliegge e tra' rocehi dello scoglio, 
Lo pi6 eenza k man noa ai speJia. 

10 , 

•ltd bloody coatoitii of the Neti 
Butnchi hiul brought Flo- 
} to ■ ititte of aimrchr ; and 
{he CiknUnal da Prato nna evnt 
I17 BeDedint XL, sjid reiosincd 
Un tho 4th of jDDe (eee note 2d, 
ip. 112}, vainly tiTing to make 
B betweuu the adherents of 
.Hbe two fictiani. On the 10th of 
I, a firo, lighted bj a priest 
'4£ noble fnioily and ot the Nm 
ftetioo, deatroyixl more than 1700 
it the finest house*, towera, uid 
Milaee*, " and, in ahart," w TU- 
lani says, " burnt all the marrow, 
nnd 70II1, *Bd OMtl; places of tile 
^tr-" The lUDe hiitoilan t«lli 

how, in that year, on the Gnt of 
U>7, a fertive representation of 
Hell and its tormonta waa given 
on th« Amo -, and how the Car- 
roia bridge (then of wood) hmlro 
down under the throng of Bpeota- 
tors, "no that many wercdrownod, 
aod the abow hooame a reality." 

fill, vi 


' Or, "corbitonoa" (lorni, Fr. 
bomri) ; jagged rock* that fonnod 
the inner boondary of tho chaam, 
and made "Btiura" for the Foetc 

' "CUlf,"oriiextbridgei whlA I 
ia Bo tteep that it requirei botk J 
handi and feet 


I aoTTtmed then,' and sorroir now mgun nil 
I direct my memor}- to vrhat I saw ; and aoA i 
genius more than I wn wont, lest it nin where Vip 
toe guides it not ; hi that, if kindly star or something 
better have given to me the good, I may not ginidg 
myself that gift-' 

As many fireflies* as the peasant who is restiDg 
on the hill — at the time that he who Itgfata tlitt' 
world least hides his face from u&, when as the f 
yields to the gnat — sees down along the t»11^, 
there perchance where he gathers gra]>es and tills : 

Allor mi doki, e ora nii ridoglio, 

Qoando drizzo la mente a cil> ch' to vidi ; 
£ piii lo ingegno aSreno cli' io non soglio, 

Feruh^ non conn, eiia viitii non guidi ; 
Si che, se stuUa buoua o migUor cosa 
M' lia dato il ])eii, ch' io stesso nol m' invidL 

Quanto il villan ch' al poggio si riposa, 
Kol tempo che colui, che il mondo echiaia. 
La foccia sua a noi tien meno ascosa, 

Come In moaca cede alia zanxara, 
Vede lucoiole gii per la rallea, 
Forae colJi dove Tendcmmia ed am : 30 

< At liitht of tlw Evil Ooim- 
•hIIoii and their fMe. 

' lit. : " 1 may not mfielf envy 
nio it," may not onvtotuly with- 
hold from myieli the good of that 
gonial or taloat, vhioh happy atar 
or PravidGnoe luui t^ven ma. 

■ Lit. : " Haw niui; aroSica 
(fWUiU lucciolt) thi patunt aeet' 
L The ItnliBii 

gnaii iwikrai forth in the 

inga (when the commoa fly dl»- 

appean), with for more vigour 

than ijur own ; and the p 

" resti oa the hill" — the air of 

hia viiUeya being dangenma kftec 

I the 

tha 1 

letdi whore hs bu been labonT' 


with flames thus nomerous the eighth chasm was all 
gleaming, ae I perceived, so soon aa I came to where 
tho bottom shewed itaelf. And as he,' who was 
avenged by tlio bears, saw Elijah's chariot at its de- 
parture, when the hoi-sos rose erect to heaven; for 
he could not so follow it with his eyea as to see 
other than tlie Qtime alone, like a little cloud, as- 
cending up: thus moved each of fJtose Jfanus along 
the gullet of the foas, for none of them shews the 
theft,' and every flame steals a sinner. 

I stood upon the bridge, having risen so' to look, 
that, if I had not caught a rock, I should have fallen 

Di tante fiammc tutta risplendea 

L' ottava bolgia, si com' io m' accorsi, 
Tosto cliB fui III 've il fondo parea. 

E qual colui, che ei vengi6 con gli orsi, 

Vide il carro d' Elia al lUpartire, 35 

Quand i cavalli al Cielo erti levorei ; 

Che nol potea a\ con gli occhi aeguire, 
Clie vedease altro che la fiamma aola, 
SI come nuvoletto, in bu aalire : 

Tal ai movea ciaacuna per la gola 40 

Del foaao, otik ncasuua mostia il furto, 
Ed ogni Harama an poccatore invok. 

Zo stava aovra il poute a veder surto, 

81 che a' io uon avesei im ronchion preao, 

Caduto aarei gid aeuza easer urto. 45 

3G> Lcvarii, al lovoro or iBvaronaL 

Ut : "Stood w riMD {lurto 
tli>t,"fai. Had Knrunbled up 

with both huidi uid fuel (v. 18), 
uid now riut uid eugvrlf leana 
furwftrd to lee from tho bridgv, u 


dowTi without being pUBhed. And the Guide, who 
saw me thus atteiit, said : " Within those fires toe 
tlie Bpirits: each swatlies liimself with that which 
bunia him." 

" Master," I replied, " from hearing thee I feel 
more certain ; but liad already discerned it to be so, 
and already wished to say to tliee : Who is in that 
fire, which comes so parted at the top, as if it rose 
from the pyre' where Eteocles with his brother waa 

He answered me : " Within it there, Ulyssffl is 
tortured, and Diomed ; and thus they nin together 
in punishment, as erst in wTath. And in their flame 

E il Duco, cho nil vido tanlo fttt«so, 

Disse : Dentro da' fuochi son gli epirti : 

Cinscim e'l faauia dl quel ch' egli ii inceso. 
Maestro mio, risposi, per udirti 

Son io piii certo ; ma gii m' era awiso 

Che cod fusse, e gii voleva Jirti ; 
Chi 6 in quel fuoco, cbe vien el diviso 

Di eopra, che par BUrger della pira, 

Ov' Etefjcle col fhitel fu miso T 
Biaposemi : U entro ei martira 

Ulisse e Diomede, o cod insieme 

Alia vendetta corron, fiom' all' ire : 
E dentro dalla lor fiamma ai geme 

60. Arriio, nwiauto. 51. Mitit, meoo. 

' The Qamo of the funenl pile, l bare divided itaelf in (oh 
on nhich Bteodei vu laid with thairomoity. Xvcan, 1030; Stat, 
hii brother Fatjtdcci, U uid to 1 ThA. sil 431. 

ciHTonvi. ISFERNO. 313 

they groan for the ambasli of the horse,' that made 
the door by which the noblo seed of the Homans 
caine forth. Within it they lament the artifice,^ 
whereby Deitlainia in deatli still sorrows for Acliil- 
le3 ; and tlioro for the Palladium they suffer pnnish- 

" If they witliiu tliose sparks can speak," BtiiA 
I, " Master I I pray tlice much, and repray that my 
prayer may equal a thousand, deny me not to wait 
until the homed flame comes hither. Thou seeet 
how with desire I bend me towards it." 

And he tti mo : " Thy request is worthy of much 
praise, and therefore I accept it. But do thou re- 

L' agoato del cavi J, cha fo' la porta 

Ond' uacl de' Bonmni il gentU seme. GO 

Fiangevifii entro i' arte, per cho morta 

Deidomia ancor el duol d' Actiille ; 

E del Palladio pt-ua Ti si porta. 
S' ei posson denlro da quelle fayille 

Parlar, ilLu' io, Klaeatro, assoi ten piiugo, 66 

E ripriego che il priego vaglia raille, 
Che uon mi fiicci dell' attendor oiego, 

Fincb^ la fiamiua comuta qua vegna : 

Vedi die del disio t£t lei mi piego, 
E4I (!gli a mo : La tua pregbicis e degna 70 

Di molta lode; ed io perb 1' accetto : 

The wooden bone, hj meuu 
vhich Troy «u UlcBn, B&d 
Xaeat, the foimdvr of Kome, 
en forth to It»I;. 
Uljuei iudnced AcfaQlei to 

TonaJieDeiilunia; telling him thai 
Tto; could not be talcoQ withoat 
hiin, but deceitfully ooncnling 
the preiliotioD of hii death. 
> Which thej curied oS. 

314 DJFEBNO. eixTC 

frain tliy tongue. Let mo spealc, for I have con- 
ceived what tliou wishest; and they, perhaps, becaaaft 
they wore Greeks, might disdain thy words."' 

Aifcr the flame had conio where time and piaes' 
seemed fitting to my Guide, I heard him speak ia 
this manner : " ye, two in one fire I If I merited 
of you whilst I hvod, if I merited of you much 
little, when on eartlt I wrote the High Verses,' mova 
ye not ; but let the one of you toll where he wander- 
ing* went to die." 

The greater horn of the ancient fliimo began 

Ma la che k tua lingua ei sost^giin. 
Laacia parlare a mo, ch' io ho concettu 

Ciii clic til vuoi ; ch' ei sarebbero aohiTi, 

Pereb' oi fur Greci, foTse del tuo detto. 75 

Poicbi la fiamma fu Tenuta ijuivi, 

Ovo [Mirve al mio Duca tempo e loco, 

In queeta forma lui parlaie audivi : 
voi, cbe siete duo dentro ad un fiioco, 

8' io meritai di Toi mentre cb' io vissi, 

S' io meritai di Yoi aasai o poco, 
Quando nol mondo gli alti versi Bcrissi, 

Noa vi movete ; ma 1' un di voi dica 

Dove per lui perdulo a morir gissi. 
Lo maggior como della fiamma antiva 

Comincift a croUarai, mormorando, 

> Or: "Might be >ti7 of itwak- 

ing to thee;"but wlijr tbdi having 
bean Greelu canlil make them to, 
[> not utkfMtoril]' expUlnsd bj 
tnj of the eoiniiieDtaton. 

* The Jiiaid (id which UlfvM 
ftud Diomed are often Rpoken of)l 
written in the high or tragic 1171^^ 
Cominun Dote lit, p. ML 

' Or: " Having lost liim*alf. 

I3T1. INFERNO. 315 

shake itself, nmrmuring, just like a flame ttiat strug- 
gles with the wind.' Then carrying to and fro the 
itop, as if it were the tongue that spake,' threw forth 
ice, and said : " When I departed from Circe, 
'Who beyond a yejir detained ma there* near Gaeta, 
«re JEnoa^ thus had named it, neither fondness for 
my fion, uor reverence for my aged father, nor the 
due love that should have cheered Penelope, could 
conquer in me the ardour tliat I had to gain expe- 
rience of the world, and of human vice and worth : I 
put forth on the deep open sea, with but one ship, 

Pur come quella cm vento affatica. 
Indi la cima qua e li. menando, 

Come fossQ la lingua clie parlasse, 

Gitti voce di fuori, e disae : Quando 90 

Mi diporti' da Circe, che eottrasse 

Me piit d' un anno Ik pressu a Goeta, 

Prima che A Enca In nonunasse ; 
K^ dolcezza di figlio, nis la ]ii<!'ta 

Del veccliio padre, nd il debito amore, 95 

Lo qual dovea Penelope far lieta, 
Vincer potero dentro a me 1' ardore 

Ch" io ebbi a divenir del mondo eaperto, 

E degE vizj umani, e del valore : 
Mn misi me per 1' alto mare aperto 

Sol con un legno, e con quella compagna 

lit, : " Jiut like tlial jfonie 
lAieli wind tormetita," or lub« 
I tni. The monla lu<e no 

of inlquit;: . . . . it ii m( on 
of helL" Jamn iii, 6. 

■ At Unnte Circetlo, or Oiroe'l , 
rrouiaatorjri ueu Guta, which li 
nuued aftttr .Cuca*' Dune. 



and with tliat Gmoll company, wlucL li&d uot deeert 
me. Both tlie sliorcs' I sats' tis &r 03 Spain, fiir i 
Morocco ; and saw Sardinia and the other isles wh 
that sea Lathes round. 

" I and my companions were o)d and tardy, wbefl 1 
we came to that narrow pass,^ where Hercules as-J 
signed his landmarks to hinder man from Yentuiiiigl 
fartlior. On the right hand, I left Seville ; on the j 
other, had already left Couta. ' brotlicrs I' I Baid, 
' who through a hundred thousand dangers have^ 
reached the West, deny not, to this the brief vigil I 
of your senses that remains, experience of the i 

Ficciola, dalla qual non fhi deserto. 
L' un lito e 1' altto vidi infin la Spogna, 

Fin nel Marrocco, e 1' isola de' Soldi, 

E r ultrc che quel mare Intomo bajpia. 
lo e i compogni oraTom vccchi e torJi, 

Quauilo Tcnimiuo a qiitlla foco sti«tta, 

Ov* Ercole scgni U suoi riguardi, 
Acciocchi!) 1' uom pii oltre non si metta : 

Dalla man dcstro roi lasciai Sibilia, 

Ball' altra gifi m' avea lasciata Setto. 
irati, disai, che per cento niilia 

Ferigli siele giuuti all' Occidente, 

A queata tanto picciola vigilia 
De' Tostri Bcnsi, ch' is del rimanente, 

Ifon TOgliate negar 1' cspcricnza, 

' European uid Afrioui. i tute b«yoni" In Bomagiui the 

* Stnit of Gibnltai, with iU luidiiiuki und the rokd-potH uv 

Columiu of Horculea: "Murki or | still eollifl ri-jaanli. Hue wnl 

varmnga, that oat iDoit Dot vcn- { in the ncnKi uf Sanrad limita. 


peopled world behind the Sun.' Consider your ori- 
gin : ye were not formed to live like brutes, but to 
follow virtue and knowledge.' Witii this brief speech 
I made my eompanions so eager for tho voyage, that 
1 could hnrdJy then have checked them. And, turn- 
ing the poop towards morning, we of our oai^s made 
wings for the foolish Sight, always gaining on the 
left.' Night already saw the other pole, n-ith all its 
Btars ; and ours no low, that it rose not from the ocean 
floor.' Five times the light beneath the Moon* had 
been rekindled and quenched as oft, since we had 

Diretro ol Sol, del mondo aenza gente. 

Considemte la vostra semenza : 
Fatti nou fostc a viver come bruti. 
Ma per seguir virtuta e conoscenza. 

Li miei compagni fee' io al acuti, 

Con questa orazion picclola, al canuuiui) 
Che appena poscia gli avrei ritenutL 

E, volta nostra poppa nel mattino, 
Do' remi facemuio ale al fulle volo, 
Sempre acquistando del lato mancino. 

Tutte le BteUe gii dell' altro polo 

Vedea la notte, e il nostro tanto basso, 
Che non Burgeva fuor dd matin auolo. 

Cinque volte racceso, e tanto casso 
Lo luiae era di sotto dalla Luna, 

' Or Trertwaid. Tho Wertem I 
Heouipbere, in Dunte'ri tmio, «u 
mplKwed to be all eorered with i 
w»tar. Cant: Tr. iil 5. I 

' Rcnreil we«t by soQth. See ! 

the ty^ipt' iprtfih i 
■ TliBy hud uow 

'e sluuiee* of tlio Monn. 


entered on the arduous passage, when there ap] 
to us a Mountain,' dim with distance ; and to 
seemed the highest I had ever seen.' Wo joyed, 
and Boou our joy was turned to grief; for a tem- 
pest rose from the new land, and struck the fore- 
part of our ship. Tlu-ee times it made her whirl 
round witli all tlio waters; at the fourth, made the 
poop rise up and prow go down, as pleased Another,' 
til] the sea was closed above us." 

Foi ch' entrati oiavam nell' alto paseo, 

Quando n' apparve una montagna, bnina 
Per ia distauMk, e parvemi nlta tanto, 
Quonto veduta non n' avova alcuiio. 

Noi ci allegrammo, e tosto tom^ in pianto ; 
Chfc dalla nuova terra an turbo nacqae, 
£ percosse del kgno 11 primo cauto. 

Tre volta ii fe' girar con tutte 1' aeque. 
Alia quarta levar la poppa in suso, 
£ la prora ire in giit, com' altrui piacque, 

Tnfiti che 11 nmr fu sopra noi richiueo. 


' Monntiun of Purgktoij : ntu- 
kted, Kcording to Dmnte, on the 
othei aide of ttio globe, in the 
Southern Hemuphcre, and exactly 
apposite to Jeruulem. Cuto 

xxiiv. 136 ; uid Furg, onto L 
24, Ac 

' Lit. : " SeenMd w high, m I 
had not *eBD uij." 

■ Ood, Comiian notc^ p. &(. 


The Flame of UlTSses, haying told its story, departs with permis- 
sion of Virgil ; and is immediately followed by another, which 
contains the spirit of Count Guido da Montefeltro, a Ghibelline 
of high fame in war and counsel. It comes moaning at the top, 
and sends forth eager inquiries about the people of Bomagna, 
Guide's countrymen. Dante describee their condition, under 
various petty Tyrants, in IdOO. His words are brief, precise, 
and beautiful ; and have a tone of large and deep sadness, 
Guido, at his request, relates who he is, and why condemned 
to such torment ; after which, the Poets pass onwards to the 
bridge of the Ninth Chasm. 

CANTO xxvn. 

The flame was now erect and quiet, ' baTiii| 
ceased to speak, and now went away from ua i 
license of the sweet Poet ; when anotlier, that < 
behind it, made us turn our eyes to its top, for I 
confused sound that issued therefrom. As the i 
cihan bull' (whicli bellowed first with tlie lamei 
of him — and that was right — who had tuned it v 
Ills file) kept bellowing with the sufferer's voice j t 
that, although it was of brass, it seemed transfixt 

Gia' era dritta iiisJi la fianmia, u queta 

pL'i noa dir pid; e gifi da noi sen gfa 

Con 1b licenzia dol dolce Poeta : 
Quaado tin' altra, che dictro a lei Tenia, 

Se foco volgcr gU occM alia sua cimo, 

Per un confuao suon che fuor n' uscift. 
Come il hue Cicilian, che mugghib prima 

Col pianto di colm, e ci6 fu drilto, 

Che r avea tcmperato con sua lima, 
Hagghiava con la toco dell' afllitto, 

S& ohe, con tutto ch' e' fosse di lame. 

> No longec ma««d !ta aliBTp 

t<omt to unil fro like » tongue. 
Cmto un. 85. 

■ ThB brazen buU which Pe- 
rillus inveatcd for tli« Sictliiui 
tfnot riiHlsriH. It wu eoa- 
struoted will) >ucb art, that tlie 
ori« of UioM burning nithiu it 

mambled tbe bcllamng of > 
boll; and rbaUni, vary jtuUj 
made tlie fint eiperimeot m 
■rtiat himaelf. The unnen 
too Are tortnjcil witbin tha flj 
Ihey ImvD prepared (or tliemaohi 
bf appljing thuir talenli to wi 



with pain : thus, having at their commeDcement no 
way or outlet from the fire, the tJismal words were 
changed into its language.' But after they Iiad found 
their road up through the point, giving to it the vi- 
bration which the tongue hail given in tlieir passage, 
we heard it say : " thou, at whom I aim my voioe! 
and who just now waat speaking Lombard,' saying, 
' Now go, no moi-e I urge theo ;'' though I have 
come perhaps a little late, lot it not irk thee t^ 
pause and eyieak with me : thou seest it irka not me, 
although I bum. If Ihou art but now fallen into 
this blind world from that eweet Latian land, whence 

Pure el pareva dol dolor trafitto : 
Cod, pet non aver via n6 forame 

Dttl principio del fuoco, in 

Si convertivun lo parole grame. 
Ma poBCia ch' ebber colto lor vlaggio 

8u per la punta, daadole ijuel guizzo 

Che dato avea la lingua in lor paasaggio, 
Udimmo dire : tu, a cui io drizzo 

La voce, e che parlavi mo Lombardo, 

Dicendo : lasa t«n va, piii non t' alzzo ; 
Perch' io aia giimto forse a!r[uanto tardo, 

Noa t' incrosca restare a parlar meco : 

Vedi cUe non incresce a me, o ardo. 
Se ta pnr mo in questo uiondo cieco 

Cadnto Be' di quella dolce terra 

o a painful muimiiriDg 
it fint, till tbe; got waj. 
boKxriSa, kc 
" Lomburd" for Italiui ; or 

riiipi becaoM iua (dow) »n4 

uton were IjoiaWd irorfia, and 
Vii^ binuelf of Lombanlj'. 

' " No more I itimuUte or 
tlif fluno :" aik no farther ipe 

of theu, Uljnei, 

322 INFERNO. , 

I bring all my guilt, tell me if the Romagnuols hgi 
peace or war ; for I was of the mountains them 
between Urbino and the joke from which the 

I still was eager downwards and bent, wheo 
Leader touched me on the side, sajnng: " 8] 
thou ; tills is a Latian." 

And I, who bad my answer ready tlien, begi 
without delay to speak: "0 soul, that there belo 
art hidden 1 Tliy Roniagna is not, and never ws 
without war in the hearts of her tyrants ; but op< 
war just now I there left none.* Ravenna stand^ i 

Latina, ondo mia colpa tutta reco; 
Dimmi ae i Romajjnuoli ban pace o gueria ; 

Ch' io ftii de' monti lb, intra tlrbino 

E il giogo di cbe Tever si diaaerra. ; 

Io era ingiuso ancont attento e chino, 

Quando il mio Duca mi tenti di costa, 

Dicendo : Parla tu, qni.'sti e Latino. 
Ed io cb'avea gil. pronta la rifipoatn, 

Scnza indugio a parlare incominciol : i 

anima, cbe sei laggiii naacosta, 
Eomagna tua non t, e non fu mai 

Senza gucim ne' cuor de' buoi tiranni ; 

^fa palcse nessmia or ven. Lisciai. 
Kaveoua sto, come stata & multi onnj : i 

1 Of Hontefeltco, between Ur. 
no Kud tluit put of the A[ien- 
ioediiiD froiDwliieh "Tiber on- 
oki himulf." 
■ Id Uu> ^ring of 1300, the 

year of Jabilee and of Duil 

RomagiiH. but abnnduil nutori 
tit fat it in the Leiiria of 
wretched Tjruiti. 

OABTO irra. DTFKBNO. 323 

it has stood for many years. Tlie Eoglo' of Polenta 
broods over it, so tliat he covers Cerviii witlt hia pin- 
ions. The city,' which made erewliile the long pro- 
bation, and sanguinary heap of Frenchmen, finds itself 
again nnder the Green Chitches. And the old Mastiff 
of Verrucchio and tlie yoiuif;,* who of Montngna made 
evi! governance, there where they are wont do ply their 

L' aqtdla da Polenta la si cova, 

SI cho Cervia riouopre co' siioi vntmi. 

La terra cho fe' fpk la lunga prova, 
E di Franceschi aanguJnoao mucchio, 
Sotto le branche verdi si ritrova. 45 

E il Maatin vecchio, e il nuovo da Verrucchio, 
Cho fecar di Montogua il mal goTcmo, 
lA, dove Boglion, fan de' denti eucchio. 

■ Ooido IfovcUo dE Folenti 
Lord at Bayeniu, anil then c 
Cerrin too, who had an eagle □: 

it oral 

. Hew 


bert friend, a Poet hinaelf, and 
Nephew o[ FranoescB (mc canto 
V,) ; and roleil hii little territoty 
well and pcuefuUf for many 
yatn, " Ai an eagle Btirreth up 
har nest, flattereth over her yming. 
tpreadeth abroad her mngi," ka. 
Dtul. »«»ii. IL 

' Forli, which stood out a long 
■if^e in 1282. The Ouido who u 
bore listening was at that time 
ita tiller ; and by meiini of a 
Btratagem, he made great shvugh- 
tiT of the boiieging anay, whioh 

' Dante tells him that Forli in now 
or the Otildaffl family, whoie coat 
of aniiB wan a lion vert 

) SlaUtcatn Yeechio, and Alal- 
teitino dell' ncchio (one-eyed) Ma 
son, " mastUTa of Vermeohio" (a 
eutle of theira) ; who imprisoned 
and then trencheronily mutdered 
Mantagna do' Farsitati, leader of 
the GhibellinoB at Kiniini. where 
they still exercise ferocious tyran- 
ny; or lit. " make a horcr, anger, 
orgimlet of tbeirtMth." Halt«- 
tino was the brother of Giovanni 
and Paolo [oanto v.); and is again 
alladed to in eanlo nriil 85. See 
Benv. da Imola Oon.; and Murat 
Rtr.Ilal.lon>. it. 

32i INFERNO. CAsm «Tn. 

teeth. The cities of Lamoiie and Sanfemo' goiclea 
Lioncel of tlio white lair, wlio changes faction froni 
the eunimer to the winter. And that' whose flonl 
t]ie Savio bathes, as it lies between the plain anl 
mount, so lives it between tyranny and fr{«etlom. 

" Now I pray tLee, t«ll us who thou art. Be 
not more bard than one bos been^ to Utee: so uay 
tliy name on earth maintain its front." 

After tlie flame bad roared awhile as usnal, it 
moved tlie sharp [joint to and fro, and iben gaw 
forth this breath :* " If I thought my answer weie 

Lc citt^ di Lamone e di SauteiTio 

Conduce il looacel dal nido bianco, 60 

Che muta parte dalla state al verno : 
E quella, a cui il Savio bagna il Banco, 

Cod com' ella s' & tra il piano e il montc, 

Tra tiiannia si vive e state franco. 
Ora obi sei ti ]iTego cbe ne conte : 85- 

Kon esscr duro piii eh' altri sia stato, 

Se 11 Bome tuo nel moodo tegna &ant«. 
PoBcia che il fuoco alquanto ebbe niggbiato 

Al modo Buo, r aguta punta mosae 

Di qua, di li, e poi dif- cotal fiato ; 60 

S* io credesai cbe mia riaposta fosse 

- tllD t 

lemo : under the mlo of Uwhi- 
niudo pAguii, HurTtamed *'I1 Dia- 
volo," wlioia aims ware a HoDOcl 
□D ■ field argent, and who kept 
oontiuuallycliuigingparty, "fw- 
ing both wnfB," nil hi) life. 

* Ccaaiw on the 9*ria ; now 

ruled bf tynnti, now by th« dU- 
tsai themiolTM. 

' lit.; "Thsn other hu bem," 
uiBUiiac. "than I have been to 
thee. " He iiwakg to Guido with 
ft ohildlike kindticsi Mid pitr. 

' Found thb 1 

to one who ever coold return to the world, this Same 
should shake no more. ^ But since none ever did 
return alive from tliis depth, if what I hear be true, 
without fear of iufinny I answer thee. 

*' I was a man of arms ; and then became a Cor- 
delier,' hoping, thus girt, to make amends. And 
certainly my hope were come in full,' but for the 
Great Priest,* may ill befall him ! who brought mo 
buck to my first sins : and how aud why, I wish 
thee to hear from me. Whilst I was the form of bones 
and pulp, which my mother gave me, my deeds were 
not those of the lion, but of the fox. AU wOes and 

A persona che mai toniasse al mondo, 
Questa fionuna staria senza pili acosse : 

Ma percioccb^ giammiti di qacsto Hondo 
Non tomi vivo altun, a' io odo il vero, 
Senza tema d' in fain Ja ti rispondo. 

Io fui uom d' arme, e poi fui Cordigliero, 
Credeudumi, al eiuto, fore amnienda : 
E certo il credar mio veaiva intero, 

Se nou foBso il Gran Prete, a cui mal prendo, 
Cbe mi rimiae nolle prime colpe : 
£ come, e qiiare voglio che m' intenda. 

Mentre ch' io forma fui d' oasa e di polpe, 
Che la madre mi di^, 1' opere mio 
Non furon leonine, ma di volpe. 

Lit.: " Should rtuad «i 
v Bhakes," gr ipeak no n 
"Cordelier:" or monV 
with tbe Cord of St. Fih 

' Or, "ha,l been fulfilled:" 
kIiuiiIcI hava been in Ueuven ii 
'•I of bare. 


covert ways I knew ; and used the art of them so 
weil, that to the ends of the earth the Bound went 
forth. Wlion I saw myself come to tliat period of 
my age at whicli every one should lower sails and 
gather in his ropes,' that which before had pleased 
me, grieved me then ; and with rcpeiitanee and con- 
fession I yielded myself,' ah woo alas ! and it would 
have availed me. The Prince of the new Pharisees' 

Gli accorgimenti e le coperte vie 

lo Beppi tutte ; e a\ menai lor art*, 

Ch' al fine della terra il auono uacie, 
Quoudo mi vidi ginnto in quella parte 

Di tnia otk, dove ciascun dovrebbe 80 

Calar le vole e raccoglior le sarte, 
Citi ohe pria mi piaceva, allor m' inorobbe ; 

E pentuto e confesao mi rendei, 

Ahi miser lasso ! e giovato sarebbe. 
Lo Principe de' nuovi Farisei 85 

' In ihe Conrito (Trat. ix. 38) 
Donto, ipflildng of Old Ago, unl 
tLe "sea of tliia life" on vliiah 
our Soul hu it> Toyage of triel, 
inyi: "Nntural death in m it were 
a luTon and a mt to ui tftvr long 
naTigation. And Ihe noble Suut 

whea ho draws near the port, 
lonera hiif ■alia, and enten it 
koftly with fceblo ateernge : ertu 
ail ought wo to lon-cr the aaila 
of our worlrlly operatiuna, and 
turn to God with all our under- 
■tanding and heart, that we may 
reaoh thii haTen with ill luBTitj 

and with all peaci 
we have from oui 

And heisio 

great teason of auavit; ; for in 
•neb a death as thii thare ii no 
grief nor any bittcRi«M : but *• 
a ripe apple i« ligbtly and without 
violinice looiened from ilj bnueli, 
lo our aoal without grisring d»- 
parta from the body in oluell it 
bath been," lio. 

The rest of thia paassga [■ ttil] 
highsr. Oaido ia praised Id it. 

• "Yield yonraelyei unto Ood, 
as thoM that are alive from tlic 
Jead,"ftii. Ann. vi. 13. 

■ Sonifaoc YIIL, kt wu witb 



CiSTO ixTll. INFERHO. 327 

— waging war near to tlie Latoran, and not with 
Saracens or Jews ; for every enemy of hia waa 
Christian, and none had been to conquer Acre,' nor 
heen a merchant in the Soldan's land — regarded not 
the Highest Office nor Holy Orders in himself, nor 
in ine that Cord which used to make those whom 
it girded leaner ; but as Constantine called SUvestro 
out of Soracte' to euro hia leprosy, so this man called 
me as an adept to cure the fever of his pride. He 

Areado gueTra presao a Lat«raii(^ 

E non con Saracin, nfe con Giudei ; 
Cho ciascun suo nemico era Cristiano, 

E nesfiuno era etato a vineer Acri, 

"Hh mercatante in terra di Soldano : 90 

Sh sommo uficio, ne ordini aacri 

Guard6 in s^, n^ in me quel capestro 

Che solya for li suoi cinti piii niacri. 
Ma come Costantin chieso Silvestro 

DeutTo Siratti a gimrir de.lla lebbre, 95 

Coal mi chieee questi per maestro 
A gnarir della eua supeiba febbrc. 

the Colanim funilyin Rome, who 
bad oppuofld iu>Blectii>iu Ho laid 
wvtd their palocefl " near the Id- 
tenui," in Hu; I3n7 ; and then, 
in Saptamber 12SS, domoliihed 
their fortrBMei ot PeneL-trino (Ps- 
lefftrina), which he had been an^ 
able to take bj force, ancl gained 
poMMalon of by " piamiiing tnueh 
and perfonmag nothing," u Gnlilo 
adilKd. ri«.Tiu.2I, 23; Benv. 
da Imola Com. 

' Acre, tlje last stronghold of 
the Cbri«tiiin« after all their om- 
sodea, fax in April 1391 ratakeo 
by the Sultiin,who received advice 
aoil aid from the renegadci and 
Cbridtiui merchante here alluded 
to. Vill.ta.H6. 

• "Called Silvestro fromwithin" 
the cave whare he lay hid in Mount 
Sonuite, according to tho old tra- 
ditiun ; and made him tho " Gnt 
rich Father." Canto zix. 1 


demanded counsel of me ; and I kept f'ilent, for his 
words seemed drunken,' And then he said to mo: 
' Let not thy heart misdoubt: even now I do absolve 
thee, and do thou teach mo so to act, that I may 
cast Penestrino to the ground. Heaven I can shut 
and open, as thou kuowest ; for two ai-e tlio keys that 
my predecessor' held not dear.' Then the weighty 
sjrguments impelled me to think silence worst ;^ and 
I said ; ' Father ! since thou cleanscst me from that 
guilt into which I now must fall, large promise, with 
small obser\'ance of it, will make thee triumph in thy 
High Seat' 

Domandommi consiglio ; ed io tacetti, 

Porchi le aue parole pan-ero ebbre. 
£ poi mi disse : Tuo cor nun sospetli : 100 

Fin or ti assolvo, e tu in' insegna fare 

SI come Feneatrino in terra gctti. 
Lo Ciel poBs' io Bertare e disaemue, 

Come tu soi ; per6 son duo le chiavi, 

Che il mio antecessor non ebbe caie. 105 

Allor mi pinser gli aigomenti gnivi 

lit 're il tacer mi fu awiso il peg^o, 

E dissi : Padre, da cbe tu mi lavi 
Di quel peccato, ose mo cadcr deggio, 

Lun^a promcssa con I' attfluder corto 1 10 

Ti tari trionfar nell' alto seggio. 

' With bigh rage uid pride. 

- C«l(siitiii« T. whu rcBigoed the 
Keyi : wbiah no UircHta or vio- 
lenw coold make Bouifaoe Mm. 

- ro/. vi 


' Lit: "Droranie tbsreirhcrE 

kmping rilence wemed to ma Ui« 
wont" pUa 1 ■'. e. bj hii dmnken 
worda. luugbt; Ttfe, uid mddea 
ikbiaIut!oii,tuiule ia« thickit «>f«it 
to spcftk. boiufive ViU. riii. 23; 
BeD¥, da linD[aC<rm,,&ft 

" Saint Francis afterwards, when I waa dead, 
came for me ; but one of the Black Cherubim' said 
to him : ' Do not take him ; wrong me not. Ho 
must come down amongst my menials ; because he 
gave the fraudulent counsel, sinee which I have kept 
fiist by his hair. For he who repents not, cannot be 
absolved ; nor is it possible to repent and will a thing 
at the same time, the contradiction not permitting it' 
wretched mo I how I started when he seized me, 
saying to me : ' May be thou didst not think that I 
was a logician !' 

" To Minos he bore me, who twined liis tail eight 
times round his fearful back, and tlien biting it in 
great rage, said : ' This is a sinner for the thievish 

Francesco venne poi, com' io fu' morto, 

Per me ; ma im do' neri Cherulini 

Gli iliase : Nol portar ; non mi far torto. 
Venir ae ne dee gill tra'miei meachiai, 115 

Pei'chfe diede il conaiglio frodolonte, 

Dal quale in qua stato gli sono a" crini : 
Ch' asaolver non ai pu6 chi non si pcnte ; 

N^ pentere e volore ijisiome puossi. 

Per la contnuldizion clie nol consente. 130 

O me dolonte ! come mi riacoesi 

Quaado mi prese, dicondomi : Forse 

Tu non penaavi ch' io loieo foaai I 
A Minos mi port^ : e qaogli attotse 

Otto volte la coda ol dosso doro ; 125 

E poi oho per gnm rabbia la si morse, 
Disee : Quosti 6 de' rei del faoco furo : 

' CoDi|wra sMf '-" ?iv. ' 




fire.'* Therefore I, where thou seest, am lost; and 
going thus clothed, in heart I grieve." 

When he his words had ended thus, the flame, 
sorrowing, departed, writhing and tossing its sharp 
horn. We passed on, I and my Guide, along the 
cliff up to the other arch that covers the foss, in 
which their fee is paid to those who, sowing discord, 
gather guilt^ 

Per ch' io 1^, dove vedi, son perduto ; 
E si vestito anda;ido mi rancuro. 

Quand' egli ebbe il suo dir cosi compiuto, 
La fiamma dolorando si partio, 
Torcendo e dibattendo il come aguto. 

Noi passaimno oltre, ed io e il Duca mio, 
Su per Io scoglio infino in su V altr* arco 
Che copre il fosse, in cho si paga il fio 

A quei che, scommettendo, acquistan carco. 



^ The fire that '* steals the sin- 
ners," Canto xxvi 42. 

* lit.: ""Who, bp disjoining or 
unbinding" those whom Nature 

ties together with her "bond of 
love" (canto xi 66), "acomnu- 
late a burden or load" of guilt 
for thomselyes. 


Oar PUgrun — more and more Iieavj- laden, yet nipici and uncon- 
querable — ie DOW with his Guide looking down ioU> the Ninth 
; and brieSy deacribes the hideous condition of the 
"KiiTGrB of Scandal and Suhlsm" that are punished in It. FirBt 
« Mabomet: in Dantu'i viev, a mere Scctariau who had 
taken np Chmtiaultj and perverted its meaning. The shadow 
of him, rent Bsuniler from the chin downwards, displayH the 
conecions viiene^ and corruption of his doctrines. He tells 
how All — his nephew, bis eartiest and bravest disciple and son- 
in-law ; who, as Caliph, had battles with the Prophet's own 
faithful followers, in which more than seventy thousand fell ; 
and who was himself aBsttsMnated by one of them — "goes weep- 
ing before him, cleft from chin to forelock." He then asks 
what Danle is doing there ; and on teaming his errand and tbc 
likelihood of his return to earth, bids him give due warning 
]ino," a Schismatic and Communist, who is 
stirring up strife In nedmont and Lombardy. Next conies Pier 
da Hediclna, who, with a fair face and n shew of friendship, 
fomented dlsBenslons amongst the small Princes of Romagna ; 
Curio, who urged Citsar to cross the Rubicon and begin tho 
civil war ; Moscu de* LambertI of Florence, who counselled and 
took part In the murder of Buondelmonti, by which the fac- 
tions of Guelphs and Ghibellines were introduced ; and lactly, 
Bertrtind do Bom, who divided father and son. All of them 

have pi 

[lishments representing their ci 


Wno, even with woi-ds set free,' could ever ftdly 
teU, by oft relating, the blood and the wounds tliat I 
now saw ? Every tongue a-ssuredly would fail, be- 
cause of our speech and our memory* that have small 
capacity to coniprohend so much. 

If all tho people too were gatliered, who of old 
upon Apulia's fateful' land wailed for their blood, , 

Chi poria mai, pur con parole sciolte, 
Dicer del aangue e delle piaghe appieno, 
Ch' i' ora vidi, per narrar piii volte 1 

Ogni lingua per certo ven'ia meno 
Per lo noatro aenaone e per la mente, 
Ch' hanno a tanto oomprender poco seno. 

8e b' adunaasc ancor tutta In gcnto, 
Che gik in su la fortunnta terra 
Di Puglia fu del auo sangue dolente 

' Free from vene or rllTnie. 
Vmo ifiotio, bUnk verse ; paroU 
teioOt, ptoaa. 

* itultanamqHeperinUlUclum 
videmut, fuitmj Sispta Voealia 
darnit, ke. IntdUdu* Aumaniut 
in hoe Vila. . . . guando devalur, 
■n fanlum eUratar ul Htntofta 
foH rvditun dcficiat, Dute 
(Bjiirt. Ti 27, 28) to Cui Grande. 

' Lit, : " Fortuneil," oi event- 
fal land ; icenis of 0111117 changea. 
The Foot lint allodeg U tbe tbou- 
•oiidi of Apnliuu *1ua by tbe 

RomBDi nndcr F. Deoto* (Li*. 
X. 15, kn.) ; then to tbe aeoDDit 
Praiio war, which huted npwaHi 
of 16 yean, and gaTe Hannibal 
tbe booty of " more than Uitm 
bashels aiid a half of rin^ at 
Cmuue, in ApoliH, Bee liv. ex&l 
IS ; aud Convito (Tr. iv. 4. 5), 
where this wv i> npokeo of, ■■ 
well ai the other lore trial* which 
the "siu:red pcojile," who e 
from Troy, had tt 
eitablishio); their HaBarehy. 
If we rand Trt^an-% with Ibal 

ourro zznn. mFEBMO. 333 

aJted by the Romans ; and in tliat long war which 
made so vast a spoil of ringa, as Livy writes, wlio 
errs not; with those' who, by withstanding Robert 
. Guiacard, felt the pains of blows ; and the rest" 
whose bones are gatliered still at Ceperano, where 
each Apuliau proved false ; and tiiere at Tagliaeozzo,^ 
wliere old Alardo conquered without weapons : and 

Per li Eomani, e per la Umga guerra 
Che diill' anella fe' el alte spoglio, 
Come livio scrive, che non eira; 

Con quella, cLe sentfo di colpi doglie 
Per contmstare a Euberto Guiacardo ; 
E r altra, il cui OBsame ancor s' acooglie 

A Caperan, III dove fu bugiardo 

Ciascun Fngliefie ; a 1^ da Tagliacozzo, 
Ove sen/ arme vinse il veccliio Alardo : 




old editimu, ioMteaAot Somani in 
▼me 10, ITS mlut Adopt the coui- 
meat (goDgniibindlr iniioiTeat) 
of Pietro di Duite ; imJ moke 
the passBge refer, u he doo*, to 
the peo|)lB iluD by jEqciu and 
the Troinni in ea parte Aj/ulia 
guce dicittir LavreiUia, The ex- . 
■ggentioiu of Fowolo aortkiixly 
mtuot help u. 

' " The whismstia Qroeki and 
imbolieving Sanceni" (Oibboo, 
Hilt. cnp. Ivi.}, with thoir iid- 
herents in Apulia ; to n^iiilj de- 
feated bf the fumotu Gnuoinl, 
ton of Tuiared do HaaleTiUo, ilqiI 
Duke of Apnli^ be. They got 
nothing but " jwinrol blown 

rcniting Mi" , He ii Bgain nuned 
in Fanul, iriiL 48. 

' UiUifred, with hij Gomuuia 
and Tiucaiu, through treaohei; 
of the Apolinna it Cepenmu uiil 
Bcaaiento, defeated and ilun b; 
Charlea of Anjoo, in Febnuiy 

1205-6. ratviifria 

■ On Tii«;UiMouo plnio, Anguit 
1308, Charles gained an easy and 
Budden victory over Connidia'» 
au|>erior foniea, by the stntagom 
otAUiJo (Ehrhard) daVaUery— 
IjinjI Id wait till the Oonnani 
had defeated part uf tds army, 
and then fallum upon them when 
they were tontten^ ' '-ndet. 



334 KFERNO. curro i 

one should sliew his limbs tmnspicrcod, and anotherl 
his cut off; it were nought to equal the hideonsl 
mode of the ninth chasm. 

Even a cask, tlu-ough loss of middle-piece ovl 
cant, yawns not so wide' as one I saw, ripped frumf 
the chin down to the part that utters vilest sound. 1 
Between his legs the entrails hung ; the pluck »p- I 
peared, and the wretched sack that makes excrement 
of what it swallowed. Whilst I stood all occupied in 
seeing liim, he looked at me, and with his hand& 
opened his breast, saying : " Now see how I dil*- J 
cerate myself 1 See how Mahomet ' is mangled 1 1 

£ qnal forato suo membro, e qual mozzo 
MostraBse, d' agguagliar sarobbe nulla 
n modo della nuna bolgin eozzo. 

Gik veggia, per mezzul perdere o lulla, 
Com' io vidi uii, coal non si pertugia, 
Eotto dal mento inain dove ai trulla. 

Tra le gambe pendevan le minugia ; 
La corata pareva, e il tristo sacco 
Che merda fa di quel cbe si trangugia. 

Mentro che tutto ia lui voder m' attacco, 
Guardomtai, e con le man a' apeise il p«tto, 
Dicendo : Or vodi come io mi dilaceo : 

Vedi come atorpiato b Maometto. 

1 lit: "Iinot (oLoled." The 
■Urea of n cuk ftM open when 
it lose* the midiUs or the nde- 
I'iece (" cant") of ita bottom. 
Lulla parhapi from lanula, tlie 
cult having the iha|>o of ■ half 

' Dicta'* ton Pietro tell* how 
Mabomet "weut with hi* nua. 
tcr'a ouneli, *lini;i iDqaidng of 
OtriatiiuiB aai Jem, md 1i 
iDg about the Old Ti 
ttie New," k< 

TettUBaQl u4^H 


Before me Ali weeping goes, cleft in the face from 
chin to forelock. And all the others, whom thou 
seest here, were in their lifetime sowers of scandal 
and of schism ; and therefore are they thus cleft. 
A Devil is here behind, who splits us thus cruelly, 
reapplying each of this class to his sword's edge, 

'" when we have wandered round the doleful road ; 

' for tlie wounds heal up ere any goes again before 
him. But who art thou, that miisest on the cliff, 

, perhaps in order to delay thy going to the punish- 
ment, adjudged upon thy accusations?"' 

" Not yet has death come to him ; nor does guilt 

Dinann a me sen va piangendo All 

Fesso nel volto dal mento al ciufietto. 
E tutti gli altri, cho tu vedi qui, 

Seminatot di scanJalo e di sciaina 

Fui vivi ; e peri son fessi cosl. 
TJn Diavolo i; qua dietro, che n' acciania 

81 cnidolmeate, al taglio deUa. spada 

Himett«ndo ciascim di questa riraia, 
Quando avoin volta la dolcnte strada ; 

Pcrocche le ferite son richiuse 

Prima ch' altri flinanin 11 vlvada. 
Ma tu clil sei, cho in su lo scogUo muse, 

Forae pet indugiar d' ire alia pena, 

Cb' 6 giudicata in an le tue accuse 1 
mii morte U giunse ancor, ah oolpa il mena, 

> In pTMenoe of Hioai. OBnto 
v.7,k«. It u their own guilt tut 


qaa jKCtat gait, per lute el lor- 

9tM(ur (" That the; might knov, 
thftt whenwttbal a, man un- 
netli, b; the samo also ahaU 
ho be pimiahed"). SnpientiiD 

336 IKFERNO. ci 

lead him," replied my Master, " to torment hinu'l 
But to give Hm fiill experience, it behooves me, whal 
am dead, to lead him through the Hell down I 
from roimd to round : and this is tme as that l| 
speak to thee." 

More than a hundred, when they heard him, 
atoppetl in the fosse to look at me, through won- 
der forgetting their torment. " Well, tlien, thoa J 
who [>erhap3 shalt see the Sun ere long, tell Fra \ 
Doloino,' if ho wish not speedily to follow mo <fou>n 1 

Biapoae U mio Maestro, a tormentarlo ; 

Ma per dar lui eaperienza piena, 
A me, che morto son, convien meuarlo 

Per lo Infemo quaggiii di pro in giro : 

E questo ii ver cod, com' io ti parlo. 
Pii fur Ji cento, che quando I' udiro, 

6' arrestaron acl fosso a liguardarmi, 

Per maraviglia ubliando il martiro. 
■' Or di' a Fra Dolein dunquo the b' arnii, 

Tu che foree vedrai il Sole in treve, 

S' egli noa vuol qui toato seguitarmi, 

' Fn Doldno (DulciMu), " » 
m&n of great talent, uid Uani- 
iufi, tnd Hngularal(Kjueiico,"irho 
preMihed Conuauiiltj of goods und 
(u u Biiid) of wim, at the time 
of Dante's vUioa ; and "mmiiitcil 
tha Pope, CunlinalB, and other 
Digoituiei of the Holf Chunli, 
for not doing their duty, nor 
leading the angalio life," io. In 
1305 he had sovetnl Ihonaandfl of 
folloiren, "iome of whom were 

noble and wealthy ;" u 
punned and attaolced bj Uie In- 
qniiition, itoutly defended him- 
hU, "the women fightiiig too," 
on Mont« SebeUo, near Nonn 
in Piedmont ; and ooiild not ht 
iakea till hia proviooui wen cat 
off (in 1307) t^ It Bnow-itomt, 
Ho and " Siiter Murgant" of 
Trent, hia wifi>, wore monglod 
with red -hot pincen, and tlisn 
bomt with whAt ti 

oiBTO xxnn. 


hOTC, BO to arm himself with vtchials, timt Btress of 
snow may not bring victory to the Novarese, which 
otherwise would not bo easy to attain," After lifting 
up one foot to go away, Mahomet said this to me ; 
then on the gromid he stretched it to depart 

Another, who had his throat pierced through, 
and nose cut off up to the ej-ebrows, and had but 
one single ear, standing to gaze in wonder wth the 
rest, before the rest opened his weasand, which out- 
wardly was red on everj' part, and said : " O thon ! 
whom guilt condemns not, and whom I have seen 
above on Latian gromid ere now, unless too mucli 

61 di vivanda, che stretta di neve 

Non rechi la vittorio al Noareae, 

Cli' ultrimenti acquistar non saria Ueve. 60 

Poi clie r un pit per girsene eoapeac, 

Maometto mi disss eeta parola ; 

Indi a partiisi in tcna lo diatese. 
Un altro, che forata avea la gola 

E ttonco il naso infin eotto le ciglia, C5 

E non avea ma' ch' un' orecchia sola, 
Bostato a rigunrdor pet maraviglia 

Con gh altri, insanzi c^li altri aprl la canna, 

Ch' era di fuor d' ogni parte vcrmiglia ; 
E tlisse : tu, cui colpa non conilaona, 70 

E cui giil vidi su in terra liitina, 

GG. Ma' ek', Joare than. l»,t. maffit ituam. 

they had in them, ontirely w- j but rery pBrtUl oomnnl of them 

tiunng to abjnre their doctrine!. is gireD, In wMch they &re culled 

See Benv. dn ImolB, uid Lud. Oasari (Ger. EeLirr, vnlgv for 

Com. ; VOL viiL 14 ; mi^ m— t | Catliwi, Parituu), like the Albi- 

iier. Itat. torn, ii., « "A WnlduoaeL 


resemblance deceive me; remember Pier da Medi- 
cina,' if ever thou return to see the gentle plain' 
that ^m Yercelli slopes to Marcab6; and moke 
known to the worthiest two^ of Fauo, to Messer 
Guido and to Angiolello likewise, that, unless o 
foresight here be vain, they shall be cast out of their 
ship, and drowned near the Cattolica, by a fell ty- 

8e troppa simigUanza non m' ingauna, 
Bimembriti di Pior da ModiQina, 

Se mai torai a. veder lo dolce piano, 

Che da Vercello a Marcabi dithina j 75 

£ fa saper a' duo miglioi di Fano, 

A messer Guido, e anche ad Augiolello, 

Che, se 1' antiveJer qui non 6 vano, 
Gittati sanm fuor di lor vaaello, 

rati presBo alia Cattolica, 80 

I Of Medidna, a Utile town be- 
tween Bolognu uid Imola. Pieto, 
uaoogit otLer tliiugi, tim<lerocl 
Guido of Raveima ajicl MiiIittCKta 
of R imini from " contracting afE- 
nity uiil alliuiCB,'' and iQt them 
at varianoe, by secretly and offl- 
ciooaly infonuin^ eaeh, tlmt tlie 
other WM going to cheat him ; 
and got large pnncntH from both 
tor his coofldoDtial falsehoods. 

Daata ii said to have been a 
freqaeat viiitar in tlie bouse of 
tbe Capitaui or Cattani at Medi- 
oiita, aud Piero might bare seen 
him there. Ben*, dn Imola l7oin. 

' Plain of Lombanly, gently 
deM«nding fur more than 300 
milw, from VerooUi to MoroJia, 

a turtle buUt by tlia Ycneiiani on 
the Bonthmost bnaob of the Po, 
Dear Bavcmw, to obatraet its na- 
vigation ; and entirety demolished 
after tbeir defeat at Fciran, ia 
1308. Ibid. 

' Ouido del Cuuto and Au- 
giolello da Cagnano, two noble 
oitiiens of Fano : invited by Mal- 
teatino, the "One-eyed Tnutor," 
to friendly paj-lej or ditmor with 
hJiD OD an appointed day. at Oat- 
tolioa, aaeaport between Fano an J 
Rimim ; and there, by his orden, 
matxrati, or "thrown into the 
tea, in tasks and with stonet tied 
round their neclu." Hiid. and 
VelluLOam. Happily we bare no 
word in Eoglisl 


rant's treachery. Between the ides of Cyprus and 
Majorca, Neptune never saw ho great a criuio — not 
even witli Pirates, not even with Argives. That traitor 
who sees with but one ej/e, and holds the land which 
one V)ho is here witli me would wish that he liad 
never seen, will make tliem come to parley witJi 
him ; then act so, tliat they shall need no vow nor 
prayer for Foeara's' wHnd." 

And I to him : " Shew me and explain, bo thou 
wotildst havo mo carry tidiugs up of thee, who he 
is that rues tliat sight."' 

Then he laid his hand ujhiu the jaw of one of 

Per tradimento d' un tiranno fello. 
Tra r isola di Ci|]ri e ili ^taiolica 

Non vide niiii si gran fallo Tfettunn, 

Non da Piiati, son da gente Ai^lica. 
Quel tiaditor che veile pui con 1' uno, 85 

£ tien la terra, cho tal h qni meco 

Torrobbo di vedere easer dogiuno, 
Fark venirli a parUmonto seco ; 

Poi fark si, che al vento di Focara 

Non i'&ri lor mestier vote vk preco. 90 

Ed io a luj : Dlmostnuni e dichiara, 

So VTioi ch' io porti ni di te novelln, 

Chi is colui dalla vednta amaia. 
AlloT pose la maiio alia mascella 

> Fooum, ■ mmuUIii Dtu Cat- 
toUcB ; to Dotad (or iU jwriloBi 
xitulls, that 'God keep tbei from 
the vind of Focttn 1' becune ■ 
proveiht BeuT. da Imola Cota. 

* Lit. : "He of the bitter light;" 
ths one who viihos that ha bod 
Derer mcd the Voudu HutitTii 
W J of BiiuinL Coinp. canto xviii. 
41!, note *JJ, i>. 20U. 


Ills companions ; and opened the mouth of him, say- 
ing: "Tliis 18 he, and he speaks uot. Tliis outcast' 
quenched tlie doubt in C»aar, afllnntng tliat to men 
prepiu-ed delay is always hurtful."" Oil, how de- 
jected, with tongue slit in liis gorge, seemed Curio 
to me, who was so daring in liis speech I 

And one who had botli handa cut off, raising the 
stumps through the dim air so that their blood de- 
filed his face, said : " Thou wilt recollect the Moscm' 

D'un suo compagno, e la bocca gU apetse, 
Gridando : Questi h deeao, e nou t'avella : 

QuoBti ecacciato il duhitor sommerse 
In Cesare, affemumdo ohe il fornito 
Sempre con danno 1' attendor EofTerae. 

quanto mi pareva sbigottito, 

Con la lingua tagliata nella strozza, 
Curio, ch' a dicer fu cosl ax^ta ! 

£d im, uh' avea I' una o V altm man niozza, 
levando i moncberin per I' aura foaca, 
SI cbe il sangue facea la faccia sozza, 

GTid6 : Ricorderaiti anche del Mosc^ 


> Onrio, buiished fnin Borne : 
viio found C:BSJLr nt Kimini (Ari- 
iumuni)lu!iitatiiigtopau theBu- 
bican, adA daringly with '*venaj 
toiiguo"incODBai him to it. Lacan. 
L 21)9, ka. 

'Lit.: "ThAtthemanpTepurcd 
alwuji nith iiijuij endurod de- 
ky." Semper iiocuU diffrrn pa- 
nUis. lb. L 281. 

> IntheyearI21S, Uig Buondel- 
itiante iParad. xvl 140, ka.) who 

was engHgeil to wed « ]lAj of th* 
Amidei fiunilj, broke hi* promise, 
nnd betrothed himself to one of 
che Donati. The reUtion* of the 
tanuei met to conntlt hoir Ihef 
might aTBDge tbe •Sront ; uid by 
advice of thii Motes, & Dobia ud 
funoui Ohibeltins of that time, 
who udited them with h 
hitnds, they dnggrd the 
bridegrooiu from hi* hoTM la agtu 
day, and slew him at the foot of 

pen ^H 



too, ah me I who ami, * A thing done bus an ond I' 
which was the seed of evil to the Tuscan people." 

" And death to thj kindred I"' I added here. 

Wherefore he, accumulating pain on pain, went 
away &s one distressed and mad. But I remained to 
view the troop, and saw a thing which I should bo 
afraid even to relate, without more proof; hut tliat 
cx)nscionce reassures me, that good companion which 
fortifies a man beneath the hauberk of his self-foh 
purity,* Certainly I saw, and still seem to see a 

Che dissi, lasao ! Capo ha cosa fatta : 
Che fu il mal seme della geute Toaca. 

Ed io v'aggiimsi : E morte di tua schiatta ; 
Per ch' egli, accumuLiDdo duol con dnolo. 
Sen glo come persona trista e matta. 

Ma io limasi a riguordai lo etuolo, 
£ vidi cosa ch' io aviei paiira, 
Sonta pifi prova, di contarla solo ; 

Se non cLc coDScienzia m' assicura. 

La buona compngnia uhe I'uom franchoggii 
Sotto r osbergo del eentirsi pnra. 

Io vidi certo, ed aucor par ch' io il veggJa, 


the "omiDoaa" itatue of Mot. 
" Thii murder waa the moM *nd 
oommeaDeiDOiit of tbe Mcnned 
Guelph and Ghibeltine putiei in 
FloramM," Maittp. c. KM; Vill. 

The "Coia fatia, capo ha" u 
nil the old CbToniolcn have it, 
ii still in use lu n prarvrb ; mirl 
here ineaDH 'Rill him fint, urn! 
thn — '* might be ren- 

dered, ' Done deed will (p«ed ;* 
will cootrire to UHct uid joitifr 
itself : or, ' A thing dons ii toon 

' Or ; "Thy iBoe :" the gratt 
Lamberti fuiiily. Par. zvi 110. 

' lit. : "OooMieDce .... the 
good compaaion that Dmboldeiu 
or Free* h man from fi»r, nader 
the hanbork of hia foBliDg Um- 
lelf pan!." 

tmnk going without a head, a^ tlie otliers of that I 
diemal herd were going. And it was holding by I 
the hair the severed head, swinging in his hand liko | 
a lantern ; and that looked at us, and aiud : " m 
Of itself it made for itself a lamp ;' and they were I 
two in one, and one in two. How this t-au be, ha ] 
knows who so ordains. 

When it was just at the foot of our bridge, it 
raised its arm high up, with all the head,' to bring 
near to us its words, which were : " Now see the 
grievous penalty, thou, who breathing goest to view 
the dead ; see if any bo as groat as this ! And that 
thou mayeat carry tidings of mo, know tliat I am 

Un busto senza capo imilar, si como 

Aniiavan gli altri delln trista greggia. 
"E il capo tronco tenea per le chtome 

Feeol con mauo, a guisa di lantema ; 

£ quel mirava noi, e dicea : O me ! 
Di se faceva a se steaso liicema ; 

Ed eian due in uno, ed nno in duo : 

Com' eeaor pub, quei sa che si goverua. 
Quando diritto appi^ del ponte fae, 

Levi il braccio alto con tutta la testa 

Per appreBsame lo parole eue, 
Che faro : Or vedi la pens moleata 

Tu che, spirando, vai vcggcndo i morU : 

Vedi s' alcuna 6 graude come questa. 
E porclii tu di me novella porti, 

CUKIUtloQ of }U3 I 

< Or: "AndtbebMdifHlial;'' 
the brnd too, Cinon. Port., 117. 


nil. ENFEENO. 343 

BertTfim' do Born, he wto to the Young King gave 
the evil counsels. I made the father and tlio bod 
rebels to each other. Ahithophel did not do more 
with Absalom and David by bia malicious instiga- 
tions. Because I parted persona thus uuited, I carrj- 
my brain, ali mo ! parted from its source" wliicli is 
in this trunk. Thua the law of retribution" is ob- 
served in me." 

Sappi ch' io son Bertram dal Bomio, quelU 

Che al Re Giovane diedi i mal conforti. 1 35 

Io feci il padre d il Sglio in b^ ribelli : 
Achitofel non fe'piti d'Abealone 
E di David co' malvagi punyelli. 

Perch' io partii coal giunto persono, 

Paittto porto il mio cerebro, lasso 1 HO 

Dal suo principio ch' k in qaesto troncone. 

Coal s' oaaen-a in me Io coutrappasao. 

' Lord Burtrand lie BornCiTn 
Btrlran," ka.), the gnat Troa- 
bblfiur, tiirhulent fltAteaiuui luid 
WDJrior, of Hantofort in Guioonc : 
he vho caado the Youag KiJig 
("'d reijoet"). Prince Bkoij, re- 
bel Ekgiubst hii own father Hour? 
II., tad lent hii aid io that ro- 
bellian till the Prioco wu killed 
3ee Roynauud, Pot$itt da TVou- 
badoart, torn. v. 76, k.a. 

Tho old reading of line 135 i* 
Re Giotanni, " King Jolm ;" and 
aert&iuly, after the murder oC 
Becksi, all the mku of Henrr 
telj rebelled agaiiut him, 

John atnoDg the rest. Bnl e'ven 
Villiini buiuolf (lib. t. a 4) looaetjr 
write«"i7™Oi»raB*,".o that the 
error ia ea^ilj aocoont^d for : and 
Dante, vho knew the Poema of 
Bertnuid {hh rWff. Eloq. u.%i, 
kc), and ia more aocunte than 
any of tho biatoriaiu, oould not 
make luch a miitake. Fofoolo 
read* Rt Ovisint tor Otunnte ; but 
without anf authoritj. 

* Or from ito root or gdrm, the 
■pinal cord, wMeh il in thi* head- 
leu tnuik or atoak. 

* The diTiiTciravAi (mnfru-jKU- 
tvt) of Aiittotlc 




The nnmberleeB Shadows of dlioord and bloody strife hare Sited 
the Poet's CTce with tears; and he beeps atUt giuicg down, 
eipectfug to find hie ovn father's cousm, Oeri del Betto, nmoog 
Uiem. Vi[%il makes him quit the miserable spectacle ; and telU, 
as the; go on, how he had seen Qeri, at the foot of the bridge, 
pointing with angry gesture, and then departing in the c!rowd. 
From the arch of the Tenth Chaain, Dante now hoars the wall- 
iDgs of a ne<T olass of ainuera, the last iu Malebolge. They are 
the FalsiHeis of every sort: punished with ion umerabtc diseases, 
in Impure alt and darkness. Pietro di Dante enumerates three 
classes of Falsifiers : in things, in deeds, and in nordi. Of the 
flrst class are the Alchemists, Forgers, Ice, each as GriiTolino 
of Arezao, and Capocohio of Siena, in the present canto, and 
Adamo da Brc»;ia in the next, — where we shall also find the 
other two cisssee. 


The many people and the diverse wound* bad 
made my eyes so drmiten,' that they longed to stay 
and weep. But Virgil said to me : " Why art thou 
gazing still? Wherefore does thy sight still rest, 
down tliere, among the dismal mutilated shadows? 
, Thou hast not done ao at the other chasms. Con- 

^L aider, if thou tliinkest to number them, tliat the ral- 

^B ley goes round two-and-twen^ miles ;' and the Moon 



La molta gentc e le diverse piaghe 
Avean le luui mio al iaebriate, 
Che dollo stare a piangere eran vnghe. 

Ma Tirgilio mi diase : Che pm- guatc 1 
Percht la vista tua pur ei soffolge 
L^giii tra r ombre triste sniomcate ? 

Tu non hai fatto el all' altre bolgc : 
Pensa, se tu annoverar le credi, 
Cho miglia ventiduo la valle volge ; 

" Their Innil ahnU be ilmnkeD 

(ifK^*abilur) with blood." Iiaiah 

. Beoder ! mark the trae 

piUioi, dignitj, and jiuti<ie of 

■ ■c«ne, vLere the Poet hu to 

■peuk of B iTuitliloH ruUtioii of 

' Dante hole pyet the mpuiuc- 

if thit Ninth ring of Uule- 

bolge — but but one, with ahadowi 

it to be Dumbered— uid, in next 

I, that of tha iniuimoirt or 

uniUeat ring, irhicb it clereu 
utiles mnnd ; uid to bnve* lu to 
imagine the vatt dlmeiuaoiii uul 
(KipiUatiaD of aiU the HcU Kbov«, 
The ingeniout Dialoffo di jln. 
(oT>toJtfaiw(ri(Ctiuiita,Plor. IGOe), 
vith Durioiu pUte4 and Mlenla- 
tioiu^ now before me. ■( 
iiot very poetioLUj or n 
— to redaee the "Site,Fonn, uid 
Biu of the Hell" to a Idnd of 
nrduteoliml nalitj. 

ii..». -T 

y> im. ENTEBNO. 347 

already is beneath our feet.' Tlio time is now short, 
that IB conceded to us ; and &.T other tfUngs oro to 
be seen than thou doat see." 

"Hadst thou," I thereupon replied, "attended 
to the cause for which I looked, perhaps thou might- 
cst have vouchsafed me yet to stay."* Meantime the 
Guide waa going on; and I went behind him, now- 
making my reply, and adding : " Within that cavern 
where I kept my eyes so fised,^ I believe that a 
spirit, of my own blood, laments the guilt which coats 
D much down there." 

Then the Master said : " Let not thy thought 
henceforth distract itself on him/ Attend to some- 

E gi^ la Luna k Botto i nostri piedi : 

La tempo 6 poco omai, che n' d concesso ; 
Ed altro 6 da veder, che tn non vedi. 

Se tu Bveasi, rispos' io appresau, 

Atteso iilltt cagion per ch' io guardava, 
Forse m' avrosti ancor Io star dimeaao. 

Parto sen gla, ed io retro gli andava, 
Lo Buca, gik facendo la risposta, 
E 8<^giiingendo ; Dentro a quella cava, 

Dov" io teneva gli lx^chi si a posta, 

Credo cli' un spirto del mio sangue pianga 
la colpa, che logglti cotaiito coata. 

^OT disse il Afacstro : Non si franga 
Lo tuo pensiet da qui innanjd sov" ello ; 


It i* put ifitd-d>)r: nx honn I * Lit : " So &t itand :" to ei- 
Utar Uum Iba tinw glToa by tlie gerl; uul painrollp lookiiig br 
Hood in ouito xx. 124, lie. one of my ovu kindrad. 

Or : "To »tiiy yet lonifcr," I ' Virtjil, or mero Ham Em Wi»- 

348 INFEBNO. Cisrro xax. 

what else, and let him stay there ; for I saw him, at 
the foot of t]ie little bridge, point to thee, and ve- 
hemently threaten with his finger; and heard them 
call him Geri del BeUo.' Thou wast then bo totally 
entangled upon him who once held Altaforte,' that 
thou didst not look tliat way ; so lie departed."^ 

" my Guide I his violent death, wliich Is not 
yet avenged for him," said I, " by any that is a 
partner of his shame, made Wm indignant : there- 

AttenJi ail altro, ed ei 111 ai rimanga ; 
Ch' io villi lui a pii del ponticello 25 

Mostrarti, e minnccLar forte ml dito, 

Ed udQ nomrnur Geri del Bello. 
Tu eii ollor si del tutto impedito 

Sovra colui cUe giA tenne Altaforte, 

Che non guaidosti ia Ifij si f u paitito. 30 

Dnca mio ! la violonta morte 

Che non gU b vendicata ancor, diss' io, 

Per alcua che dell' onta eia consoite, 
Fecc lui disdegnoBO ; onde sen ^ 

dom, Dot to Bpcok of Divino, bids 
Dimto nute no farther thougbt 
on that miiienililB kimimiui of his, 
who eyen inHeU thiuki uf nothiug 
but vcogeonotT iLnd bloodiilieiL 

' Tbii Geri ITU tlie aoit of 
Dnnto's gnniluaclu {ABigUeii U 
BeUo, "tho Fur") ; nad, being * 
stirTer'Up of strife, wna iIiud by 
□as of tbo SiMchcitti in some 
wntcbed Bqoablilii. Tbe OUi'bi'j 
Com. sure ho "'Iras n coiner too; 
but lU liii dtuth vai caoaed by 
•owing of tuv*" (itrifo), "be ii 

tiUoed in tlio Niittb Bndgnt ; toA 
for having been & toigia, he U 
apokoQ of in the preMnt «bftptff.* 
Im. The furgery wm prohalil}- 
a mere partial report, knowli to 
Dante uid thii aommenUtor; (or 
we find no bint of it in other 

• Ori "So wholly oocapled 
with him," i. e. with Bertnod of | 
Hautcfort, or " Allatorte." 

■ Or perbapi: "'HU hs d»- | 
puieit :" li for nncU, ■> in a 
lit 12S. 


fore, as I suppose, ho went away witliout speaking to 
me; and in that has modo me pity him the more."' 
Thus we spake, up to the first place of the cliff, which 
shews the other I'alley, if more Ught were there, quite 
tu the Ijottom. 

When we were above the last cloister of Male- 
holge, so that its lay -brethren* could appear to our 
\"iew, lamentations pierced me, manifold, which had 
their arrows barbed with pity; whereat I covered my 
ears witb my hands. 

Senza parlarmi, si com' io stimo ; 

£ iu ci6 m' ha fatto egli a sf: piii pio. 
CobI parlomnio bisino al luogo primo, 

Che dello acoglio 1' altra valle mostnt, 

Se piii lume vi fosse, tutto ad imo. 
Quondo noi fumuio in Bu 1' ultima chiostra 

Bi Malebolge, b\ cha i auoi convcrsi 

Fotean paiora alia veduta nostra, 
Lamenti saettaron me diversi, 

Che di pietk fermti aveou gli stroli ; 

Oud' io gli orecchi con le man copersL 


' Thkt ngeforTeogeuice, invid 
isugs of bii fanner life, nbioh 
5tm kddi to his tonneuti in Hetl, 
makes me pitj him the mDrc 

" Hore the Aothor roprehendi 
of Geri and of hii 
(ne|>hew( who took 
vengeuice on the Sucohetti thirtj 
jetn otter hij death), ' 'uid tacitly 
blaiuet the peitileDtiil apirit of 
the Florentines, who never forget 
an iujiiry, am iritliont T 

one : vhence there 
ufing tluit 'Yen- 
geaDoe a hundred yaut old hfti 
ludk- teeth' (is only cutting lie 
teeth), Ytadttln di cento onni iiem 
/affaiuuIf/''OttimoCom. SeoklM 
Bcnv. da Imola,«ho giio* the ume 
eiplunatiou of thia laauge. 

' The linnen ttu "Iny-bro- 
then" in thuo cloiatera, or en- 
cliMod nag*, whom Demons are 
■•- Uonts. 


350 INFERNO. ctxto I. 

Such griofas tliere would be, if the diseases in I 
the hoapitalB of Valdiohiana,' between July nnd Sep- 
tember, and of Marcmma and Sardinia, were all to- , 
gether in one ditch ; such was there here ; and each I 
stench issued thenco, as is wont to issue &om putrid 1 

We descended on the last bank of the long* uliff*^ 
again to the left hand ;' and then ray sight was more 
vivid, down towards the depth in which the ministress 
of the Gfroat Sire, infallible Justice, punishes the &Isi- 

Qnal dolor foi&, se dogli epedali 

Di Toldichiana tni il luglio e il settemhre, 

E di Morcimna, o di Surdigna i nudi 
FoBseTo in una fossa tutti InBemhto, 

Tal era quivi ; e lal piuao n' usciva, 50 

Quol suole UBcir dallu maruitc mombre. 
JToi discendemmo in au 1' riltima riva 

Del lungo BcogUo, pur da man siniatra, 

Ed allor fu la mia vista piii viva 
Giu v8r lo fonUo, dove la miniatra, 55 

Boll' olto Siro, infallibil Giustizia, 

49. Imembrt (Fr. amoioble}, ii 

' la tbe VnllefoFthe alnegish I yean ngo ; uid lanch euellaitt 
-iter CThiAna, Dear Arum, whiali I land hu already been gaiiMd (or 

w tborouglily dnuncd, deadly 
marsU-fereni were frequent, e»pe- 
tdiUly dnring the hot month* of 
July, AuflUit, and September. 
Tlie drunaee of the Maremma, 
4ir nunliy *eiM»ii«t sontb of the 
Ann, ma alH undertkken by the 
Tuoui Oovenunent tome twenty 

anltiTHtioD, and rendenid qnita 
beslthy. Compare canto xxr. IS. 

' ''Long," fur it orogwa all tha 
duumi ot MaJclulge, (nan Ibo 
Great Bairier downnrdi. Oaala 
xviU. 16, ttc 

* Aji in oanloa xriii. 31, 
41. uL 13B, Ac. 

n. ^^1 


OiHTO mi. IKFKRNO. 351 

fiera that she here regbters.' I do not think it was 
a greater sorrow to see the people in ^gina all 
infirm ;* when the air was so malignant, that every 
animal, even to the little worm, dropt down — and 
afterwards, as Poets hold for sure, the ancient peo- 
ples wore restored from seed of ants — tlian it was 
to see, through that dim valley, tlje spirits languish- 
ing in diverse heaps. This upon the belly, and 
that upon tho shoulders of the other lay ; and 
some were crawling on' along the dismal path. 
Step by step we went, without speech, looking at 

Poniflce i falaator che qui registra. 

Non credo ch' a voder nmggior tristiztu 
Fosse in Egina il popol tutto infermo, 
Quanilo fu. 1' aoi A pien di mnlirin , 

Che gli animali, infino al picciol vermo, 
Cascaron tutti, e poi le genti aatiche, 
Socondo che i poeti hamw per rermo, 

Si riHtorar di Beme di fonniche ; 

Ch' era a veder per qaella oscura voile 
Languir gli spirti per divereo bicbo. 

Qual sovm il ventre, o qUEd sovra le spaUe 
L' un dell' altro giacoa ; e qual carpone 
8i trasmatava per lo trieto calle. 

Paaso passo andavam senza sennone, 

1 Here od earth n 
In the hymn Dia tra, diet ilia : 


£^iM, %ai mythic re - peojiliiig 
of it hj the ant-bom Mjrmidalu. 
Orid. Mrl. viL B23-65T. 

* Lit. : "Thi*, or tome, crawl. 

iog changed ^m pfoiy la plaa 

"-■nnl path." 

352 INTERNO. ex 

and listening to the sick who could not mfie Ubut] 

I eaw two Bit leaning on each other, as pao »M 
leant on pan' to warm : from head to foot spotted \ 
with BCabs. And never did I aee currycomb plied 1 
by stable-boy for whom liis master waits, nor by one I 
who stays unwillingly awake ;' as oacb of these plied 
thick the clawing of his nails ujion liimself, for the 
great fury of their itch which has no other succour. 
And so the nails drew down tlie scurf, as does a knife 

Guanlando cd uscoltondo gli ammdatt, 
Clie Don pot«an levar le lor persons. 

lo ridi duo sedore n so appoggiati, 

Come a scaldnr s' appoggia tegghia a. tcgghia, 
Dal capo ai pi& di Bchianiie maculati : 

E Bon vidi gianunai menaro etregghia 
A rogazzo ospettato dal signorao, 
"Sk a colui chu ma] volentter vegghia ; 

Come cioscun menava spesso il morso 
DoU' unghie sovra s^ per la gran rabbia 
Del piizicor, che nou ha piti soccoreo : 

E ai traevan giji I' unghie la ecabbia, 

77. Slffnono, ugnor sqo : tu in Bdccbo. Si 
~tuD, mogUenui — mia, fcutobno — mio, ka. 

' "Pun or oover 
DKB.iay> theTocub. delUCnuca. 
The wsmiiiig of wUch, before 
hi!«rth-Bn» without fendera or 
other nppuatiu, in thoM old d>]«. 

vDuld give ■ funilinr liomaly Q 
Iiutrntion af the attitnde, hack tc 
biwk, of theH) two htlplui Awaii 

CJKTO mi. nrFERSO, 353 

the Boal^ irom bretun or other fiat that has them 

" Ultra I" began my Criiide to one of them, 
" who with thy fingers dismailest' thyself, and some- 
times makest pincers of them ; tell me if there be 
any Latlan among these who are here within : so 
may Uiy nails eternally sufiice thee for that work," 

" Lalians are we, whom thon see.ft so disfigured 
here, both of us," rephed the one weeping; " but 
who art thou that hast inquired of us?" 

And the Guide said : " I am one, who with this 
living Ttuzn descend from stoGp to st«ep, and mean 
to shew him Hell." Then they sprang asunder,' 

Come coltel di scardova le Boaghe, 

d' allro peace che piji larglie 1' ahbia. 
tu, che colle dita ti dismaglie, 85 

Coiumci6 il Duca mio a un di loio, 

E che fai d' esse tal volta tanaglio ; 
Dimmi s'akun Latino fe tra costoro 

Che Don quino' entro, ee 1' unghia ti bosti 

Etemalmente a coteato lavoro, 90 

Latin eem noi, che tu vedi A guasti 

Qui ambodue, rispoae 1' un piangendo ; 

Mii tu clii sci, cho di noi dimaudasti t 
E il Duca dissQ : lu son un, che disceudo 

Con quMto vivo gid di balira in bnlzo, 95 

E di moetrar 1' lufemo a lui intendo. 
Allor si ruppe lo comun rincalzo, 

■ Eeepest rending and ■ome- I ' Lit. :" Then tlie mntan] prop- 
ame«pialdngofflbymiulo(Miirf. I -"--"ic. Thej oumibI**! 


and eact turned trembling towards me, with others 
tiat by echo heard him. 

The kind Master to me directed himself wholly,' 
saying: "Tell them what thou wiahest" 

And I began, as he desired: " So may yonr 
memory not fade' away from human miuda in the 
first world, but may it live under many snns: tell 
mo who yo are, and of what people. Let not ycrar 
ugly and disgusting punishment frighten yoB firom 
revealing yourselves to me." 

"I was of Arezzo,"* replied the one, "andAl- 

E tremando ciascimo a me si voko 

Con ftltri chs V udiron di riuiboko. 
Lo buoE Maestro a me tutto a' accobe, 100 

Dicendo ; Di' a lor ci6 che tu vuoli 

Ed io inoominciai, poBcia ch' ei volee : 
Se la Toatm menioria non e' imboli 

SfH. primo mondo doll' umtme menti, 

Ma b' ella viva sotto inolti aoli ; 105 

Ditemi chi voi sieto, o di che genti : 

La Tostia sconcia e festidiosa pena 

Di palesarvi a me nou vi spaventL 
Io iiu d' Aiezzo, e Albero da Siena, 

leftD oD one another, and turned 
to me, "the iiviag mu-a," trem- 
bling in thsir neslHiew and aui- 
priso : along with othen, who in- 
direotly (" by rebound") beard tha 
words of Vii^iL 

' Or: "Gathered Iuni*e]f aU 
to ms^ benthii head, annK, &C. i 
towardi me : u a Idnd Italian ' 
would itill do. I 

' Lit; "Not«teolit«lf awv," 
ke.i but live "under Buuf nmi," 
or for many ycon. Soli (idlmr 
yean) aa in canto li 68, 

) "Master GriffoUno of Aiecao, 
a giwit Alofaemiiit," &c, who, 
nnder ]iretence of teaehinc Al- 
bert — real or adopted ion et th« 
Biibop or InquiiiCor of SleD* — 
the art of flying, got mndk 


bert of Siena had mo bnriiGcl ; but what I died for 
does not bring me here. 'Tis trne, I Baid to him, 
speaking in jeat : ' I could i-aiae myself through the 
air in flight' And he, who had a fond desire and 
little wit, willed that I should shew him the art; 
and only bocauso I made him not a Daxlalus, he 
made me bo burned by one who had him for a son. 
But to the last budget of the ten, for the alchemy 
that I practised in the world, Minos, who may not 
err, condemned me." 

And I said to the Poet : " Now was there ever 

3pIo so vain as the Sienese ? Certainly tlie French' 

t so by far." 

BisposG run, mi fe'mettfiTo ol fuoco ; 
Ala quel, per eh' io mori', qui non mi metia. 

Ver t, ch' io diasi a lui, parlaado a giuoco ; 
Io mi Baprei luvar per 1' aere a volo : 
E quei che avea vagliezza o aenno poco, 

ToUe ch' io gli mostmssi 1' arte ; e solo 
Fc^rch' io nol feci Dedalo, mi fece 
Arilere a tal, cho 1' avea per figliuolo. 

Ma nell' ultima bolgia dclle dlece 

Ale per aluhimia, che ncl mondo usai, 
Daun6 Minos, a cui fallir non loce. 

Ed io diasi al Poeta : Or fu giammai 
Gente d vami come la Sonese 1 
Certo non la Fmncesca A d' assoi. 


from the witlew yoath ; and tlitin 
tna danoimoed and burnt alivo w 
a dealer in tha BLuik Art. Beur. 
da Imola, Pietro, Le. The Ottimo 
bid< HI oote, tbat " almoat oopr 

of the Alchenusta dared to pno- 
tiie in their own oouutrj, more 
Hpeointly in public " 

' Booceccio, ipeikittg uf this 
-^. laya, "Tho whule worUl 


■VVTioreat the otlier leper,' who heard me, re- 
Bponded to my words : " Except the Stricca who 
contrived to spend so moderately ; and Nieoold, who 
first discovered the costly usage of the clove, in the 
garden' where such seed takes root ; and except the 
company in which Caceia of Asciano* squandered 
his vineyard and his great forest, and the Ahba- 

Onde r altro lebbroso, cho m' inteae, 

EiapoBe al detto mio : Tranno lo Stricca, 125 

Che aeppe far le temperate epese ; 
E Niccol6, che la costuma ricca 

Dei garofano prima discoperse 

Noll' orto, dove tal seme s' appicea ; 
E tranne la brigata, in che disperse 130 

Caceia d' Aecian la vigna e la gran &onda, 


125. Trannf. tm ne, ne ti 

is vnie that thcro u no Tai 
people than thaFrenoh/^&c-; . 
thou goes cm to shew that 
SieneH are denKWled from tl 
— uppftrcntlj confounding Si 
with Savi aalliea or SinigitgU*, 
irhjob woB incifled founded by the 
Gftnla. The Sieneie Bg&in ooUad 
"qatlla gcntt rawi," Puig. xiij. 

' The other >cnbb«d leper u 
Cftpocchio, n Florontfne who u 
(aid to huTo studied nutunl jihi- 
loHiphf ulong vith Dante ; uid 
«u burnt At Sicnn for Alohomj. 
He irnnisnll; biili Dante "except 
the StriocH," vuneat oF *U. tbe 
Bifin>*"i who Epeot his whole for- 

tune in follicfl ; and Nie«oU de' 
BoDugDori of Siena, who invcaiteil | 
tho " cortly mode of rowi 
liheaaantg and caiKRU at I 
made vrith cIqitih^^ (Benv, da Imola 
and Pietro) ; and the company or 
club, called " Brigaia Spemttne- 
cia or Oodenceia (Sjiendthrift or 
Joll; Club)," congiating of tvelrc 
joung noblemen who iqiianilend 
more than tvo hundred tl 
florena in ten montha. See Bm*. 
da Imula, luidino, ke. 

' In Siona, where si 
ttilce root or " faaten," 

■ Caeoia sold bii irinervdi and I 
foreeta of Ajdano, near Bieua ; I 
and apenl them in hii olnb. 

gliato' shewed his wit. But that thou mayest know 
who thoa seconds thee against the Sienese, sharpen 
thine eye towards me, that my face may give thee 
right response ;' so shalt thou see I am the shadow 
of Capocchio, who falsified the metals by alchemy. 
And thou must rocolleet, if I rightly eye thee,* hon" 
good an ape I was of Nature." 

E 1' Abbagliato il auo senno proferse. 

Ma percbfe eappi chi el ti seconda 

Contra i Sanosi, agnim vfir me I' occliio, 

S\ che la faccia mia hen ti risponda ; 135 

81 veflrai ch' io son 1' omtra di Capocchio, 
Chti falsai li nietaiti con alchimia, 
E ten dee ricordar, se ben t' adocohio, 

Com" io fui di natura buona soimia. 

* Who "WM poor" (Oltimo), 
and oontribntcd hk wit, itutcod 
af the " twenty thoiuiuicl flareas" 
that each of the othan ooDtri- 
buted. Some few conuuBntston, 
M Henv. da Imola and Lombardi, 
make aibagliiilo aa adjertive, and 
epithet of Aacioao, or of anno; 
but without DeiH»ut7 at iiroBt. 

' ila,j enable thee to dintin- ' 

gniab me through the icarf. "Ca> 
poeehio was a moit luhtle alsbe- 
uilat, and haTing been burnt nt 
Siona for praotiain^ thii alohe- 
mf, he ahowi hia hatreil againit 
the Sieneae ; and gives to nnder- 
■tftnd that the author kuew him." 
Ott. Com. See note Gnt p. 35G, 
anit next ouito v. S5. 
' Right); reoogmie thee. 

1 I" 


mi on tha brim of the Tenth Chasm, in which dcw horrors nvralt 
ue. " Here," says the OttimoCem,,"tll Ihesenseg are Bse&Ued: 
the Bight, by murky air {•pjjiii lume ri/i'ue, iic); thu ear, by 
tomentationa that ' h&ve arrows ahod with pity ;' the smell, by 
BtcDch of ' putrid limbs ;' the touch, by hideous acuif, and by 
thu Einncre tying oo one suother ; and the taste, by thirst that 
' craves one liCtie droti of water,' " ,vo. Here Gianni Sohioohi 
of Florence, and Myirha, who counterfeited the persons of 
others forwiclted purposes, represent llie FaisiflerB "indeedsi" 
Sluon and Potiphar's wife, the Faisifiers"iu words." The canto 
cndfi with a dialogue between Uosler Adam of Brescia and 
SinoQ, who strilte and abuse each other with a grim scorn and 
EcaL Dante gela a sharp and memorable reproof from Virgil, 
for listening too eagerly to their tuue oonverutioD, 


At ^e time that Jimo was incensed for Semele 
against the Thebati blood, as she already more tbim 
once had shewn, Atliamas' grew so insane, tliat he, 
seeing hia wife, with tlie two sons, come laden on 
either hand, cried: "Spread' we the nets, that I 
maj take the lioness and her young lions at tbe 
pa^;" and then stretched out his pitiless talons, 
grasping tlio one who had the name Learchus ; and 
whirled him, and dashed him on a rock: and she 

NsL tempo che Giunone era crucciata 

Per Semele contra il Bangue Tebono, 

Come inoatr6 gik ana ed oltra fiato, 

Atafflante divenue tanto insane, 

Che veggendo la moglie co' duo figli fi 

Venir carcata di ciaacima mano, 
Grid6 i Tendiom le reti, el ch' lo pigli 

La lionessa e i lioncini al varco ; 

E poi distose i diapietati art^li, 
l^ndendo 1' un che avea nomo Learco, 10 

E rotoilo, percosselo ad nn sasso ; 

' Compare OviiL Afelaia. ir. 
-110-501 ; and noto the brevity of 
D«nt«, ftod the frcBh toucheB by 
whicll be ahowB the very heart of 
the stoiy, hoTD u eUewhcre* 

' BU Tttia Undile ttlvii! Hie 
laodo eum srmiTia Fun at miM 
/irvle iKFTut .,.. Deque linu matrit 

ridenltm, et pana LtarcfHim Bn • 
tAia latdatlem, rapil, tt bit tcpgtie 
ptr aurat More rvtol /wnita^ fiffi- 
doqut in/avtia MM DitettU 
fmn, &0. And then Idd, 
mother; Sfque luper pantim, 
lo tardata timore, Mittit, 
tuam, Ac tbid. i*. SIS, ka^ 

mth her otlicr burden drowned herself. And wlien 
Fortune brought low the all-daring ' pride of the 
Trojans, so that the King togethor with Ins king- 
dom was blotted out; Hecuba, aod, miserable, tmd 
captive, after she had seen Polj-xena her daughter 
slain, and on tlie sea-strand, forlorn,' discerned tlte 
mangled body of her Polydorua : she, out of her 
senses, barked like a dog ; to such a degree had 
sorrow wrung her soul. But neither Theban Furies 
nor Trojan were ever seen in aught so cruel' — not 
in stinging brutes, and much less human limbs ; as I 

£ quella s' anneg^ con 1' altro incarco. 

E quando la fortuna volse in baaao 
L' alt«zza de' Tioian, cho lutto oidiva, 
SI che insiemc col regno il Be f a casso; 

Euuba trista, misera e cattiva, 
Poscia cho vide Polisena morta, 
E del suo Polidoro, in su la riva 

Del mar, si fu la dolorosa acoorta, 
Porseonata ktr6 al come ome ; 
Tanto dolor le fe' la mcnte torto. 

Ma nfe di Teho fuiie, ui Troiane 
Si vider mai in olcun tanto crude, 
X on pungei bealie, non che membra umane, 

' Lit.: "The hifluieu, or pride, i 

TrCQa limtd PHam\aqtu eadtatt; 
Priamdaqtie fonj'iLt. ... noni In- 
tnifu Icmiil aurat, do. Uutun. 

* Or, "ever m 

ficno a 

otuol in may junon or Ihiitg ,- tot 
fo frvtl iu itiajpng evbu bmtvB 
Co rage — not to ipeak of Imiiuui 
limbi," or hnnuii bodiug — " m 
I M* two iludowi," do. Some 
good edition* reiul, in rune S-l, 
Quant' 10 riift in d«t, &«. I"h 

saw two shadows, pale and naked, which ran bitmg 
in the nmnner that a hmffry swine' does when be is 
thrust out from his stj. The ono came to Ca[>oocluo, 
and fixed its tusks on his nock-joint, ao that, drag- 
ging him, it made the solid bottom claw his belly. 
And the Aretine,* who remained trembling, said to 
me : " That goblin is Gianni Schicchi ;' and, rabid, 
he goes thus mangling others." 

"Oh I" said I to him, "so may the nther not 


Quaat' io vidi due ombre smorte e nude, 
Che mordendo correvan di quel modo 
Chfl il porco, quando del porcil si achiode. 

L' una giunae n Capoeehio, ed in sul node 
Del cdUo 1' aasami6, al che tlrando 
Gtattor gli fece il ventre al fondo sodo. 

E r AiGtin, clie rimase tremando, 
Mi diese : Quel foUotto 6 Gianni Schicclu, 
E va rahbioBO altrui cod conciando. 

Oh, diee' io lai, eo 1' altro non ti ficchi 


I »BW thfvt, the Paries, fltret or 
cnic/ in two ahadow«,''&c.). This 
rsading u adojitod by FoHolo, 
who does not Dication that tha 
Aldine, Ctukoii, Giunto, tin. ore 
■Kaiiut it. 

' He ooinpiireB tboic fiaree un- 
oleu) ipiriti to awinc, devil-poa- 
MHt ou s memorable oocuion. 

' Criffolino, rid. Dots 3, p. 3^4. 

* Ouuioi (Jahiiny) Behiigh! do' 
Oavalcanti of Florence, k Irinamm. 
of Duite'B friend Guido, and a 
■olitior. Simon Dou&ti, baring 
ptlniiteljiiDothend hii akk nnalo 

BuoH Donati, who meant tolukve 
'■ his ill-got money for duuitable 
Iiuqiowi," peraiuded thii Gianni 
to put himieU in the lUuie'i bod, 
annme the voiop and (eatmta trf 
a dying man, and diotale a will 
in due form. Ciuini mails OTor 
the whole property to Simop, 
reaerring for hinuwlf the Qnsli)'* 
bort mare—*' lidy, or QneiD ot 
tha troop"— worth 1000 gold Bo- 
roiu. Sue Pietra d) Dante, Bout. 
da Imola, and Otttma Tho tvo 
lait do not mention the mnnlor 

plant its teeth on thee, be pleased to tall ua who it 
18, ere it snatch itself away." 

And he to me : " That is the ancient epirit of 
flagitious Myrrha, who loved her father with more 
than rightful love. She came to sin with him dis- 
guised in alien form ;^ even as the other who there is 
going awaj, undertook, that ho might gain the Lady 
of the troop, to disguise himself as Buoso Donati, 
making a testament and giving to it legal form." 

And when the fiirioua two,' on whom I had kept 
my eye, wore passed, I turned it to ohsorvo the other 
ill-bom spirits. I saw one shapen like a lute, if he 

Li (lonti addosao, non ti sia fittica 35 

A dir chi ^, pria che di qui si apicichL 

Ed ogli a me : Qiiell' i: V anima antica 
X)i Miira acellcrata, che divenne 
Al padre fuor del dritto omore omica. 

Qaesta a peccar con esso cosl renne, 40 

FabifiCBUdo ak in altroi forma, 
' Come r altro, che in li sen va, soetenne, 

Per giiadagnar la Jonna della tonna, 
Falaificore in sit Buoao Donati, 
Testondo, e daudo ol testamento noima. 45 

£ ^Kji che i duo rabbiosi fur possati, 
Sovra i quali io avea 1' occluo tenuto, 
KivolaUo a guardar gli altri mal nati. 

Io vidi un fetto a guisa di liuto, 


1 Lit. : " Falnfjing liertelf into 
other'a form," into tbe farm of 
ft stninger iAtiena poltntiur, Ac 
Metani. W. 350) ; u Giiuiiii dd- 
dertako "to faliifj> Bui»o into 

himself :" to npraaont Bnoo in 
Ills own perwD. Some la; it is 
the Kme Bao» who ia pat unong 
tho ttiievea in cttoio xiv. 
> GiitDni and Htyirha. 

364 rsFEBNO. 

had only had liis groin cut short at tlie part where 
man is forked. The heavy dropsyj which with its 
ill-digested humour so disproporttons the limbs, that 
the visage corresponds not to the paunch, made him 
hold his lips apart, aa does the hectic paiiettt, who for 
thirst curls the one lip towards the ehiii, and the 
other upwards. 

" ye I who are exempt from every pmiisbment, 
and why I know not, in tliis grim world," said he to 
us, " look and attend to tlie misery of Master Adam.' 
When alive, I had enough of what I wished; and 
now, alaa I 1 crave one little drop of water. The 

Pur ch' egli avesse avuta 1' anguinaia 
Tronca dol lato che 1' uomo ha forcuto. 

La grave idropisia, che si diepaia 

Le membra con 1' umor che mal couvorte, 
Che jl viso non risponde alia ventraia, 

Faceva lui tener le labltra aperte, 
Come r otico fa, che per la aete 
L' nn verso il mento, e 1" altro in su riverte. 

voi, che senza alcuaa pena siete, 
E non so io perchc, nel mondo gramo, 
Disa' egli a noi, guardate o atteadete 

Alia mjseria del maestro Adamo : 
Io ebbi vivo aEsai di quel cb' io voUi, 
E ora, lasao ! un gocciol d' acqua bramo. 


I AiUm sf Browno, "a ooiner 
and perfect maater io hii ui ;" 
riob, anil aitremelf greedy of 
gnin, sayi Landiuo. " Bj ileiire 
of G uida, Alaundni, nod Aglii- 
nolfo, brotliun, and Coimti of 

Bomeni, be coined and nude 
filie floreui of gold ; tor vhicti 
crimo he wm at Uat bonil u 
Florcuoa. lu bim u ibnTii tlu> 
uumodenitc deaire uid thinl of 
monoy." Oitimo, 

rivulets that from the \-erdant hills of Casentino' 
descend into the Amo, making tlieir ehanneL^ cool 
and moist, stand constantly before me, and not in 
vain ; for the image of them dries me up far more 
than the disease which from my visage wears the 
flesh.' Tile rigid Justitw, which searches me, takes 
occasion from tlie place at ivhich I sinned, to give 
my sigha a quicker flight. There is Romena where 
I falsified the alloy, sealed with the Baptist's imaged' 

Id ruBcelletti, che de' verdi colli 

Del Cascntin discendou ginso in Anio, 
Facendo i lor canali a freddi o molli, 

Senipre mi stanno innanzi, e non indamo ; 
Chb r imagine lor via pid ni' oacinga, 
Che 11 male, ond' io nel volto n 

La rigida giiistizja, che nil fruga, 
Tragga cagion del luogo, ov' io pecoai, 
A metter piii gli mioi Bospiri in fuga. 

Ivi 6 Romena, 1^ doV io falaai 
La lega suggellata del Batista, 

' Cucntino, the upper Valley 
(it the Amo above Areno, u 
noted for its beant; and the 
olcAmeu Of it* monntoin atreama. 
"Then ia Bomens," ant of the 
Onidog, a few miles belav the 
■oureeB of the Arao, aod s. little 
to the went of the Cunaldoli 

* Or: "WTiBraby I get lean or 
low fleih in the fuo." 

* Tbe floTBiu, iritb the Lily 
(giolio) on one lide &nJ St. John 
on the other, were fiiat coined in 

tbe Jew 1252, uid each of theai 
ooniained 24 «nt* of pure gold 
[VUlani, vi 54), like the modem 
Zeoohino. Tboy aoon einniliitad 
CTS17 where; anil "Genuine ■• 
the jellow floren" became a pro- 
Terb. " Floreini fine of gold 
jcoined round . . . lo fairs and 
bright," Of* oar own ChuuMir In 
hi* Pardoncie'B Tale. Guido had 
the Bnptiifa image itonipod on 
his boM coin, whiah coDtaioed 
threo cBiati of alio;. 


for wMch on earth I left my body bnmt But if I 
could see the miserable soul of Guido here, or of 
Alessantlro, or their brother, for Branda's fonnt' I 
would not give the sight. One ia in already, if 
the mad shadows that are going round speak trne. 
But what avails it mc whose limbs are tied? Were 
I only still so light, tliat I could move one inch 
in a hundred years, I liad already put myself upon 
the road, to aoek him among this disfigured* people, 
though it winds round eleven miles, and is not less 
than Iialf a mih across. Throiigli tlicm am I in such 
a crow : tliey induced, me to stamp tlie florens that 
had tliree carats of alloy." 

Per ch' io il corpo enso aiso lascioi. 75 

Ma e' io vedeeai qui 1' onima tiieta 

Di Guido. o d' Alessandro, o di lor finte, 

Per fonte Bnuida non darei la viatB. 
Dentro ce 1' una fpa. Be 1' ftirahbiate 

Ombre, cho vanno intomo, dicon vero : 80 

Ma che mi val, cU' Uo le membra legate ? . 
B' io foBsi pur di taiito ancor Icggioro, 

Ch' io potesai in cont' anni andaie un' onoia, 

Io sarei messo gi& per Io sontiero, 
Cercando lui tra quesia gonte sconcia, 85 

Con tutto ch' ella rolge undid miglia, 

E men d' un mezzo di tinverso non ci ba. 
Io son per lor tra el fatta faniigUa : 

£1 m' indussero a battcre i fiorini, 

Ch' avevan tro carati di mondiglia. 90 

■ *"Tbefoaiituiitowliioliil]Si 

And I to bira : " Who are the ahjcMit' two, lying 
dose to thy right confines,' and smoking like a hand 
bathed in winter-timo ?" 

" Here I found thom, when I nuned into this 
pinfold," be answered ; " and since then they Iiave 
not given a turn, and may not give, I tliink, to oU 
etemi^. One is the false w//e* who accused Joseph ; 
the other is false Sinon, the Greek from Troy. Burn- 
ing fever makes them reek so strongly."' 

And one of them, who took offence perhaps at 
being named thus darkly,*^ smote the rigid belly of 


£d io a ltd : Chi son U duo tapini, 

Che funuin come man bagnata il vemo, 
Giaceado stretti a' tuoi destri confini 1 

Qui li trovai, e poi volta non diemo, 
Eiapoae, quando pioTvi in questo greppo, 
E non credo cbe iliono in eompiterno. 

L' una il la falsa, che accosLi Giuseppo ; 
L' altro h il iako Slnon Greuo da Troia : 
Per febbro acuta gittan tanto loppo. 

E r un di lor, cbe si recti a noia 
Foree d'easer nonmto si oacnro, 

M. Ditmo, dottei 

9(S. Dieno, de&UD i 

whole of thu lut dbuan, wliicli 
il eloven luQea in oiraamferenoe, 
and not leu tlmu htU a mile in 

' Or low, hambte, tbtiihiI. 

■ Right aide: " DODfiniia'' ol his 

' Fotiphar'B wife, and tho ttiae 

Trojui Gt«ek, lie roostiiig togS' 

' lit. : "BeoaoH of ocdIo fever 
they throw oat lueh a amokdnii 
■tenoh." Lej^ properlj licnifin 
the itifling amoke of gnus mat- 
ter burning without flame. 

• "^unnl ao obaourely;" and 


Mm with Ms fist : it sounded lifeo a dmm ; and Mas~ 
ter Adam smote hlia in the face with his anu, that 
did not seem less hai'd,' saying to him : " Tfaoogli 
I am kept from moving by my weigh^- limbs,' I 
have an arm fi-oe for such necessity." Thereat he 
answered : " When thou wast going to the tire, thoa 
hadet it not so ready ; but as ready, and more, when 
thou wast coining,"^ 

And he of tJic dropsy: " In this thou sayest true; 
but thou wast not so true a witness there, when qoeft- 
tioned of the tnitli at Troy," 

" If I spoke false, thou too didst falsif)r the coin," 

Col piigno gli percoBse T epa croia. 
Quella eonb, come foaso un tambuio : 

E maatro Ailamo gli porcosse il volto 

Col braccio suo, cho non parve mon duro, 105 

Dicendo a Ini : Ancor cbe mi sia tolto 

Lo muovor, per le membra che son gmvi, 

Ho io il braccio a tal meatier disciolto. 
Ond' ei rispose : Quando tu andavi 

Al fuoco, non 1' avei tu cosl presto ; 110 

Ma si e pi^i 1' avei (jnando coniavi. 
E r idropico ; Tu di' ver di questo ; 

Ma tu non fosti si ver tcetimonio, 

I^ 've del Tor fosti a Troia richiesto. 
6' io disd false, e tu falaasti il conlo, 115 


that, loo, by anoh & deapirable 

liinliiig coiner. 

' " Not \em hard" and ■voUeii 
than tia rigid patmclu 

tHken avay from me, by tbe limba J 

tliat are heavy," tuu 

' Thoa hadit a ready arm (or I 


eaii Sinon ; " and I am liere for one crime, and tliou 
for more than any otter Demon."' 

" Bethink tbee, perjurer, of tlie horse," answered 
he who had the inflated paunch ; " and be It a tor- 
tore to thee that all the world knows thereof."' 

*' To tlieo be torture the tliirst that cracks thy 
tongue," replied tlie Greek, " and the foul water wHcli 
makes tliat belly such a hedge before thy eyes." 

Then the coiner: "Thus thy jaw gapes wide, as 
nsual, to speak ill ; for If I have thirst, and moisture 
staffs me, thou hast the burning, and the head that 
puns thee : and to make titee lap the mirror of Nar- 
oissua thou wouldfit not require many words of in- 

Disee Sinoue ; e eon qui per nn fallo, 
E tu per piit che olcun oltro Dimonio. 

Ricorditi, spergiuro, del cavallo, 

Eispoee ijuoi ch' aveva enfiata 1' opa : 

E aieti reo cho tutto il mondo Ballo. 120 

A te aia rea la eete onde ti crepa, 
Disse il Greco, la Ungua, e 1' acqua marcia 
Che il ventre innana agli occM td t' asaiepa 

Allora il monetiet : Cosl ai squarcia 

La Iracca tua por dir tiial come suole ; 120 

Chii a' i' ho sete, wl umor mi rinlarcia, 

Tu hai r oraum, e il ca\M ehe ti duole : 
E per leccar lo specchio di Narcisso, 
KoQ vorresti a invitai molte parale. 

' Oonnti oreTT coin s srime. I hov tluni didrt lie about the 
* Lit.t " Be it evil or afflictive wooden bono, 
tfl thee, tliatBllttiewoilil knows" ' * Thou huat the [|archm%t«,iB 


lien the ^H 

I was standing all intent to hear them, when 
Master saJd to me : " Now keep looking, a little 
longer and I quarrel with thee!" When I heard 
him spoak to me in anger, I tnmed fowarda him 
with such shame, that it comes over me again as 
I but think of it,' 

And as one who dreams of something hnrtfol to 
him, and dreaming wishes it a dream, so that he 
longs for that which is, as if it were not ; such grew 
I, who, mthoot power to speak, wished to exonae 
myself and all the wliile excused, and did not think 
that I was doing it° 

Ad oscoltoili or' io del tntto fiaao, 

QuAudo il Maestro mi disse : Or pur mira, 
Che per poco e che teco non mi risao ! 

Quand' io il senti' & me parlnr con irs, 
Volflimi verso iui ctAi till veryogna, 
Ch' ancor per la memoria mi si gira. 

E quale h quei, che suo danuaggio sogna, 
Che aognondo deddeia eognaic, 
SI che quel ch' \ come non fosse, agogna ; 

Tal mi fee' io, non potendo parlare, 
Che disinva scusormi, e scusava 
Me tuttavia, e nol mi credea fare. 


and the hendoolie ; uid, ugl; u 
thoa tit, wou]iliit fall engcrly ap- 
ply tliyjelt to tbc clear mirror- 
fountain of NandBeua. 

' Or : " Esen yot tuma itsalT, 
or oirelea, throogli my memoty." 
Boecacflio haii "8'egli ri ve- 
niue, «lla gli tHrebbo at fatta 
vetjfognii, che, aumpto oV eftli 

alouna doDna vedcme, gU a gire- 
rebbe per mqio." 

' In aaother very beaatifnl 
puaage {Furg. v. 10.21), Dante, 
bluihing at a gentler repmot of 
the aame >ort, ia agaia "■umo- 
H-hat tinged with tho oaloor vhieb 
at times mjJwa a man worthy of 




^^Less shame washes off a greater &ult than thine 
has been/' said the Master : ^^ therefore unload thee 
of all sorrow. And count that I* am always at thy 
side, should it again fall out that Fortune brings thee 
where people are in similar contests ; for the wish to 
hear it is a vulgar wish." 

Maggior difetto men vergogna lava, 

Disse il Maestro, che il tuo non & stato ; 
Fer6 d' ogni tnstizia ti disgrava : 

E fa ragion ch' io ti sia sempre allato, 
Se piii awien che fortmia t' accogha, 
Dove sien genti in simigliante piato ; 

Chfe voler ci6 udire h basso voglia. 


^ I, the Poet Yiigil and em- 
blem of Wlfldom : to whom alike 
Buoh oonteat, suoh mean jangling, 
is foreign. " Thou art my matter 
and my author. Thou alone,'* &c 

Canto L 85. Honor td homini 
qui separat te a conUntumObuM : 
omnea autem ittUH miBcentur con' 
tumeliU. Prov. xx. 3. Quoted by 
Pietro di Dante. 

I. .J. 


I Ml 





The Poeta now mount np, snd oroaa the buk irhich MporMee tlie 
lut chOBiD of Halebolgs from the Central Pit, or Ninth Circle, 
wherein SaUu himself ie placed. The air ia thick awl gloomjr 
(Zech. xiv, 6, 7; lU-r. ix. 3} ; bo that Dante can see but little 
way before him. The sound of n hom, louder than any thunder, 
Buddenl; attracts all his attention ; and, looking in the direc- 
tion from which it comes, he dimly dlBcenuj the figures of huge 
Giaots etaoding rouud the edge of tbe Pit. Tbese are the proud 
rebellious Nephilim and "mighty mua which were of old," 
Sic. (,Gea. ri, 4); "giant* groaning under the waters" (.Job 
sxvi. jj, Vulg.) ; " toof, of earth" who made open war against 
HeaTen. The first of Uicm is Nimrod of Babel, who shouta in 
perplexed unintelligible speech, and \b hlmeelf a masa of stu- 
pidity and confusion : for Danta elsewhere ( Vulg. Eloj, 1. 7) 
tells how "man, under persuasion of the Giant, took upon him 
to surpoE^ Nature and the Author of Nature" on the plain of 
Shtnar, and wa« bafSed and oonfounded. After seting him, the 
Poeta turn to the left hand, and go along the brim of the Mt 
till they come to Ephialtes; and then to Anticus, who takes 
them in his arms and seta them down " into the bottom of all 
guilt," or lowest part of Hell, where eternal oold freexea and 
locks up Cocytus, the marsh (canto xlv. UU) that reodTea all 
lt» rivers. 


Isd me so ^B 

One and t/ie same tongue first wouiidsd me s 
that it tinged ioJ(A blmhes both my cheeks, and then 
held forth the medicmq to me. Tims I have beard 
that the lance of Achilles, and of his father, used to j 
be occa-sion first of sad and then of healing gift.' I 

We turned our back to the wretched valley, ^^1 
by the bank that girds it roimd, crossing withoat 
any speech. Here was less than night and less than 
day, 80 tliat my sight went little way before me ; but 
I heard a high' horn sound so loudly, that it wonid | 

Una medesma lingua pria mi taorso, 

SI che mi tinso 1' una e 1' altra guancia, 

E poi In medicina mi riporsc. 
Co^ od' io che solcva la lancia 

D' Acliille, e del suo padre, eeser ca^ne 

Prima di tnsta e poi di buona mancia. 
Hdi demmo il dosso al misero vallone, 

Su per la ripa che il cingo dintomo, 

Attraversando senza alcun sermone, 
Qaivi era men cho notta e men che giomo, 

SI cho il viso m' andavo irmanid poco : 

Ma io acnti' EOnarc en alto como 

' Aj the nut of Achillea' apear 
■kloDS oonld heal the wouudi that 
weaiion had inflicted, «o Viipl's 
tongue is Uit csoto, 131, &o. 
ThM Ch»iicar in hi« Sqaier's 
T&la: "And(eUiii<v«*>°^<^f 1^- 

tephos the king, And "* ^fhillwB 
fothijqnoiiit apeTD; ForheMvAfl 
with it both heale uul den." . 
Shakipear. 3 Ben. VI. Ml V. M. L 

• "High up," ». 11», ft«. 
" largo, mighty," v. 75, 

have made any tlmnder weak : whieli, townrds it 
following its way,' directed my eyes all to ono 
place. After tlie dolorous rout, when Cliarlemain 
had lost tho holy emprise," Orhmdo did not sound 
with his BO terribly. Short w/h'/b had I kept looking 
up* in that direction, when I seemed to see many 
lofty towers; whereat I: "Maatei-! aay, what town 
is this ?" 

And he to mo : " Because thou traversest the 
darkness too ftir off,^ it follows that thou errest in 

Tanto, ch' avrehhe ogni tuon fatto fioco ; 
Che, contra s& la sua via seguitando, 
Cirizzj) gli occhi miei tutti ad im loco. 

Dopo k dolorosa rotta, qiumdo 
Carlo Magno penl6 la eanta gesta, 
Non mah A terribilmente Orlando. 

Foco portal in \k alta la testa, 

Che mi parre vwli^ molte olte torri ; 
Ond' io : Maestro, di', cKe terra h questa t 

Ed egU a me : Peri che tu traacom 
Per le tenebre troppo dalla lungi, 
Awien cho poi nel maginaro aborri. 

24. Aborri, aiban, ea 

' The iioiind made m; 0701 fol- 
low iU sDonta "ngsuiat or towardi 
iUelf ," or up nieetmg it 

■ Failed in the eotorpiiiw agoinirt 
the Snraccu " whom Biserbi unt 
from Afrio ■hDie," at Koneea- 
■niXa : when Orliuulo, in despttir, 
blew wj terrihle a bhut that ho 
rent liii bom and tbe vein* 
nsswi of Ml nook ; and C 

who heard it aight mitea off, m- 
cording to Tnipin (Vitn Canli 
Slagni.K. uiiL), wnabiDdorenI bf 
the tnkitor OaneUou trova oomiug 
to hii aaiiitiUMe. 

'Lit.: "Carried mybead high 
thitherward," ke. 

' Thou art walking, or looking, 
throngh Uto darkneu at too great 
'■uMo from them. 


&tj iinaginmg. Thou ehalt Bee right well, whm I 
thou airivest there, how much the sense at distance i 
is deceived : therefore spur thee somewliat more." 
Then lovingly' ho took mo by the hand, and said : 
" Ere we go farther, tliat the reality may seem lees 
strange to tlioe, know, tlioy are not towers, bat 
Giants; and are in the well,' around its bank, &om j 
the navel downwards all of them." 

As when a mist is vanishing, the eye by little ' 
and little reshapes' that which the air-crowding va- 
pour hides ; so whilst piercing through that gross and 
darksome air, more and more approaching towards 

Tu vediai ben, se tn 1& ti congiungi, 
Quanto U senao a' ingunna di lontano : 
Pet6 alquanto piti te atesao pangL 

Poi caramente lui prese per mano, 

E disee : Prla che noi siom piii avanti, 
Acciocchii il fatto men ti paia strano, 

Sappi che non son toiri, ma giganli, 
£ son ncl pozzo, intoino dalla ripa, 
Hall' ombelico in giuao tutti quanti. 

Come quando la aebbia ai dissipa, 
Lo aguardo a poco a poco rtdfigura 
Ci6 che cela il vapor, che 1' acre atipa ; 

Coel fotando i' sura grosea e acura, 
PHl e pill appreasaado in v6r la sponda, 


1 Hindful of hia ib*rp rebuke, 
um] itt effect on me. 

* Well or Pit of canto xrilL 6. 
St apentit tmUum a&yoi . ... el 
«bK«ratut at mid lur de fumo 
jwW. Rev. li, 2. Quod ibi lint 

poaviiii QUI. Prov. is. IS. Oi- 
ffaula noa ruur^ont, kc I«afn I 
xivi 14. 

■ GraduBlly geU the ml ont- j 
IJDUs of things boio fbe v<i[iuar. 



the brink, error flees from me, and fear comes over 
me : for as on its round wall Montereggione' crowns 
itself with towers ; so with half tlieir bodies* the hor- 
rible giants, whom Jove from heaven etill throatene 
when he tlinnders, turretcd the brow which com- 
passes the pit : and already I discerned tho face of 
one, tho shoulders and the breast, and great part of 
the belly, and down along his sides both arms. Na- 
ture certainly, when she left off the art of making 
animals like these, did very well, in taking away 
such executioners from Mars. And if she repents 
her not of Elephants and Whales, whoso subtly looks. 

PerocchJ> C' 

ti errore, o ginngemi paont : 

in su la cerchia touda 4 

Q di torri si corona ; 

Co^ la proda, che il pozzo circonda, 
Torreggiavan di mez/a la persona 

Gli oiribili giganti, cui minoccia 

Giove del cielo oncoia, quondo tuona : 4 

Ed io scorgeva gi^ d' alcun la fuccia, 

Le spalle, e il petto, e del ventre gnui parte, 

E per lo coBt« gih ambo lo biaccia. 
Natura certo, quando laacif) 1' arte 

Di A fatti animoli, asaai fe' bene, 5 

Per lor cotali esccntori a Mart^ 
E s' ella d' elefonti e di balene 

!Non si ponte, cbi gnarda eottilmente, 

< A outle neu Sieni '■ " vbicb , centre of the fortreu. The roil 

1 the dnmit of iti villi," nys : uf tbeai an itill vidblo. 

the Oltimo, ' ' hu about one tov«r ' The giaots, atunliiig half oi 

for erer; 60 braecia (or 94 feet), at the pit, were ai towen od i 


thoroin regards her as more just and prudent; for 
where argument* of raincl is joined to e\'il will and 
potency, men can make no defence against it. 

His face seemed to mo as long and large as tho 
pine° of St. Peter's at Home, and liis other bones 
were in proportion to it; so that the bank, which 
was an apron^ from his middle downwards, shewed 
us certainly so much of him above, that three Frieze- 
landers' had vainly boasted (o have reached liis hiuT : 
for downwards from the plaee where a man buckles 
on Lis mantle, I saw thirty large spans of him- 
" RaAFEL waiSFb: aamech zaabee almeb,"' begui 

Pid giiista e piii discreta la no tiene ; 
Cbb dove r orgomento della mente 55 

B' i^iungo al mnl volero ei alia possa, 

Nessun riparo vi puti fat la gente. 
La fticcia sua mi pares lunga e grossa, 

Come la pina di San Fictro a lionia ; 

E a sua proporziono etna le olti' ossa ; GO 

B\ che la ripa, ch' era poiizoma 

Dal mezzo in gii, ne mostrava bon tanto 

Si sopnt, che di giungero alia chloma 
Tio Frison s' averian dato mal vonto ; 

Perocch' io ne vedea trenta gtan pahni 65 

Dal luogo in gih, dov* uom a' affibbla il maato. 
Bofel m^ amoch labl slmi, 

tunc it (tood in front of Itia old I 
CliBTob of St Peter. 

rati lO/i periamata. OtoL iU. 7, 
* Stuiding one upcm uiolhet. 
' ShMdowj ironli bom hii old 


' Force of mind : annanUUmil. 
See Ariatotte, PolU. 1 2. 

* Tbe ooIoMal pine of bronie, 
fism the luonimient of Hadriui, 
vliieli DOW atands in the giu^eD 
of the Belvedeie. In Dute'* i 


to shout the Bavage month, for wliieh no sweeter 
psalmody U fit. And towards him my Guide : 
"Stupid aoull keep to tliy horn; and vent thyself 
with that, when rage or otlier passion touches tliee. 
Search on thy neck, and thou wilt find the belt 
that holdij it tied, O soul confused, and see itself 
that ginlles' thy huge breast." Then he said fo me : 
" He accuses himself, ' This is Nimrod, through 
whoso ill device one language is not still used in 
the world. Let us leave him standing, and not speak 

Cominci6 a gridar la fieTa bocca, 

Cui non ai convenien pii dolci salmi, 
E il Duca mio ver lui : Anima sciocca, 70 

Tienti col como, e con quel ti diafogn, 

Qaand' ira o altia pasaon ti tocca, 
Cercati al collo, e tiovQiai la soga 

Che il tien legato, o anima conftiaa, 

£ vedi lui cho il gran petto ti doga. 
Poi disse a me : Egli steaso s'accuaa, 

Questi i Nemlrotto, pot lo cui mal coto 

Pure un lingUBggio nel moudo non a' aaa. 
Loeciamlo store, e non parliamo a vote ; 


Babd. S« T. 7«-8L Eea ffi- 
gaata gtmunl tub oquu, tt qui 
haiUanl mm tit. Jfudut e$l in< 
/ernul coram illn. Job Exri. Vii- 
gUipeakB "(ow*n]i"not tohim. 
' Or lies aomi* the trbole of 
thjr luge breut. Dojra, "stave" 
of ft calk, u in Furti. liL IOC ; 
then "stripo" of colour, u "dogke 
hiawM t bigit" in Till, vii 109. 


dogare, to gird, il 

* His oTii jupm t«lli hisgniH. 
It is the mighty Nimrod ; " uul 
the bt^inmng of Ms kingdom ma 
Babel," JEo. Om. T. 10. Brn- 
Dfltto {THtar, Iit. i. a 24, Puis, 
1863) iaya: "Cil Nenibrot ediflft 
U tot Babel on Bablli^D, oil avint 
la diTST^tf ilea pnrteurea 
oonftuiou des lengaigek 
brot meismei mna sa langne ebns I 
en caldeu," &a. 


in vain ; for every language is to liini, as to othei8| 
his which no one understands." 

We therefore journeyed on, turning to the left ; 
and, a crossbow-shot off, we found anotlier far more 
fierce and large. Who and what the master could 
be that girt liim thus, I cannot tell; but he had his 
right arm pinioned down behind, and the other bo- 
fore, witli a chain which held lilm clasped from the 
neck downwards, and on the uncovered part w«it 
round to the fifth turn.' "This proud spirit willed 
to try his power against high Jove," said my Gnlde; 
"whence he has such reward. Ephialtes is his name ; 
and he made the great endeavours,' when the ^ants 

Ch& cod ^ a lui ciaacun lingunggio, SO | 

Come il suo ad altrui, ch' a nullo h nolo. 

Facenuno adunque piu lungo viiaggio 

Volti a sinistra ; ed al trar d' un baleetro 
Trovommu 1' altro assai piii fiero e maggio. 

A cinger lui, qnal che fosso il maestro, 
Non so io dir ; ma ei tenea succinto 
Dinanzi 1' altro, e dietro il faraccio destro, 

D' una catena, che il teneva awinto 
Dal coUo in giii, d che in eu lo scoperto 
8i rawolgcva infino al giro quinto. 

Questo auperbo Toll' easere esparto 
Di sua potenza contra il sommo Giove, 
Disse il mio Duca, ond' eg!i ha cota] morto. 

Fia!t« ha nome ; e fece le gran prove, 

* Mode firo turns on the TisSile 
part of hii bod/. 

' Tir lani ciraatiimpontrt Pdio 
Onam Scilicel, a/jut OaafroiKh- 

iiitoltrrt CTirtBjjiiM. 0«atK I 

rcspoDila with thit which B' 
giveihun. Odgt. u. 307, ft 

OAHTO ZQI. raFERNu. 381 

made the gods a&tLJd : Uie arms he agitated tlien, he 
never moves." 

Aiid I to him : " If it were possible, I should 
wish my eyes might have experience of tlic immense 
Briareus." Whereat he answered : " Thou shidt see 
Antsens near at liand, who speaks, and la unfettered,' 
who will put UH into the bottom of all guilt. He 
whom thou desirest to see is far beyond ; and ia tied 
and shai^ed like this one, save that he seems in aspect 
more ferocious." No mighty earthquake ever shook 
a tower so violently, as Ephialtcs forthwith shook 
himself.' Then more than ever I dreaded death ; and 

Quando i gigsuti fer paura ai Del : 95 

Le Lraccia, ch' ei mcufi, giainmai non maove. 
£d io a lui : S' esser puote, to vorrei 

Che dello BnuBurato Briareo 

^perienza avesaci gli occhi mieL 
Oud' ei riaposo : Tu vedrai Anteo 100 

Preaso di qui, che parla, ed b diaciolto, 

Che no poni nol fondo d' ogni reo. 
Quel che tu vuoi vedac, piii 1^ t molto, 

Ed li legato, e latto come queato, 

Salvo che piii feroce par nel volto. 105 

Non fu tremuoto gii tanto rubeato, 

Che scotesse una torre cosl forte, 

Come Fialte a scuoterd fu pieeto. 
Allor temetti piii che mai la morte, 

' For AntanB did not join bis I petnoiu(n(j«iro,'robiutiaiu,'aiid 

brotbciB in mr agiunit tbe godi, . like it iuitiquiit«d) tlist it could 

VOTH 119, lus. gbftko a tower bo Tiolentl;, u 

* lit. : " Not Jet bin there been E[ihiiilte« wm re»iiy or quick te 

on cArthqnflJLB lo mighty or im- kbidie hiujBelf.^^ 


notliing else was wanted for it but tlie fear, had I not 
seen bis bands. 

We then proceeded farther on, and reached An- 
taeus, who full five ells, besides the head, forth issued 
from the cavern. " thou I who in the fateful ^"al- 
ley,' which made Seipio heir of glory when Hannibal 
retreated with his hosts, didst take of old a thousand 
lions for thy proy; and through whom,' hadst tboa 
been at the high war of thy bretlu'en, it seems yet 
to he believed that the sons of earth had conquered : 
set us down — and be not shy to do it — where the 


E non v' era mestier pih che la dotta, 
8' io non aveaai viste ]e ritorte. 

Noi proeeUemnio pid avanti allotta, 

E venimmo ad Anteo, che ben cinqu' alle, 
Senza la testa, itscia fuor della grotta. 

tu, che neila fortunata valle, 
Che face ScipTon di gloria ereda, 
Quando Annibal co' snoi dJede le apallo, 

Eocaeti giii nitlle lion per preila, 
E che se fossi state all' alta guerra 
De" tuoi tiuteUi, nncor jiar ch' ei si creda, 

Che avrebber vinto i figli della term ; 
Mottine ginso, e nun ten venga echifo, 
Dove Cocito la freddora aeira. 

no ' 

' Near Curthnge, where "more 
than 20,000 Cacthugiiiiani were 
slain i" and the fato of Carthage 
anri Rome, imd "uU the worlil," 
was denMed. Lin. xu. 32, kn. 
—Valley of the Bngrada, wh. 

AntKiu baJ hli la 

lions aad oomlnt with HocqIm ; 
qiiA tt Bagrada tmtua ofpt titta 
fu/ratorurfixE, ka. LiicaiLiv.58& 
■ Lit. : " And that if thm luM 
been,' &e. Catoqa* peperett, fuU 
non Pblttrmu Xntmm mAifil 
arvii. lbid.S9fi, 

^P cold lock 


cold locks up CocytuB. Do not make us go to TilyoB 
nor Tyijlion :' this man can give of that which here 
is longed for. Therefore bend thee, and curl not 
thy lip in scorn: he can restore thy famo on earth ; 
for he lives, and still awaits long life,' so Qrace be- 
fore the time call him not unto herself." Thus 
spate the Master ; and he in haste stretched forth 
the hands, whence Hercules of old did feel great 
stress, and took my Guide. Virgil, when he felt 
their grasp, said to me : " Come here, that 1 may 
take tltee." Then of himself and me he mado one 
bundle. Such as the Carisenda* seems to one's view, 

Non ci far ire a Tizio, ni a Tifo : 

Queati pu6 dar di quel che qui si broma : 125 

Peril ti china, e non torcer lo grifo. 
Ancor ti pub nel mondo render fama ; 

Ch' ei vive, e lunga vita ancor ospetta, 

Sa innanzi tempo graziu a eb nol cliiamn. 
Cod disse il Maestro : e quegli in fretta 130 

Le man distese, e prese il Duca mio, 

Ond' EtcoIb sentl gii graiido atretta. 
Tirgilio, quando prendor si sentio, 

Diaso a me : Fatti in qua, el ch' io ti prenda. 

Poi fece bI, che mi feacio er' egli ed io, IS.") 

Qual pare a riguardor la Cansenda 

' Tva other guuta, "loiu of 
Elrth," in Lncan. Ibid. 

' Stilt hai to dc9Miend Iha whole 
"u«h oFbia life." See nat«, p. 2. 

' Tba tliiok leuimg tower of 
Bologrmi vhich, to odd who ii 
benaiith, setnn itielf to >»'— 

when a oload, igsinat which it 
buigi, is pauin^ over it. The 
other (Aniuelli) tower i> highar, 
but lcan» far IcM than the Cari- 
nnda, and not bo atrildngly with 
oonier foremost. The OariccndB 
!■-• it* niuue from the Ganaendl 


beneath the leaning aide, when a dood ie going orer 
it BO, that it hangs opposed ; such Antaeus seemed to 
mo who stood watching to see him bend : and at the 
time' I should have wished to go by other road. 
But gently on the deep, wlilch swallows * Lucifer J 
with Judas, he placed us; nor lingered there thos-fl 
bent, but raised liimself as in a ship tlie mast. 

Sotto il chinato, qoaudo im nuvol vada 

Sovr' essa ai, ch' ella in contrario penda ; 
Tal parvo Anteo a me clie stava a bada 

Ci vederlo chinare, e fu tal era 

Ch' io avrei voluto ir per altra stiada ; 
Ma lieyemente al fondo, che divora 

Lncifero coa (Jiuda, ci posti : 

Nb si chinato li fece diraora, 
E come albero in nave si levi. 

funilj; inA wu much hi^i 
in Dante's time thaa it u no* 
BeDT. ilu Imola. 

' Lit.: "It wBl Boch hoar, 
or moDiont thou, tliat I ■haul 
liBVB wished to gat down by mm 
other WKj, 

■wdlluiT ms up, and lot not the 
pit ahnt her month upon m*." 
Pi. Irii. 15. " Bwullow ttmn 19 
alive, aa the grave ; and wlude, ■• 
those that go down into the pit." 


TUi Ninth and Last, or frozen Circle, lowest part of the Universe, 
■Dtl farthest remote from the l^ourco of all light and heat, 
diTides ileelf into four concentric Rings. The First or outennopt 
IB the Ca'ina, which has its name from Criin who slew his 
brother Abel, and contains the unners who hare done violence 
to their own kindred. The Second or A-ntenora, so called "from 
Autenorthe Trojan, betrayer of hiBcoantry"(rietrodl Dante, 
tic), is filled with those who have 1)(.>en gnilty of treachery 
against their native land. Dante flnds many of hin own ooun- 
tfTinen, both Ouelphs and Ghlbellines, in these two rings ; and 
leams the names of thom in the First from Camiccion dc' Pazii, 
and of thoae in the Second from Bocca degli Abati. He has 
a Tory speoEal detestation of Bocoa, through whoee treachery 
■o many of the Ouelphs were slaughtered, and " every fantity 
ia Florence thrown into inonrning;" and, ax the Ottimo re- 
marks, " falU into a very rude method, tbftt he has used to no 
other spirit." The canto leaves hlxo in the Antenora beside two 
dnnera that are froaen olow logetber in the same bole, 

CANTO xxxn. 

s would ^1 

If I had rhymes both rough and hoarse, as 
befit tlie (lismal hole, on which all the other rocky 
steeps converge and weigh,' I should press out the 
juice of my conception more fully : but since I have 
them not, not without fear I bring myself to tell 
thereof; for to describe the bottom of all tlie Universe 
ia not an enterprise for being taken up in sport, nor 
for a tongue that cries mamma and papa. But may 
those Ladies* help my verse, who helped Amphion 
with walls to close in Thebes ; so that my words may 
not be diverse from tlie fact. 

ye, beyond all othere, miscreated rabble, who 

8' 10 aveesi le rimo o aspre o chiocce, 

Come si couverrebbe al triato buco, 

Sovra il qtinl pantan tutto 1' altre rocce, 
lo premerei di mio concetto il auco 

Pih pienoinente ; ma peich' io non 1' abbo, 8 

Son. senza tema a dicer mi condilco : 
Ch^ non ^ intpreGa da pigUare a gabbo, 

Deacriver foudo a, tutto 1' universo, 

N^ da lingua cbe chiami mamma e tabbo. 
Ma quelle Dotmo aiutino mio verso, 10 

Cb' aiutaro Anfione a chiuder Tebe, 

Si cbe dal fatl« il dir non BJa divereo. 
Oh eovra tutte mal creata plebe, 

' Ueeting u at the fcejatooB of I ' Miuot, by whOK aid Amphioti J 
a biidgQ or vault. Boca for roccif. | leued the walLi of T 



are in the place, to Bpeak of which is hard, better 
had yo here on eartJi been sheep or goats I 

When wo were clown in the dark pit, under the 
Gliant's feet, much lower,' and I still was gazing at 
the high wall, I heard a voice say to me : " Look 
how thou passeat : take care tliat with thy soles thou 
tread not on the heads of the weary wretched bro- 
thers."' Whereat I turned myself, and saw before 
me and beneath my feet a lake, which tlirough frost 
had the semblance of glass and not of water. Never 
did the Danube of Austria make so thick a veil for 
his course in winter, nor the Don afar beueatli the 
frigid sky,* as there was hero ; for if Tabernicch* 

Che bUu uel loco, onde parlare h duro ! 

Me' foste state qui pecore o zebe. 15 

Come noi fummo gih nol pozzo bcuto 

Sotto i pie ilel Gigante, aaaiii piJi bosai, 

Ed io nurava ancora all' alto muro, 
r>icere udimini : Guordu come pasai ; 

Fa al, cLe tu non calclii con le piante 20 

Le teste de' Iratei miseri lasai. 
Per cli' io mi volai, e vidimi davunte 

E Botto i piedi an Ugo, cho per gielo 

Avea di vetro, e non d' acqua aembiante. 
Nua feue at corso sue al grosao velo 25 

Di vemo la DaiioiB in Auetericch, 

Ne il Tauai Ik antto il &eddo cielo, 
Com' era quivi : this se Tabemicch 

■ Ttiii lut oircle, like M*le- I ■ Hjfperlortai gUiriat Taaaim- 
bolge, ilop« towudB Sktui. qutniraleiH. Ocorg. W. 517. 

■ Two hruthen of verae 55, Jio. | * rrutwblj the FfUitu Uan, ■ 


had fallen on it, or Pietrapana, it woaW not ev«i at 
the edge have given a creak. And as tlie frog to 
croak, sits with hia mnzzle out of tlie water,' when 
the villager oft dreams that ahe is gleaning ; so, livid, 
up to ■where (Jie hue of shame apjwars,' the dolefnl 
shades were in the ice, sonnding witli their teeth 
like storks,* Each held his face turned downwards : 
by the moutli their cold, and hy the eyes the sorroir ^ 
of their hearts is testified amongst them.* 

When I had looked round awhile, I turned J 

Yi foBse su caduto, o Pietrapana, 

Non avria pur dall'orlo fatto cricch. 
E come a gracidar si sta la rana 

Col mufio fiior dell' acqua, quando sogna 

Di B]iigolar aovente la villana ; 
Livide insin I^ dove nppar vergogna, 

Eran 1' umbre dolenti nella gbinccia, 

Mettendo i denti in nnta dl cicogna. 
Ognuna in giii tenoa volta la laccia : 

Da bocca il &eddo, e dagli occhi il uor tris 

Tra lor testimonianza el procaccia. 
Quand' io ebbi d'intomo alquanto visto, 

BOlitary mountaia, the odIj one 
IB the distriot of ToT&mich in 
SnIftTonin. Pietrapuin u uiotheT 
higb mountMD near Lncco. 

' In the irami summer niglitB, 
during the lUImn barvoat, when 
the Tilla^ gleaner drenmm of her 
da^'work. Imngo of httt, con- 
truting with the etenul winter : 
like the peaeefiil touohB« in Ho- 
mer's wildeat buttle-uenea. 

* Up to their neoki in iee. 
'lit.: "Putting Uieii troth 

into the note of the rtork ;" 
nttling with them, u the MMk 
does with her bilL Ipta tM 
jilaadat errpitanle eifoiiia n 
Metsm. vi. iT. 

* Bj their cbatterinx teetl 
eye* glued with teus, " I 
many a given" of their cold aad 
the udnesa of their he 



towards my feet; and saw two so pressed cu/aitist 
each other, that they had the hair of their heads 
intermixed. " Tell me, ye who thus together press 
your boaomB," said I, "who are ye?" 

And they bended their necks; and when they 
had raised their faces towards me, their eyes, which 
only inwardly were moist before,' gushed at the lids, 
and the frost bound fast tlie tears between them, 
and closed them up again : wood with wood no 
cramp did ever gird so strongly. Wlierefore they, 
like two he-goats, buttod one another; such rage 
came over them. 

And one, who had lost both ears by the cold, 
with his fece still downwards said : " Why art thou 

Volsimi n' pieiii, o vidi due bI etretti, 

Cho il pel del capo aveano insiome misto. 
Ditemi voi, che al utringete i petti, 

Dim' if, chi siete 1 E quei picgaro li colli ; 

E poi ch' ebbor li visi a me eretti, 45 

Gli ocelli lor, ch' eran pria pm' dentro molli, 

Gocciar au per le labbra, e il gii>lo strinse 

Le lagrimo tra eaai, e riaerroUl 
L^no con legno apiauga nioi noa cinse 

Forte cod : ond' ei, come duo becclii, 50 

Cozzaio insieme, taut' ira li vinse. 
Ed uj], ch' avoa [lenluti ambo gli orecchi 

Per la freddura, pur col viao in giue 

DissQ : Perch& cotanto in noi ti specchjl 

' Tlieirbiatliotlf lave alirrozen i their hatred for ui iniluit, and 
ken to, tbej forget | band their oeolu nith iffort. 

lookiiig BO mach at as?* If thou desirest to know 
who are these two,' the vallej whence the Bisenzio 
descends was theirs and their fatlier Albert's. Tbey 
issued from oue body ;^ and thou mayest search the 
whole Caina, and bhalt not find a shade raore worthy 
to be fixed in gelatine :* not him,* whose breast and 
shadow at one blow were pierced by Arthm-'s hand ; 
not Fooaccia ;* not this one, who so obstructs me with 

Se Tuoi saper chi son coteati dne, 
la voUe, onde Bisenzto si dichina, 
Del padre loro Alberto e di lor fne. 

D' un corpo usciro : o tutta la Caina 
Potiai cercare, e non troverai ombra 
Degna pi{i d' esser fitta in gelatina : 

Non quelli a cui fu rotto il peltu e 1' oinbia 
Con esso un colpo per la man d' Artii : 
Kon Focaccia ; non queati, che m' ingombn 


' Or, rtaring over ma tcj formi, 
■■ orer a, mimir. 

' Napoleone nod Aleuaadio. 
•0U5 of Count Alberto, whou 
poHBHioDa Uf in the uppoc val- 
ley of the Biaeiuio, * imftU rivor 
tlwt flowi into tho Aiaa some 
■ii milei bulow Flurenoc After 
nuuij other iMt* of treuheiy, 
the; betrajed uid mnrdared SMih 

'The; vara wiuafoiiB mother. 

* Fixed in tbii froicii munih. 

' Uordreo or Modred, biuturd 
•on of King Arthur. B; hit 
treftchei; niiuiy Koi^jbta of the 
Round Tablo were »!(Un. Arthur 
piecoed the trutor with >uoli & 

atroke of hi* kuoe, that the nin 
ahone through tho wound -, uid 
aftarwardi died of a blow th&t 
Modred ga*a him in tilling, •■ 
il relatoil in the old Roiukuoc of 
Lancelot du Lac (Psrli, 1613 1 
P. iii. foL 197, 4o.) : "Bt dil 
llkiatoire qu'aprte rouTartun d« 
la lauoe [luu parui 1> plaia ung 
ray de nleil," &o. 

' Fueaceu de' Caiuellieii of 
Piatoiik, who, for a lilljr bogiah of- 
fence, cut off Itia young DOQun*a 
hand, and iunrdel«d hii odbI* : 
thereby giring rue to thetaotioiaa 
of tho Bianohi Uid Ncri in Pis- 
tuiuiindFIurenoe. Btnr.dalwtata, 

hia head that I see do farther, and who was named 
Sassol ' Maschoroni ; if thou beeat a TusoaD, well 
knowcBt thou dow who he was. And that thou 
mtiyest not put me to further speech, know that I 
was Camiccion* do' Pazzi, and am waiting for Car- 
lino to exeuae me." 

Afterwards I saw a thousand visages, made dog- 
gish bj tlie cold ; whence shuddering comes over 
me, and always will come, when I tltink of the 
frozen fords.* And as we were going towards the 

Col capo A, ch' io non voggio oltre plii, 

£ fu nomato Sasaol Moscberoni : 65 

Se Tosco sei, ben ea' omai ohl to. 
S. perch^ nou mi luetti in pih Bermooi, 

Sappi ch' io fu' 11 Camicion de' Paasd, 

EJ ospotto Carlin che mi acagioni. 
Poacia vid' io millo visi cagnaad TO 

Fatti per frwlJo : oade mi vien ribrexzo, 

E ven4 sempre, de" gelati guozri. 
E montio ch' audaramo in ver Io meuo, 

70. Cagnaai, MgDeuhi, piciuiiL 

^ Suwl dc' Tawhi of Flurauoe, ' 
goudUn of hu brotbor'a oolj aon, 
whom ha munlcrad fur ths ulce 
at hii iikheritanoe : anil wit no- 
toriously carried, " nulol in a 
ouk" {ijavattti in ana MtgtU), 
tbnragh the whale oit;; and then 
beheaded. B<ni. ila Imota, &e. 

' Of Valdamo : who tnaaher- 
ooil]' ilew hia kuuuian Ubertino 
de' Fud. Ho luji, the treanh- 

atlU living, will be gnsat enough 
to ^'uxcuae,** or make hia owii 
leciii triain^. Carlino (in 1303) 
beCnjed tbs cartle of Piaatnt- 
vigno in Valdamo for nioBOjr, to 
the FlorentiDea, after the exiled 
WUtOT or nhibclUaea had do- 
feoded it twootj - nine dayi : 
" vhenoe niaiir> »Tva of tlu bcM 
Bxilea of Flarenoe, vara alaln or 
taken," ko. Till. viii. 63, 
' ThoM ioc-foida ot the Pit. 

392 INFERNO. cuno zxxn. 

middle' at vfiuch all weight unites, and I was shiver- 
ing in the eternal shade, whether it was will, or de»- 
tiny or chance, I know not ; but, walking amid the 
heads, I hit my foot violently against the face of one. 
Weeping it cried out to me : " Why tramplest thoa 
on met Ktliou comest not to increase the venge- 
ance for Montaiwrti,* why dost thou molest me ?" 

And I: "My Master! now wait me here, that 
I may rid me of a dnubt respecting hira : then shalt 
thou, however much thou pleasest, make mo haste." 
The Master stood. And to that stiade, which still 
kept bitterly re^'iUng, I said : " What art thou, who 
thns roproaohest others ?" 

M quale ogni gravezza si muna, 

£d io tremavEi nell' ot«mo rezzo, 
Se Toler fii, o destino, o fortuna, 

Non so ; ma paaaeggiondo tm le t«st«, 

Forte percosai il pi^ nel viso od una. 
Piangendo mi sgrid6 : Perchi mi p<«te ) 

Se tu non vicni a croscor la veudetta 

Di Mont' Aperti, percht mi molestet 
Ed io : MaestTO mio, ot qui m' aspetta, 

SI oh' io esca d' un dubbio per costoi : 

Poi mi farai, quantunquc vomu, &etta. 
Lo Duca atette ; ed io dissi a colui, i 

Che beatemmiava duramento ancora : 

Qual sei tu, che cosl rampogni altrui ? 

' •' MidcUo" of HeU, and of tbe 
Euih.&Dd oil thermivno: oon- 
trc of all giDTity, phjuiiml uid 
monL Oonrito, Tr. iL a 3, Jic. 

' Th e great def «t of the Goelplu 
g>t MoatBpcrti (see ciDla i. 86) 
was ooiii[iloted by the tnaobar 
of Bocea degU Abati, who ken 

OAHTO mil. INFEHNO. 393 

"Nay, wlio art thou," lie answered, " that through 
the Autoiiom gocst, smiting the cheeks of othera ; ao 
tliat, if thou wert alive, it were too much?" 

" I am alive," waa my reply; " and if thou seekest 
fame, it may bo precious to theo, that I put thy name 
among the other notes." 

And he to me : " The contrary is tehat I long for. 
Take thyself away! and pester me no more; for thou 
ill knowest how to flatter on this icy slope," 

Then I seized him by the afterscalp, and said : 
" It will be uecessary that thou name thj-solf, or 
that not a hair remain upon thoe here I" Whence 
he to me : " Even if thou unhair me, I will not tell 

Or tu chi aei, che rai per 1' Antenoia 

Peicotendo, rispoae, altmi le gote, 

Si che, Be vivo foesi, troppo fon? 90 

Vivo son io ; e caro esser ti puote, 

Fu mia risposta, se domandi iama, 

Ch' lo metta il nonio tuo tra 1' altre note. 
Ed ogli a, mo : Del contrario ho io brama ; 

Levati qninci, o non mi dar pi^L Ligna ; 95 

Cli^ mal soi lusingar pet questa lama. 
Allor Io preai pet la cuticogna, 

E (lissi : E' convenii che tu ti notni, 

che capel qui bu non ti rimagna. 
Ond' egli a me : Petch^ tu mi dischiomi, 100 

N^ ti dix^ ch' io sia, n^ moatierolti, 

* 95. Zofftia, okUie of compUist. 

Hpmki ; who cmt off the hand of | V11I17, wlio wna near him, duiing 
Juopo dol Thcoh de' Paxd, itan- tha"niiuoiu"uBaattofFuiiuit*'> 
(Uld-beuar of tlio Florentino ov I Geniuw trgopt VSl. vi. 78, 79. 

394 INFERNO. ciHTo mn. 

tbee wbo I am ; nor shew it thee, though thon fall 
foul upon mj head a thousand timea." I already 
had his hai'r coiled on my hand, ajid liad plucked 
off more than one tuft of it, he barking and keeping 
down his eyes, when another cried: "What ails thee, 
BocPa? Is it not enough for thee to chatter with 
thy jawB, but thou must bark too ? What Devil is 
upon thee ?" 

" Now," said I, " accursed traitor ! I do not 
want thee to speak ; for to thy shame I will bear 
true tidings of thee." 

"Gio away!" ho answered; "and tell what pleases 
thee. But be not sUont, if thou gettest out from 
hence, respecting him,' who now had his tiingue so 

Se millG fiate iu sul capo mi tomi. 

lo avea gii i capelli in mano awulti, 
£ tratto glion avca piii d' una ciocca, 
Latrando lui con gli occhi in gid raccolti; 105 

Quondo uu altro grid& : Che hai to, Boccal 
Non ti baata sonar con le mascelle, 
6e ta non ktri 1 qual BiaTot ti tocca J 

Omai, diss' io, non vo' che tu fiivelle, 

Malvagio traditor ; ch' alia tua onta 1 10 

lo porteri) di te vere novello. 

Va Tia, riflpose, o cib che tu vuoi, conta ; 
Ma non tacer, se ta di qua entro eschi, 
Di quel ch' ebbe or cod la lingua pronta. 

' BuMO d» Daera of Cremona, I Fronob umy at Chnh» of Aajob. 

who tor money betrayed the GM- in VIG6 ; *l which the peapls of 

hellinei, kllowing Guy de Mont- I CnnuoiuL were mi cBiagcd, tlwt 

fort to pui the Oglio, vith tht I they oxtiipited hi> whol* mmk 

ready. Here ho laments the Frenchmen's silver. 
' Him of Duera,' thou canst say, ' I saw there, where 
the sinners stand pinched in ice." Shouldst thou be 
asked who else was there, thou hast beside thee the 
Beccaria* whose gorge was slit by Florence. Gianni 
del Soldanier,* I think, is farther on, with Ganel- 
lone,* and Tribaldello' who unbarred Faenza when it 

Ei piange qui 1' argento de' Franccachi : 
lo villi, potrai dir, quel da Dnera 
Lk, dove i peccatori stanno frcschi. 

Se fosai dimandato, altri chi v* era ; 
Tu hai da lato quel di BMCaria, 
Di cui aagb Fiorenza la gorgiera. 

Gianui del Soldanier credo cho sta 
Piti 14 con Ganelione, e Tribaldello 
Ch' apii Faenza quaudo si donuia 




linoBo hiiuielf "oBrried offmnch 
monoy,"but diedfttlut in miior- 
»bJo poverty auil eiile. Benv, da 
Imola; Vdl. viL 4; Mamt. Rrr. 
IlaH.a.p. 709. 

1 The phnue Har fraeo, "to 
be in » Gi or pnoker," li uid to 
be dsriTed from v. 117. 

' Teunro Becvsris of Favia, 
Abbot of VidlambrciH uid Legate 
of Pope Aleunder 17. at Flo- 
roDCD, vaa tuoiued of tnscher- 
oiul; plotting to bring back the 
eiilcJ Ghibellinu, and beheaded 
in 1258. Bene, da tmofa; Vilt. 
vL 65. 

■ Thfa Gianni wu of Ghibel- 
line farnilj ; and in I2G6, after 

thedefeat of Manfred, "put Lim- 
■df at the head of the popnlacf^ 
in order to Km into power, not 
rtigarding the ianie, which was 
to hurt the GhiboUinuB and ruin 
himaelf," kc VOL vii. 14. 

• Onnetlone or Gano, the tnu- 
or at KoDccirallei : celebrated 
a the old iHwtB. "OnewScamit 
ad new Ganillion," ka. Chau- 
er, Jfotau'i PriaU't TaU. 
' Tribaldello de' Manfredl of 
Paenia, who for moni!; opened 
it native ait; at dead of night 
I the Freuoh in 1282 ; and that 

■rilh tl 

"bloody heap' {canto uvii 
41) at ForlL Fi«, vii. 80, SI. 


We had alread)' left Mm, when I eaw two firozeo 
in one hole so chselif, that Iho one head was a cap 
to the other. And as bread is chewed for liiuiger, j 
so Uie uppermost put bis teeth into the other there i 
where the brain joins with the nape. Not otherwise 
did Tjdeus' gnaw the temples of MenaUppus for 
rage, tlian he the skull and the other parts. 

" tliou 1 who by such bnital token sheweat thy . 
hat6 on him whom thou devoui'est, toll me why," I'| 
said: "on tins condition, that if tJiou with reaactn j 
complainest of him, I, knowing who ye are and hu I 
offence, may yet repay thee in the world above, if I 
that, wherewith I speak, be nut di'iod up." 

Sai eravani portiti gia da ello, 

Ch'io vidi duo gluucciati in una biica 
SI, ehe r iin ch^o all' altro era cappollo ; 

"E coma il pan per fame si monduca, 
Cosl il eovraD li denti all' altro poee 
Lk, 'vo U cervel s' f^giunge con la Duca. 

Non altrimenti Tideo ei rose 

Le t«mpie a Monalippo per disdegno, 
Che quel faceva il teschlo e I' altre cose. 

ta, che moatri per d bestial segno 
Odio sDvra colui che tu ti mangi, 
Dimmi il perch^, diss' io : per tal convegno, 

Che se tu a ragion di lui ti piaogi, 

Sappiondo clii voi siote, e la sua pecco, 
Sel Bioudo BUBO ancor io te ne cangi, 

Se quella, con ch' io patio, son g{ secca. 

■ See 8teti<u, ThA •> 
ke. : Cafta, of capvX, ol 

■ r«t. I 


" Wherewithsl a man Biniietli, by tlie Bsme also ehall be be pun- 
ilhed" iqviaper qua peerat ytiU.per h/cc et tortjuBtur), b the 
unaltemble law which Dante eeea written — not onl; In the 
aocieDt Hebrew records, but ia every part of the ITaiverM, 
The linners whom he here finds frozen Itigether In one hole 
are Count Ugotino and Arcbliishop Buggieri (Roger) of Ffea, 
traitors both ; and Huggieri has the Shadow of Ugolino's hunger 
gnawing upon him in the eternal Joe, while Ugollno hH the 
Image of his own base trencherf and hideous death contiiia- 
allj before him. He lifts up his head from the horrid meal, 
and pauneg, when Dante recalls to him his earthly life, in the 
same waj as the storm paused for Franceses; and the Arch- 
bishop Is HilcDt OS Paolo. See canto t. 

Thetwotragediesoceurrednboat the very same time — when Dante 
was nearly twenty-four years of age; and, so far oa we have 
the means of aecertainlng, he «oems to have been accurately 
acqnainted with the circumstances of both, and to have taken 
them e«ttctly as they occurred. The Archbishop was aummoned 
to Rome, to nocoimt for the murder of Dgolino — wnth what 
resnlt is not known ; perhaps because the Komish clergy, when 
found guilty of great crimes, are usually supprewed and taken 
out of eight. The FieuDS never recovered their ancient state 
and power, after the disasters and crimes of 1284-0 ; Init lott 
thdr islands of Sardinia and Corsica ; were seized with cow- 
ardice {"vilta" in Vdl. vii. 154), so that Guldo dl Montefaltro, 
the best general of the time, whom they had appointed Lord 
of their city, "durst not shew hiniBelf" with them when the 
Florentines were laying waste and burning its sul>urbs. They 
and it rapidly became insi^lScant in the atfairs of Ilaly. 
HH, vii. la? ; rUI. 2, 80, io. 

After leaving Dgolino, the Poet* go on to the Third King or Ttolo- 
miea, which takes its name from the Pto!oma!UB(l.Uiici7(ifr. xvL 
11, Jtc) who "had ahnndanoe of silver and gold," and "made 
a great banquet" for Us father-in-law Simon the high priest 
and his two eons ; and, " when Simon and bis sons had drunlt 
largely," treacherously slew them " in the banqueting place." 
Friar AlUerigo and Branca d' Oris ere found In it. 

CANTO xxxm. 

From the fell repast that sinner raised liia moath, 
wiping it upon Uie hair of the liead he had laid waste 
behind. Then he began: "Thou wiilcat that I re- | 
new desperate grief, which wi-inga my heart, even 
at the very thought, before I toll thereof. But if 
my words are to bo a seed, that may bear fruit of 
infamy to the traitor whom I gnaw, tlion shalt see 
mo Bpeak and woep at the same time, I know not 
who thou mayest be, nor by what mode thon hast 1 
come down here; hut, when I hear thee, in tmth I 
tliou seeniest to me a Florentine. Thoa hast to know 
that I WB.S Count Ugolino, and this the Archbishop I 

La. bocca GoUevb dal ficro posto 

Quel peccator, forbcndola a' capelli 

Del capo cli' egli avsa diretro guasto. 
Poi cominci6 : Tu vnoi ch' lo rinnovelli 

Diepeiato dolor, uhe il cor mi prunie, 

Gii pur peasaado, i)ritt cL" io ne favelli. 
Ma so le mic parole esser den seme, 

Che &utti infmnifl ol tiaditoi ch' io rodo, 

Parlaro e lagrimar vedrai insieme. 
Io Hon BO chi tu sic, n^ per die niodo 

Venuto sei quoggiti ; ma Fiorentino 

2fi somhri veiameate, qaaad' io t' odo. 
Tu dei saper ch' io fui il Conlo Ugolino, 

E queeti 1' AroiTcscovo Ruggieri : 

Ruggieri :' now I will tell thee why I am such a 
neighbour to htm. That by the effect of his ill de- 
vices I, confiding in liim, was taken and thereafter 

Or ti dir6 perch' io eon tol vicino. 

Cho per 1' ofTutto do' suoi mal pensieri, 

Fidandomi di lui, io foasi preso 

' Count Ceolino ile' Gierar. 
dcMhi, ohjef of tbe Guelplia in 
Piu ; lUid Arolibishop Ruggicrt 
ilugli Ubaldini, ohiDf of the Ohi- 
betlmes. In the jcai 1284, FUa 
Tu the only oitf nf Tuacui; tEut 
acUiered to the Ghibellino paity ; 
and Ugolmo himself wu of a 
Ghibcllitio family, but quite un- 


In that 

r, after the iliui- 
roUB aea-Gglit ultb tbe Genoeae, 
D Sunday 6th Augnat, in vliich 
laoy of tbeir gal- 
d had 16,000 of theit brat 
r taken prUonen, 
nes (in September) 
[ue with the Luc- 
olii'ie, Sieneae, &e. together with 
the Oenoeee to make war on 


a Flor 

d other 

Tnsctuu by land, and the Genooae 
by aea." Ugolino, who had fled 
from the buttle before it waa foLy 
iJeoided, now by bribery nnd other 
unfair meana induced the Flo- 
rentinea to withdraw aeorttlj 
from tbe leaiguo ; and by tlielr aid 
" orpdled the GhibelUnea Siran 
Piaa, anil made himaelf master of 
it with the Guolpha," VUl. vii 
92, 98. See also ^nno^ Genue<it. 

p. 587; Chrimica di Pirn, inTartin. 
Supp. Rer. ItnL t. L p. «H. 

AgMU, in July 1288, when 
tbiee portiea were competing tor 
the maatery in Piaa. viz. Nino de' 
Vieconti, Juilge of Oalluni, with 
certain Ouelpha ; UgoUno, with 
the reat of the Guclpba ; and, in 
oppoaition to both, "Ajchbiahop 
Ruggiari degli Ubaldini, with the 
Lanfranchi, and Gualaudi, and 
SiamoDdi and other Ghibetline 
houaei : the aaid Count Ugolino, 
in order to make biniaclf master, 
united with the Archbishop and 
hia iKtrty, and betrayed JudgB 
Nino, not cuuiddering that be 
wu hia own grandson, auD of hia 
own daughter -, and titey amuiged 
that he should be expelled frou 
risa with hia followera, or seiied 
in peiaim. Nino hearing thit; 
and not finding himaelf able to 
make defcnee, left the city and 
went to Caloi, Ilia caatle ; and 
leagued with the Florcatinea and 
Lucoheae, to make war on the 
riaana. The Count, before Nino 
wiLs gone, in order the better tu 
L-uneoal hia trcaehery, when every 
thing wna unmgad for the ex- 
puliion of the Judge, went out of 


put to death, it is not necessary to saj: but that 
which tliou canst not have learnt, that is, how arnel 
•was my death, thou shalt hear — and know if he has 

offended me, 

£ poscia morta, dir son k m^iori. 

Peri) quel che non puoi avere inteso, 

Cio^, come la morte niia fu cruda, 

Udirai ; e saprai se m' ha offego. 

Piu to a manor of hia sailed Bet- 
timo. As loOD u he wu mformcd 
of Nino'i departnte, ha rotntned 
to PiBft with great joy, and wai 
made Lord of the oityunid groat 
rejoiaing and festivitj. But hia 
lordlincBS wu of brief duration. 
FortUDD turned against Mm, aa 
it pleaied God, becaiue of his 
treaeherlea and aina ; for with 
truth it wu laid he had caused 
AnaoltDO da Capnua, hia aiater'a 
BOO. to bo poisoned, out of envy 
and fear, leat Anselnio, who was 
much eateomed in Piaa, might 

taVe hia place The forso of 

the Guelphi being thui impaired, 
the ArohbisLop took meana to be- 
tray Count Ugolino, and oaused 
him to be audJcnl; attacked in 
hia palaoe by the fiU7 of tho 
people, telling them that he had 
bettajed Piaa, and given up Uioir 
Castle* to the Flercntinea and 
Lucchese ; and the peoptu having 
oome upon him without any de- 
fence, he (Urreudvred. And in 
this aunult, a bsatard ion and a 
Srandion of Count Ugolino'a were 
killed ; and he hinuelf taken, with 

ro of hia aona and thmofortwo? 
I below) of hia giundohildren, 
ins of hia aon, and put il 

' Vill.Y 


" In tlio following March, the 
Pisana. who had impriaoned Count 
tTgolino with two of hia sons, and 
two Bona of his aon Count Oualfo 
(as wo hare Dientioned above), 
in a tower on the Piaim degli 
Anziani, caoaed the door of that 
tower to bo locked op, the keyi 
to be thrown into the Amo, and 
oil food withheld fmm the aud 
priaonon, who died of hunger in 
n few days. Bat the Count had 
prerioiuly kept demanding pemi- 
tenca with load criea, and yet (hej 
feuahiuL All the five, when dead, 
were dragged togetbef from the 
tower and laeanly interred ; and 
frooi theuceforward the said pri- 
son waa called the Towerof Fam- 
inu, and alwayl will be. Forthaa 
cruelty the I'iaans thronghodt Ilia 
whole world, wherevu it beOBW 
known, were greatly blauud ; B0l 
■o niQch for the Covot hiwwlf, 
who by reaaon of hii crime* and 

" A narrow hole widiiii the mew, ivliicli from 
me has the title of Famine, and in which others yet 
must be shut up, had through its opening already 
shewn me several moons,' when I slept the evil sleep 
that rent for me the curtain of the future. This nuxtt 
seemed to me lord and master, chasing the wolf and 
his whelps, upon the mountain' for which the Pisans 
cannot see Lucca. "With hounds meagre, keen, and 
dextrous, he had put in front of him Gualandi witli 
Sismondi, and with Lanfranehi.' After short course, 

Erove pertugio Oentro daUa rauJa, 
La qual per mc ha il titol dolla iame, 
E in che convieua ancor cL' oltri si chiuda, 

M' avea mosttato per lo suo forame 

Fiji lune gill, quaud' io feci il mal sonuo, 
Che del futuro mi squarcib il velanie. 

Queati pareva a mo maestro e donno, 
Cacciaudo il lupo e i lupicini al mouto, 
Per che i Piaaii veder Lucca bou ponno. 

Con cagno magre, stadioae e coute, 

Gualandi con Sismoudi, e con Lanininchi 
S' avea messi dinanzi dalla fronte. 

treachery vai perhapa worth; of i Supplem. Reir. lUL 
auah a death, but for hia emu uid 
(p'uulwnt who wcie young boy> 
tad innoceat, eh' erano giovani 
intratntt innncenEt." VM.'riLVii. 
FoT further detuli lOO Cranka 
di Pita, in Hunt Eer. It<J. t. xv. 
p. 9T0, lie; Annala Otnutn. ihiil, 
t. vi. p. M8, &o.; Frai/n. Bill. 
Pit. ibid, t uiv. p. C4S, && ; and 
the othurOc/ik diPIta, iaTutin. 

L. p. &6J, 

> From July to Miirch. 

• HoDte St, Giulimo between 
Piw uni] LacoB, whiob uv wme 
twolvD nUlei aiwrt. 

' Humeri, Lord nnd Itlutor of 
the ohuc ; th« Qhibelline Dobld, 
leaden of the keen Honndi or 
papalaccr i UgoUoo, tba father 


the father and Ms sona scorned to me weary; and 
methought I saw their 3aDks torn by the sharp teetb. 
When I awoke before the dawn, I heard my sons 
asking for bread. Tliou art right cruel, if thon dost 
not grieve already at the thought of what my heart 
foreboded ; and if thou woepest not, at what art 
thou used to weep ? Tliey were now awake, and 
the hour approaching at wliich our food ased to be 
brought us, and each was anxious fi-om his dream, 
and below I heard the outlet of the horrible tower 
locked up : whereat I looked into the ^ces of my 
sons, without uttering a woi'd. I did not weep : so 
stony grew I witliin. They wept ; and my little 

In picciol corso mi pareano etanchi 
Lo padre e i figli, e con 1' agute acaue 
Mi parea lor veder foiider li Sanchi. 

Qunndo fui deato innniizi la ilitaanc, 

Fianger eenti' &a 'I sonno i miei £gliuoh*, 
Ch' «rano meco, o dinjandar do! pane. 

Ben sei crudel, se tu gid nnn ti duoli, 

pQoaando ci^ ch' il mio cor a' amiiuiziaYa : 
E se non piongi, di clio pianger suulil 

Giil oran desti, e 1' ora s' appreasava 
Che il cibo ne soleva essero addotto, 
£ per EUD sogno ciascun dubitava, 

Ed io BCQtii chiavftT 1' uscio di sotto 
Air orrihile torre : ond' io guardai 
Nel viso a' miei figliuui seum far motto. 

Io nan piongeva, si dentro impietmi ; 
Piangevan elli ; e Ansclmuccio mio 


C*»TO lisiu. INFERNO. 403 

Anaelm said : ' Thou lookest bo ! Father, wluit ails 
thee?' But I shed no teoi', nor answered all that 
daj, nor the next night, till another sun came forth 
upon the world. Wlien a small ray was sent into 
ihe doleful prition, and I discerned in their four faces 
the aspect of my own, I bit on both my hands for 
grief; and they, thinking that I did it from desire of 
eating, of a sudden rose up, and said: 'Father, it will 
give ua much less pain, if thou wilt eat of us : thoa 
didst put upon us this miserable flesh, and do tliou 
strip it off.' Then I calmod myself, in order not to 
mate them more unhappy. That day and the next 
1 all were mute. Ah, hard earth I why didst thou 
not open? When wo had come to the fourth day, 

Disse : Tu goardi si ! Padro, che hai 1 

Fetty noa lagrimai, n^ rispos' io 

Tutto quel giomo, nk la notte apprcsso, 
Infin che 1' nltro sol ne) mondo ubc(o. 

Como im poco di rnggio si fu messo 
Sel doloroao carcore, ed io ecorsi 
Per quattro visi il mlo aspetto stesso, 

Ambo le mani per dolor mi moral ; 

E qaei, pensando ch' io il fesd per voglia 
Di maniuBT, di subito levorsi, 

E dissor : Padio, ossai ci fia men doglia, 
8e tu mangi di noi : tu no vestirti 
Queatc misere cami, e tu Io spoglia. 

Qiietaimi oUor, per non farli pilt triati : 
Quel dt, e 1' altro atemmo tutti mtiti : 
ALi dura tarro, percht non t' apriati 1 

Poacia ch" funinio al auarto di vonuti, 

404 INFEltNO. ciSTO xxxm. 

{?addo tlu'ew liiuiHelf strctclnxl out at my icet, spy- 
ing: 'My father! why dou't you help me?' There 
he died ; aiid even as thou seest me, saw I the three 
fell one by one, between the fiftli day and the usth, 
whence I betook me, ah-eady blind, to groping over 
each ; and for three days called them, after they were 
dead. Then fasting had more powei- than grief."' 

When he had spoken this, with eyes distorted 
ho aeized tlie miserable skull again with his teeth, 
which aa a dog's were strong upon the bone. Ah, 
Fii»a I scandal to the people of the beanteous Usd 
where "Si" is heard I' Since thy neighbours are 

Gaddo mi d gitti diatoso a' piedi, 
Sicendo : Padre mio, che nua m' aiuti t 

Quiri mori ; e coiau tu mi vedi, 70 

Vid' io cascar li tre ad uuo ad imo, 
Tta il quinto dl e il eeato, ond' io mi diedi 

Gik cieco a bmncokr sovra ciascuuo; 
£ tre dl li chiamai, poi di' ei fui tuorti : 
Poscia, pid ehu il dolor, pot6 il digiimo. 75 

Qoand' cbbe detto ci^, con j^Ii oi:chi torti 
Itiprese il teechio miaero co' denti, 
Che furo all' oaso, come d' un can, forti. 

Ahi Pisa, rituperia delle gonti 
Del bcl paeae Ik dova il «i suooa ; 80 

' So tliat Ugolino died on the 
ninth duf : and this old Fiwin com- 
mentatoT Buti ■ayi tiic tovar wu 
opoDud after eight inji, "i/opo 
li olio i/iuraL" Many voluniea 
have beeu written about vene 75. 
Data the pill pvti ("»iu mora 

powoifnl") Indicate otij t 
hunger Idlled Ugolino ? Oi i 
futing orerouue hit Hum, i 

ohildreu hxl invited I Tha ws 
admit of either m 
» Itnly, 1 

tusTO min. INFEENO. 405 

slow to puuish thee, let the Capraia and Gorgona' 
move, and hedge np the Amo at its mouth, that it 
may drawn in theo every living bouI. For if Count 
Ugolino had tlie fame of having betrayed thee in 
thy castles, Uiou oughtost not to have put hia bods 
into such torture. Their youthful age, thou modem 
Thebea 1 made innocent Ugueeione aud Brigata, and 
the otlier Uvo whom my song above haa named." 
Wo ■went &rther on, where the frost ruggedly 

Poi ohe i vicini a te punir sou lenti, 

Maovasi la Capmia e la Gorgona, 

£ foccion sicpo ad Amo in bu la foce, 
Si ch' egli aaiueglii iii te ogai persona. 

Chi se il Conte Ugolino avuva voce 85 

D'aver tradita t<! dtille castella, 
Non dovui tii i figliuoi putre a tal croce, 

lunocenli facea I' etii novella, 

Novella Tebe 1 Ugueeione e il Brigata, 

E gli altri duo cho il contu suao appcUa. 90 

Xoi paasamm' oltie, dove la gelata 

for yet, Dante [Vulg. Eloq. L 8) 
give* Ji <a Ja ai ohanuiterirtio of 
the Oennuu, 8u:oni, ke. ; Of 
of the "Spaniard!" (tiie Langiu 

<rOr, lued at thd Court of Cutils ; 

a Prove: 

which it g»TU nuus) ; OH or oiii of 
the Flench, uiil 51 of the Italiaiu. 

' Small inliuida, not fu' frois 
the mouth ol the Amo. 

■ Troja in hii Vdtro AlUgoriro 
(Flor. 182C, p. 28. 4c) » — -- '" 


□ Til]«a 

oontempomy hiitonam, that U- 
golino'c Huu and grandwu were 
not innoeBdt, the ArahbiiliDp not 
gailtr. Iw. ; but the VtUn itill 
iitBua much more like a lomuuw 
tliuiBiiieMof wberliiatoi?. One 
il led to eipeet ■peulj pruofi of 
manj hutanloui atMrtiom in it, 
and the; have now tnen due tor 
twentj-two yean. Sueh booki 
darken onry fori of the mbjacta 
on which they treat, anJ are in- 

inwTapa another people, not bent forwards, but all 
reversed.' The very weeping there allows (/tern not 
to weep ; and the grief, which finds impediment 
upon their eyes, turns inward to increase the agony : 
for their first tears fiinn a knot, and, like ciystaJ 
vizors, fill uji all the cavity beneath flielr eyebrows. 
And although, as from a callous, through the cold all 
feeling had departed from my face,' it now seemed 
to me as if I felt some wind. Whereat I : " Master, 
who moves this? Is not all heat extinguished here 
below ?" Whence he to me : " Soon shall thou be 

Cuvidamonte nn' altra gente fascia, 
Non volta in giti, ma tutta riversota. 

Lo pianto stesao 11 pianger non loscia, 
E il duel, cho truova in su gli occhi rintoppo, 95 
Si volve in entro a far cresoer V ambaflcia ; 

Ch.b le lacrimo prime ianno groppo, 
E, b1 come visiore di cristallo, 
Siempioa sotto il ciglio tutto il coppo. 

E awegna cho, ai come d' on callo, 100 

Per la &oddura ciascun sentimento 
Coaaato aveaaa del mio viso stallo, 

Gii mi parea acntire alquanto vento ;' 

Per ch' io : Maestro mio, queato chi muovo 1 
Non fe quaggiuBO ogni vaporo spcnto I IflS 

Ond' egli a me : Avaccio saiai dove 

I The Poeta lutve now tmae to 
the Thinl Ring, or PtolomiDa, 
The (piriti in it have thiir heiuls 
tamed backir&rdi, koil not dawn, 
like tbose in th« Caina uuj An- 

^Don. Tbnj' shew no tediaf of 
ihaiuo, or datiru tu eunaoa] them- 
iclvn: " all best iieitiDgiiiihed" 
iiuDDg thvm. 

' "Loft thr abode of my hoc' 

where tliine eye iUelf, seeing the cnusc whieh rains 
the blast,' shall answer thee in tliis." And one of 
the wretched uliadmcs of the ley crust cried out to 
us : "0 .«>u]a, so cruel that the last post of ail is 
given to yon I Remove the hard veils from my face, 
that I may vent the grief, which stuffs my heart, a 
little ere the weeping freeze again." Wherefore I 
to him : " If thou woiildst have me aid thee, toll me 
who thou art ; and if I do not extricate tliee, may I 
have to go to the bottom of the ice." 

He answered : " Then I am Friar Alberigo,' T 

Di ci6 ti fiirii 1' occtio 1a risposta, 
Veggendo la cagion che il fiato piove, 

E un de' tristi della fredda crosta 

Gridh a noi : O anime cnideU 110 

Tanto. che data v' k V ultima posta, 

Levatemi dal viso i duri veil, 

SI ch' io efoghi il dolor che U cor m' impregna, 
Un poco pria che il pianto si raggeli. 

Per ch' io a lui ; Se vuoi ch' io ti aowegna, 1 15 

Dimmi cM sei, e s' io non ti dishrigo, 
Al fondo della ghiaccia ir mi conv^na. 

Kiapoae : Adimque io son Frate Alberigo, 

' The wind hers ooniei down. 
S«e uixt ouito, renra 8, 50, &«. 

' Old Alberigo de' Mikiifredj, 
another of the Jorul Frion (mo 
their profeuian, canto iiiii. ]03^ 
Hi I tindrsd were Onotpbt and 
Lordi of Facnin ; and one of 
them, tha " young mud fiaiy" 
Klimfredo de' llunfrodi, in a (it of 

paMdon, gave him a 
fau. Alberio " 
ijnietl; bote the affront for ■ 
long time. And at last, vben 
he thooght the other might hava 
forgotten it. iiretcnded that he 
wiihed to bo recoDoiled. Then 
Muifrcd begged pu-don for hia 
youthful beat ; and, tbu p«co 

408 INFERNO. CAJfTO xnau 

am he of the fruits from the ill garden, who here 
receive dates for my figs."' 

"Hah I" said I to him, "then art thou dead too?* 
And ho to me : " How my body stands in the 
world above, I have no knowledge. Such pri\'ilege 
has this Ptoloma?a, that oftentimes the sou! falls down 
hither, ere Atropos impels it' And that thou more 
willingly mayost rid the glazen i^ars from oflF mjr 
face, know that forthwith, when the soul betrays, 

lo eon quel dello &utte del mal orto, 

CLequi riprendo dattero per 6go. 120 

Oh, disai lui, or aei tu oncor morto 1 

Ed egli a me : Come il mio corpo atea 

Kel moudo su, nulla acienzia porto. 
Cotal vantaggio ha questa Tolomea, 

Che spesge volte I'onima ci csdo 135 

lunauzi ch' Atiop^s mossa le dea. 
E perchi tu pifi volentier mi rade 

Le invetriale lagrimo dal volto, 

Sappi, cho tosto clio 1' anima trade. 


being mado up between them, 
Alberic gave a buii|uet, to which 
Manfred ui.l his aoa (Alber- 
gbeUo, ov " little Albaric") were 
invited. The nipper over, with 
great alacrity old Alberio cried. 
'Mow brinti the fruit!' And lud- 
dooly hia larvauU, who had been 
oonoealod behind a actuen, nuhed 
forth armed, and slew both the 
father and the urn, Alberio mean- 
vhile looking on aad rejoioing." 
Bmi: da Imola. Sea also Pitiro 
di Dantt. The " Pniit of Friar 

Alberie" theoMfortll beoama a 
proverb. Thn " ill garddii" ia 
Fa«nN^ flam wbioh Tribaldetlo 
(canto luii. 122), » Dhibellina 
of the ume Manfredi fajnilf, alao I 
oame. Xbid. i 

' Or, get full ropi^nionb 
■ Ere Atropo* oati the lif*- 
thread, or "i[lvea ajgnal to nmw." 
Vmiai mart mptr iltot! d de. 
KCiulaal an In/rm Hn riMMM, " let 
them go down quick |w Urin^ 
into HelL" P: U*. 16; It. U. 
Qnoted hj Fietro, ke, , 

c*MT) ixaij. INFEBNO. 409 

a3 I did, her body is taken from her by a Demon 
wlio thereafter rules it, till its time has all rCT'olved. 
She falls rusliing to this cistern ; and perhaps the 
body of this other ahado, which winters hero behind 
me, is still apparent on tlte earth above. Thon must 
know, if thou art but now come down : it is Ser 
Branca d' Oria;' and many years havo passed since 
he was thus shut up." 

" I believe," said I to him, " that tliou deceivest 
me ; for Branea d' Oria never died ; and eatA, and 
drinks, and sleeps, and puts on clothes." 

" In the ditch above, of tlie Malebranche," said 
he, "there where the tenacious pitch' la boiling, 

Come fee' io, il corpo euo 1' h tolto 1 30 

Da un Dimonio, cho poscia il govema, 

Mentro eho il tempo suo tutto sia volto. 
Ella luina in si fatta tiatema ; 

E foiso pare ancor lo corpo suso 

Dell' oiubrn, cho di qua dietro mi vema. 135 

Tu il dei saper, se tti vien piir mo giueo : 

Egli 6 Ser Branca d' Oria, o son piii euuu 

Poscia passati ch'ei fii si racchiuso. 
Io credo, dissi a lui, che tu m' ingaimi ; 

Cb6 Branca d' Oria non morl unciuanche, 140 

E ntangifi, e hun, e dorme, e veate panni 
Nel fo33o su, diss' ei, di Malebranche, 

U dove bolle la tenaca pece, 

> Of tUe gnst Doria familj'. i father-in-Uv, Misbol Zuuha of 

GUbellinw of Ooooa. Id cod- Logodoro, "In ordcT to get poi- 

junetioD vith his nephew, he in- mhIoh of bia immoiue wealth." 

Tited to a banqnat, and -ii— ~ I Rrnr. da Imota; Pirtro, 

treubeioua]; muidmd, 'n ixi. 7, to. 


Michel Zanclie' had not yet arrived, when this man 
left a Devil in his stead in Uie body of himself, and 
of one of hia kindred who did the treaeheiy along 
with him. But reach hither thy hand : open my 
eyes." And I opened them not for him: and to be 
rude to liim was courtesy.* 

Ah, Genoese 1 men estranged from all moralitj-, 
and ftiU of all comiption,' why are je not scattered 
from the earth ? For with the worst spirit* of Ro- 
magna, found I one of ye, who for his deeds even 
now in soul bathes in Cocytus, and above on earth 
still bcema ahve in body. 

Non era giunto ancora l^Iichel Zanche, 

Che quQsti ]aaci6 un Diavolo iu sua vece 143 

Nel corjio auo, e d' un suo prosaimano, 
Che il trodimento insiemo con lui fec«. 

Ma distend! oramai in qua la maoo, 

Aprimi gli occhi ; cd ia non glJele apersi : 

E corteaia fu lui esser viUono. 150 

Ahi Genovesi, uomini diverei 
D' ogni costume, e pien d' ogni magagna, 
Perchft non siete voi del monJo sperai I 

ChS col poggiore apirto di Bomagna 

Trovai un tol di voi, che per sna opra 155 

In anima in Cucito gi& si bagna, 

E in corpo par vivo anoor di sopra. 

' Tbe buterer of canto -rwM i 

' So Arioslo {Orl. Fur. zirii. 

77} : Gli i Icro eiataia C rmr 

rillauo, '"tit n oliaritylo bo mdo 

' C i at u vAtmal. Pen. [Mnrnt. \ 

Ret. IbL vi. 008) for UHwtiHMi 
st tbe time b; J>oa{>o Dori* (A- 
cobuM dt Auria), in trhich qnha 
M bnd on accoimt a giTon of thn 
• ^Vitb tbo Friw . 


TbeJndeocR, or Last Circlet of CocTtoe, UkeslUnnme fromJudB* 
iBCariot, and containB Uie eouU of thoM ' who betra;«d thdr 
mMt«n BDd benefutors.' Tho Arch Traitor Sfttan, " Emperor 
□f the Realm of Sorrow," gtondB tixed in the Centre of iti and 
he loo is punifhed by hia own Sin. Al! the utreiuiis of Oullt 
keep floniog back to him, as their guurce ; and from beneath 
hie three Kacee (Shadows of hie' coneclousnena) issue forth the 
inighl}> wings with which he stmgglea, as it were, to rabie him- 
eclf : and sends out winds that freeze lum only the mora firmly 
io hi£ ever-Bwcliing Marsh, Dnnl« has to talic a full view of 
him too ; and then Is carried through the Centre bj his Mystic 
Guide — " grappling on the hair of Satan," not witJiout dgnlfl- 
oatice ; and set down on " the other face of the Judcooo." And 
iioiv the bitter joumoy of out Pilgrim is over; and a tone of 
gladnoBSgoeslbrough the remaining verses. Hell ia now behind 
him, and the Stars of Qeaven aboTe: he has got beyond the 
' Everlasting So,' and is " aore travaiJJed," and the " way is 
long and difficult," but it leads from Darliness to the "bright 
world." AfttiT some brief inquiries, " without oaring for anj 
repose," by aid of the hiiavon-sent Wisdom he " plucks himself 
from the Abyss;" and follows ciimbing, till they see the Staiv 
in the opposite bemiqihere. 

CANTO sxxrv. 

" Vexilla Regis prodeuni In/emi^ fowardfl na 
therefore look in front of thee," my Master said, 
"if tliou diacemest him." As, when a thick miat 
breathes, or when the night ooraes on our henu- 
sphere, a mill, turning with the wind, appears 
distance : such an edifice did I now seem to see 
and, for the wind,' shrunk back beliind my Guide, 
because no other shed was there. Already I had 
come (and with fear I put it into verae) where aS 
the souls were covered,^ and shone tbi'ough like etraw 

Vexilla Eegis prodeunt Infemi 
Vereo di noi : perb dinanzi mini, 
Disse U Maestro mio, ae tu il diuratii 

Come quando \a\a, grossa nebbia epiia, 
quando 1' emisperio noatro anuotta 
Par da lungi im mulin cho al vento giia ; 

Voder mi parve un tal di£cio allotta : 
Poi per lo vento mi ristrinsi retro 
Al Duca mio ; ch5 noa t' era allra grotto. 

Giii era (e con paura il metto in metro) 
li, dove r ombre tutte eran coverte, 
E trasparenn come feetuca in vetro. 

' "The banoert of the King of i tho mysteiy of tha Cidm. I< 

Hell oomi] forth." 7aUla Rtait ' ■otemnly chanted on tlio Fti 

prodcuTit: Ftilyet Crucu tnyttt- | of Holy Week, 

rium, Cuo villi nor*™ prrlulit, I > "Tho wind" EtosT. 51, 

St morU Wain protulu, do., ia | * In tho latt or emtnl riafi 

•n anoibnt bynm of triumph, on | Coa;tiu, 

OJlHTO hut. inferno. 413 

in glass. Some keep lying ; some etand upright, tliia 
on its head, and that tipon its soles ; another, like a 
tow, bends face to feet, 

When we had proceeded on so far, that it pleased 
my Guide to shew to rae the Creature which was 
once 80 fair,' he took himself from before me, and 
made me stop, saying: "Lo Dia! and lo tlie place 
where it behoves thee arm thyself with fortitude." 

How icy chill and hoarse I then became, ask 
not, Reader 1 for I write it not, because all speech 
would fail to tell.' I did not die, and did not re- 
main alire: now think for thyself, if thou haat any 

Altie stamio a giacere, altie stanno erte, 

QuEilla col capo, e quelk coa le piante ; 

Altra, com' anro, il volto a' piedi iuverte. 16 

Quando noi funiino fatti tanto avante, 

Ch' al luio Uaeatro piacqiie di mostrarmi 

La creatuw <ih' ebbe il bel Bcmbiante, 
Dinanzi mi si tolee, e fe' restarmi, 

Eoco Dite, dicendo, eJ eceo il loco 20 

OvB convien che di fortcata t' armL 
Com' io diveiini allor geluto o fioco, 

Nol diniandiir, Lettor, cli' lo non lo scrivo, 

Peril ch' oyni parlar sarebbo poco, 
lo non morii, o non rimasi vivo ; 25 

Penaa ommai per te, rf hai fior d' ingegno, 

bell, to ilifi ride* of the pit" (ad 
in/emum, in prefundam lad), 
Luiah liv. 1Z-I6. 

' iil. : " Wguld be little ;" 
•roolil ijo short «■; to tetl t)ie iteto 
in whioh 1 wrt tlglit of DU 

■ Lit.! "Which luul the beftu- 
teoiu leniblaiice :" tureit of the 
AngeU onee. " Row art thoa 
fallen Iroin limven, O Lucifer, 
ton uf the morning I . . . . fet 
Ibon dialt be brought doim to 




grain of ingenuity, what I became, deprivej of both 

death and life. The Emporur of lite dolorous t- m1w1j 

■£rom mid breast stood fortb out of the ice; and 

Bfn size am liker to a giant, than the giaiits an> 

I his arms.' Mark now how great that whole mnel 

[ be, which corresponds to such a part If be wa> 

' once as beautifiil a^ he id ugly now, and lifted up 

his brows against tiis Maker, well may all affliction 

come from him. Oh how great a marvel seemed it 

to me, when I saw three faces' on his bead I 

Qoal io diTcnni, il' ono e d' altro privo. 
Lo Imperador del doloroso regno 

Da mezzo il potto uacia fiiot della ghiaccia ; 

£ piii con ua gjgante lo lui convegno, 
Che i giganti non &ji con le soo braccia : 

Vedi ogginiai qimnt' esser dee quel tutlo, 

Oh' a cod fatta parte si confoccia. 
S' ei fu fil bo!, com' egli 4 ora brotto, 

K contra il sue Fattore alzii Io ciglio. 

Sen dee da lui procedure ogni lutto. 
<iU[iato parve a nie gian moroviglin, 

Quando vidi tro facce alia sua testa ! 

' Or, I "t^ree better," In sue iMetl at eooac 
and aUture, with vae of the Uie Foirei, wnd Wbdom, uid 
glonta, tluui they do with Mie of Lore, in euito iii. ft, Aa. i hope- 
Satan's anno. leu Impotiniae, glowing with 

nge, ID the icarlet or vennilioD ; 
darknt Ignorsnce in the blaok j 
and enTimu Hatred in Uib pale- 
yellow fade. Eanoe Hilton (Par. 
Loit, iT. Hi) : 
' The thiw faoB> are mublem- 



CiSTO miv. rNFBRNO. 415 

one in front, and it was fiery red : the others were 
two, that were adjoined to this, above the very mid- 
dle of each shoulder ; and they were joined np to 
his crest ;' and the riglit seemed between white and 
yellow;, the left was such to look on, as they who 
come from where the Nile begins his valley.' Under 
each there isauotl forth two mighty wings, of size 
be6tting snch a bird : sea-sails I never saw bo broad.* 
No plumes had they ; but were in form and texture 
like a bat's :* and he wad flapping them, so that 
three winds went forth from him, whereby Cocytus 

L' una dinanzi, e qualla era vermiglia : 
L' altro aron dae, che s' ag^ungeano a qaeata 40 

Sovr' esso il mezzo di ciascuna spalia, 

E si giungeano al luogo della cicsta. 
£ la deetra paroa tra bianca e gialla : 

La sinistra a vedere era tal, quali 

Vongon di I^ ove U Nilo s' awaUa. 
Sotto ciascuna oscivau duo grand' oli, 

Quanto si convunivn a tanto uccello ; 

Yele di mar non vid' io mai cotali. 
If on avean penne, ma di Tispistrello 

Era loi modo : e quelle svolazzava, 

81, che tre venti si moveon da cllo. 



Lit. : " Up to tlie place d 
it." The three facee □ 
ir qualities to form the Creit 
of him, cuUem nf hia Pride. 

jr Bight," 


Uiu wingt like a huge tampln ) 
uid, Sapping theiD, aendi forth 
the blaata of loipotency, Igoor- 
anoe, and Hatred, vhich froeca 
■U the Uonh of Sin — thereby 
tiling liitaielf oidy the more 
■tniiigly in it. 

' Lit. ; " But as & bat'i wai 
*' '■ or f iiahiuu. 


all was frozen. With six eyes he wept ; ami down 1 
three cliina gushed tears and bJoody foam. In every 1 
muiitb he champed a sinner with his toeth, like n I 
brake ; so that he thus kept three of them in tor- I 
meiit. To the one in front, tlie biting was nonglit, I 
compared with the tearing ; for at times the back of I 
him remained quite stript of skin. 

" That aoul np there, which suffers greatest piin- 
ishment," said the Master, " is Judas Iscariot, he J 
who has his head within, and outside plies lus legs, f 
Of the other two, who have their hcada beneath, that | 
one, who hangs from the black visage, is Brutus :' 
sec how he writhes himselt^ and utters not a word. ] 

Quintli Cocito tutto s' a^lava. 

Con Bsi occhi piangeva, e per tre meuti 

Gocciava il pianto e sangiiinosa bava. 
Da ogni hocca dirompea co' denti 

Va peccatore, a guisa di mnciulla ; 

SI cha tre ne facea cod dolenti. 
A quel liinanzi il mordere era milla 

Verso il jp^fiiar, clio lal volta la schiona 
' Rimanca delln pelle tutta brulk. 
Quell' anima hasii, ch' ha maggior pens, 

Disse il l^Eaestro, b Giuda Scoiiotto, 

Che il capo ha dontro, e fuor le gamhe mena. 
De gli altri duo, oh' hanno il capo di sotto, 

Quei, cha penda dal nero ceRb, h Bruto : 

Vedi come ei storco, e non fa motto ; 

'laOuiXonaTthiaiaidCorurito, | allo<tea to Cieiu u th* >tipaliitai 
■ad tiio bi muif puutgea of the Founilcr of (hit UniTsml 1 
Purgatorio MiA TniiLSiai, "Q^iM ^ woUy by vliioh the U 


And the other is Cussius, who seems so stark of 
limb. But night is roascending :' and now must we 
depart; for wo have seen the whole." 

As he desired, I clasped his neck: and he took 
Opportoni^ of time and place ; and when the winga 
were opened far, applied hini to the shaggy sides, 
and then from shag to shag descended down, be- 
tween the tangled hair and trozen crusU. 

When we had come to where the thigh revolves 
just on the swelling of the haunch,^ my Guide with 


E r oltro ^ Caesio, cho par s\ membrato. 
Ma la notte risurge ; ed oranuu 
E' da partir, ehi tutto av6m veduto. 

Come a lui piacque, il coUo gli awingliiai ; 
EJ ei preso di tempo e luugo postc : 
E, quando 1' ale luro uperte aiisoi, 

Appigli6 e6 olle vellute coete. 

Di vello in vello giii disce§e poscia, 
Tra il folto pelo e le gelate croete. 

Quando noi funuiio ]k dove la coacia 
Si volgo appunto in sul grosso dell' anche, 


t of the whole world wu 
to be pranded for; md Brutm 
in regu'cled u the ticacheroui 
murdeiei of Cbut : hit good qna- 
UHet, uid the [ortitodo which he 
hara oontiiiusi to ihew, onlj make 
hia guilt Beam blacker. The Kol 
ai, ttaw [Sutloa. KtC Cat, L 82) , 
uid the 'ErcufM, if' $ wifti ; 
{Mait. lavi. 60). might be con- 
lieol«d in Duite'a mind. 
' Night il «an>iiig (it "mccndi" 

with Dante, for to Mm oiir Earth 
il filed in the centre, uid the 
UeaTeoa reToWe, Conv. Tr. lii. c 
5) ; ajid here the old canuueDta- 
tora find niyatic alluaiou to the 
■'Night of Sill." The Poetn buTo 
DOW been twGUty-fooT houn, or 
one night and odd day, in Hell. 
See (vuitoa iL 1; vii 98; iL US; 
U(.124; nLlia&c; udi. la 

> Come to the bip-j<nnt of hint, 
which is cincti J nt the nuJdlit. 

418 INFEI 

labour and witli difficiilly tumeil bis bead wbere he | 
had lind his feet before, and grappled on dio bair, a 
one who mounts ; so that I tboHjjht we were retom- ] 
ing into Hell again. " Hold theo fast I for by such 
stairs," said my Guide, panting like a man foresjwnt, 
" must wo depart from so uiiieb ill." Tliereaflor 
throDgb tlie opening of a rock he issued forth, and 
put me on its brim to sit ; t]ien townixls me he i 
stretched his wajy step. I 

I raised my eyes, and thought to see Lucifer as 
I had left him : and saw him wilb the legs turned 
upwards.' And Uio gross people who see not wliat 
a point' it was tliat I bad jmssed, ere" thfij may 

Lo Duca con fatica e 
Volse la tista ov' egli avea le mnche, 

£d aggrapposBi al pel, come uom che sale. 

SI che in Infemo io cxedea tomar anche. 
Attienti ben, ch& per cetati scale, 

Diase il Maestro, ansando com' nom laeso, 

Conviensi diportir da tanto male. 
Poi uecl fiior per Io foro d' nn saeso, 
jp E pose mo in 8U I' orlo a sedere : 

Apprceeo porse a me 1' accorto paseo. 
Io levai gli occhi, e credetti vedere 

Lucifero, com' i' I' avea lasciato, 

E viJili ie gambo in eu tenure. 
E b' io divenni allora travagliato, 

La gente grossa il penei, cbe non vrdc 

Qua] era il punto ch' io avea paasato. 

' LiL: "Sawliim holding the I ' C 

Centre at the UniTeiu uul 


judge if I grew toil-worn tliea. "Rise up!" sfud 
the Master, "upon thy feet: the wny is long, and 
difficult tlie road;' and now to middle tierco* the 
Sun returns." 

It was no palflce-hall, there where we stood, bat 
natural dungeon with an evil floor and want of light. 
" Before I pluck mj-self from the Abyss," said I 
when risen up, " O Master! speak to me a little, 
to draw mo out of error. Where is the ice ? And 
this, how is he fixed thus upside down ? And how, 
in so short a time, has the Snn from eve to mom 
made transit ?" 

Levati su, diase il JIaeatro, in piedo : 

La via h lungo, e il canrniino 6 malvajpo, 95 

E gii il Sole a mezza terza riedo. 
ffon era cammisata di polagio 

lA ov' eravam, ma natural borclla 

Cli' avea mal suolo, c di Itune dieagio. 
Prima ch' io dell' Abisso mi divella, 100 

Slaestro mio, dies' io quando fai dritto, 

A tjTirnii d' erro nn poco mi fevella. 
OV t la ghiaccia ? e questi com' ^ fitto 

Si sottoaopra ) e coma in el |M)c' era 

Da sera a mane ha fathi il Sol tni^tto! 105 

And bvd. UiM not of Bell leadi 

/tar. IbM. 11. vn. 

' ThB mr=a Ttna or "midJlB 
Tiaroc" of Daate, u elplnincd 
by biniielf (CtnWW, Tr. iv, 23), 
me&n* the time immedUtel; be- 

fore tlie itnike of three, Ibe Thinl 
tuormng-bour : or vith ui nine 
o'dook, at tbo leuon wlien doTi 
Mul nighto nre of e<iuiil loogtb. 
The Poet* hmve no» got into the 
opponti) bemiHphere ; juid left the 
night (t. 68) on thii ude ot tbe 


boa ar^^l 

And he to me : " Thou imagines^ that thou 
stJU upon the otJier side of the centre, where I caught 
hold on tlie hair of the e^'Q Worm' whIcJi pierces 
through the world. Thou wast on that aide, so long 
as I descended : when I ttirned mj-scif, fhoa that 
didst pass tlie point' to which all gravities from every 
part aro drawn ; and now thou art arrived beneath 
the hemiaphore opposed to that' which canopies Hm 
great dry land, and underneath whose summit^ 
consumed the Man, who without sin was horn and 

Ed egli a me : Tu imniagim ancora 

D' esser di Ik dal centro, ov* io mi preai 
Al pol del vermo reo che il mondo fora, 

Di Ih foati cotanto, quant' io aceei : 
Quando mi volsi, tu possasti il pimto 
Al qual si traggon d' ogni parte i pesi : 

£ sei or sotto 1' emisperio giunto, 

Cho k opposto a quel, ube la gran secca 
Coverchio, e sotto 11 cul colmo consunto 

Fu r uom clie nacque e visae senza pecca : 

1 "Tlie pierdng Setpant, even 
LevUtlukD tbiit oruoked Serpent." 
Iiaiah xiviL 1. " And he Uid 
llolil on theDragoD, that old Ser- 
pent, which is the Deri) uid Sa- 
tan .... &nd caAt him into the 
bottomleu Kt-" At. u. 2, Our 
earth gimwed throDgh hj Satui, 
ui an apple by a warm. 

' Loweit point of tbe Univeno, 
Centn ot all Qravitj. 

* The Poeta are now in the 
[niaiiUere, [i\ace4 i>;';iav>\n \i[i 

our Nortbem Hemiapheiv wbioh 1 
oaueplea tbe "diy latuf (Oau L 
9, 10), or itanda oier tbat nurtlieni 
part ofthe globe which, inDaiite't 
time, wu aoppoeed to be the tm^ 
port nnoovered bf lea. The North 
Pole "ii manifeit to nearly alt 
the nnooTeted part of the Earth;" 
and the South Pole "ii hlddsQ 
(toid nearly nil the uuoartTed 
part." CoBDi/o, Tr. iii. o. 6. 

* Tbe highest or culmlnatinc 
vault, above Jerusalem whei« tha 



lived. Thou hast thy feet upon a little sphorej wliiuh 
forms the other face ' of the Judeoca. Here it is 
mom, when it is evening there : and this Fiend, 
who made a ladder for us with liis hair, is still fixed 
as he was before. On thia side foil he down from 
Heaven ; and here the land, which erst stood ont, 
througli fear of him veiled itself witli sea, and came 
to our hemisphere : and perhaps, in onler to escape 
from him, that which on thia side appears,* left here 
the empty space, and upwards rushed." 

Down there, from Beelzebub as fai- removed as 
his tomb extends, is a space,* not known by sight 

Ta hai i piedi in bu picciola spera, 
Che r dlra fsccia fit della Giudocca. 

Qui b da man, quando di lu fi sera : 
E queati, che ne fe' scala col pelo, 
Fitto i ancora, el come prima era. 

Da qiiesta parte cadJe giil dal Cielo : 
£ ]a terra, che pria di qua si sporee, 
Per paiua di lui fe' del mar velo, 

E venne all' emiaporio uostro ; e forse 
Per fuggir lui laacii qui il luogo voto 
QueUa che appot di qiio, e su ricoise. 

Luogo & laggiii da Belxehd rimoto 
Tanto, quanto k tomba d disteude, 

Divino Man " 

u JeraaoleiD : I hiLvu let it ia tl 
midit of tbe nstiDC!!," ka. In 
n eititio ffeatiu 
h lie. Eiek. 1. 3. 

' Tha face wbich look* towanli 
Hekven imd not toviusla Bell. 

* Or the Uoont ol Furgatoiy : 
antipodiH of Jemsaleio. 

' An open spftoe, wbich goea 
from B«tiliebub, "Piiiioa olJ>- 




but by ilie sound of a rivulet descending in it^ along 
the hollow of a rock which it has eaten out with 
tortuous course and slow declivity.* The Guide and 
I entered by that hidden road, to return into the 
bright world : and, without caring for any rest, we 
mounted up, he first and I second, so far that I dis- 
tinguished through a round opening the beauteous 
things which Heaven bears; and thence we issued 
out, again to see tlie Stars. 

Che non per vista, ma per suono fe note 
D' un niscelletto, cho quivi disccndo 

Per la buca d' un sasso, ch' egli ha roso 

Col corse ch' egli a\^olgo o poco pendo. 
Lo Diica ed io per quel canimiiio ascoso 

Entrammo a ritomar nel chiaro mondo ; 

E senza cura aver d' alcim riposo 
Salimmo su, ei prime ed ie secondo, 

Xante cli* io vidi delle cese belle 

Che porta il Ciel, per un pertugie tonde : 
E quindi uscimmo a riveder lo stelle. 



vils,** to the opposite surface of I bonds little" or gently downwards. 

the earth : or as far as his tomb 
of Hell goes on the other side. 

^ Lit. : "Has gnawed out with 
the ooorse which it winds and 

It flows in a spiral direction and 
by slow d^^rees. It is the stream- 
let of Sin from Puigatoiy, which 
also flows baok to Satan. 



I ..' 









Abah degli, Boocm xnii. lOB. 

Buoao, irr. 140. 


AbboElUto, ixii. 132. 

AlBXMiclor. ui. 107 ; riy. 31. 

Abel, iv. 56. 

Alawio Interminei, rriu. 122. 

Abraham, iv. £8. 

Aleolo, ii. 47. 

Abnalom, xiriiL 137. 


Accono, Franoesco, xv. 110. 

Alichino, ui 118 1 nJi. 112. 

Aohenm, iii. 78 ; xW. 110, 

Alp., IK. 02. 

Aohme^; xiLTI; uri. IS; 

Ponnine, n. BB. 


Altafurte (Hautafort), xxix. 39. 

AmiiliiiuTnii, xiL. 31. 

Aorc, uvii. 89, 

Amphiuu, utiii 11. 

Adam, iii. 116 ; iv. 65. 

M«tM, «i. CI ic 

AnaiBgotM. iv. 137. 

Adige, ri™. rii. 8. 

AMhisei^ L 74. 

.figina, xit(. G9. 

And™*, St.. JBOopo d», xiii 1S3. 


.&0P. fftble of, «iii 4. 

Ann», niiL 121. 

L ^tn* (MongilwUo), xiv. 6a 

Awelmucdo. .jxiii. BO. 

■ Agtunolto de' Ouidi. ux. 77. 

Anbcus, xxiL 100. 

Antenor*. Midi 88. 

H Alardo, ixviiL IS. 

ADtiocbtu, lii. 87. 

H Ahitbophel, uviii 137. 

Ap«nmn<«, ivi 96 ; mrii 20. 

■ Alherigu, Friar, niiii 118. 

Apugliii, uviiL 9. 

■ Alberta dn Siems nii. IFO. 

Aiwlme, ivii. 18. 

H degli Alberti. uxtL 67. 

Arbio, rivar, x. 80. 

Arctiiiea, uii. R ; xxi. 31. 

H rri.41. 

Aretha™, nv. 97. 

■ Alewandra de" Ooidi, ««. 77. 

Areuo, iiU. 109. ^^ 


ArgBBti, FiUHHi, viiL 61. 

Boraicri, Guglielmo, x-ri. 70. 

Aigivea, IIviiL 84. 

Bnui« Dorii, ujuiL 137, 140. 

Arudne, liL 20. 

Bruida, foimt, xii. 78. 

AjiitoUB, iv. 131 i xi. lOL 

Brenta. river, xt. 5. 

Ai'lei, ix. 112. 

BreKii, XX. 6*. 

Anio, liji. 1«; K. 113; uiii 

S5; III.05; xiiiiLsa. 

Briweos. xxxi 98. 


BrigaU, xxxiii. 89. 

Arthut, King, niiL 62. 


Arung, u. 4G. 

BciinelleuU, Agnello, xxv. 63. 

Awiano, Cmmr d', nit 131. 

Bninetto Utini, xv. 30 Sc 

Asdente of Puma, ix. 118. 

Brutni, Ludiu Janiiw, iv. 127. 

Athamnii, in. 4. 

Maroui Jimim, xxxlv. 63. 

Atlieni, xiL 17. 

AtropoB, xxjiii 126. 

Balieune, xiv. 79. 

AttiKiii. 134iiiiil4S, 

Aupatu., i. 7L 

Baontoro de" Dati, ixi, 41. 

Aulu, XX. 111. 

Boom d* Duent, xxiiu 11& 

Ayen&ie, mount, xxy. 2B. 


Avotrhotf, iv. 144. 

do'Dolinti.iii. 44. 

Avicoima, IT. 143. 

CMci* d'AKUno, xxix. 13L 

AzioliQo M Eite, lii 110. 

cmm, xxv. as. 

Cadmiu, xiy. 97. 

Biwliui,oily(rf, IX©. 

Bntiice, ii TO ; x. 131; xiL SS; 

Oadttnd, IT. 4. 

I*. 90. 

Csnr, JnHos, L TO ; iv. 1S3 ; 

Boccuu, xuiL US. 


B«b»bub, ludT. 127, 

Bella, Gcri dol, iiii. 27. 

CiOioni, XL 50. 

BenncDi, lAke, u. 03 iu. 

Cnio, II. 126. 

Cuiu,v. 107;xxiiL6a 

Bcrtninil dx Bom, xxyiiL VH. 

CJoahriiu, xiL 118 ; uiL 133. 

Biimolii. iiiv. 150. 

Oiioh>». XL. ua 

Bucazio, lifer, uull 5G. 

CuniccioD de'Puii, xxxii 6& 

Boora d%U Abati, iixii. lOti. 

CjuaOiiL, L 107 ; iv. 124. 

Bolognt, xxiiL 142. 

Ciuooiuctt, Val. XI. 6S. 

Cuicellisri, xuii 63. 


C»puieiu, liv. 02 : xsT. IS. 

Bonatti, Cuido, ii. 118. 


Boaifiwo Vm., lii. 63; xivii. 

Cipiuia, ute, xsxill «L 


Cuprona, ru. 'JG. 





Cardinal degU Ul»iaiiu, x. 120. 

CololuH, ITiiL H7. 

Cnruondn, tower, uu. 136. 

Cologne, monks of, uiiL 63. 

Carlino da'Puzzi, T^«ii. (S. 

Coloonm tsmily, mil 80. 

Camrwie, u. 4S. 

CawLlodi. «. 93. 

Coraeliis iv. 138. 

Cueotiiio, vallef, ux. 66. 

Coraato, dtr, xiii. »■ 

Cw.ero, Guido dd, uriiL 77. 


Cudai, uiiv. G7. 

Crete, lii. 12; liv. 95. 

Cirtel Bl Augelo, xTiiL 32. 

Curio, ULriiL 93,102. 

Catoluio, FrisT, inU. lOi, U4. 

Cyolopei, liv. 56. 

Cto, ^T. 15. 

Cyp™, nviiL 82. 

Oittolica, uviii 80. 

Dirdalui^ ivii 111; uii. 116. 

Cavaloanti, CavalcaDte, de', i. GO. 

Damictta, oy. 104. 

Dicubo, uiii. 27. 

Gianni, in. 32, M. 

Darid, iv. 58 ; uviU. 133. 

Guido. 1. 63. 

Deidunia, utL 62. ^^H 

Cnnu, li 111. 

Dcjuiii^ liL 68. ^^^^H 

OedOA, liver, liiL 9. 

Demooiitui, iv. 136. ^^^^H 


61, 86. ^^^^H 

Centaoni, xii Gfl &0.; ur. 17. 

Diogcnoi, iv. 137. 


Diomede, xxvi 66. 


DioDyiiu^ tynuit, xiL 107. 

OBTTim xxviL 42. 

DioMoridei., W. 140. 

Cosona, uvii. 52. 

Di> (Satan), viiL 68 ; i. 66 ; lil. 

Oenta, xivi 11. 


ChuM, xii4a 

Doloino, Fm", xxTiiL 55. 


Don, rivar, ..^1, 27. 

Chnroa, iU. M, IW. 138. 

Donati de', Buowi, ux. 44. 


Cian/a, xiv. 43. 

Doria, Bnuica, xxiiiL 137, 14a 


Duera, Buww da, xuii. lift. 


ElMtn, iv. 12L 

OhristUa*. iiTTiL 68. 

Eliial^ ixvL 30. 


Eliili*, xiyi. 34. ^^m 

Empodoclei, iv. 138. ^^^^H 

Cfufn de' Dcnukti, xxr. 43. 

Epbialtea. xiii M. ^^^^H 


Bpicunu, X. 14. ^^^H 

Oiriitto, 1M.122; BdLCS. 

Ericlitho, U. 23. ^H 

Olemant V., ^i^. 83. 

Erinnya, ix. 4& H 


Eate, AxtoUiio da, liL lia H 

K Ooojtoi, liT. U9 ; mi 123 ; 

Obiaio. lii 111; iviiL GG. V 

m KXxiiL ISO ; xuiv. 52. 

Etcooltui, xivi. 51. H 



Ethiopia, ixiv. 8U ; iuIt . 45. 

GariDani, ivil. 21. 

Eudid, iv. 142. 

0«yon, xiii. 97 io. 

EuryalM, i. 108. 

Ghiiok, XTiiL 55. 

Eorypjlos, xx. 112. 

Faenai, xxvii. 49 ; mii. 123. 

Gianni del SolJaiuer, ludi. ISl. 

Fuio, ixviii. T& 

Gianni SchieoM, ux. 32, 44. 

Ftrinata, *i 79 ; i. 32. 

Giovanni. St., oiniroh. iji. IT- 


Godenti, Ftati, xiiii 103. 

FiowlB, brutes of, iv. fB. 

Gomita. Fra-, xxE SL 

FiUppo ArgeatU ™i- 01. 

Gorgon, ii. 66. 

FiBhM, gigD of, li. U3. 

GotBona. Ula. iixiiL 82. 


OuvBma, II. 78. 

Floracce. i. 92 ; »iii.l43; xvi. 

Greece, xi. 88, 108. 

75 ; jiiiL 9S ; iiiv. 144 ; ixvl 

Greeki, uvL 76 ; ixx. W. 112. 

1; mil. 130. 


OmOuidi, uiiil 32. 

73;iTiL70; uiiii 12. 

Gnaldrada, ifL 37. 

Guidi, County xu. 77. 

Foeara, mount, uviii. 89, 


ForU, ivl Ui) ; xxvii 4;!. 

Cavaloante. i. 63. 

Fortona, vit 78 ic. 

del Cawero, uriji 7T. 

Franoa. »ii.87. 


Fran™™, ■-. 74 &c. 

da Montefeltro, iKriL 07 k 

Franoosco <1' Aooorso. it. 110. 

Fnmoi^ Saint, UTii. 112. 

Gueliolnio Bonieil, i«i. Ta 

French, xiviL 44 ; xjU. 123 ; 

GniacMd, Robert, uriii. 14. 

raii. 115. 

Hannibal, iixi. U7. 


iiii.EO, eS; ixilLGa 

Hector, iv. 123. 



Helena, v. W. 

FuriM, U. 38 4e. 

Heraolihu. iv. 13& 

Gaddo, uxiii. 68. 

Hereulc>, ur. 32 ; iXTi. 101 

Q«ta, iivi, 02. 


Galen, iv. 143. 

Gallura, nil 82: 

Homer, f*. Hft. 

Horaoe. iv. 89. 

Oarda, lake, ii. 65. 

Hypaipjle, xviii. 02. 

Jioob, Patriaroh. Iv, SO. 

GarilU, iir. 15L 

Jaoopo da St. ADilrea, iM. 131 

Genoi-M, xxxiiLlRL 



JawB, Aisonant, xrU. 86. 



^^^HI^^h^^jKM ^^^H 


Jwon, Hobniw, idx, 85. 

LoBodoro, uiL 89. 

Icami, iTiL 109, 

' Ida, mount, «iv. 98. 

Jehouphat^ ritllef ot, x. 11. 

Lotto degUA«li,iiii. 151. 

Luoan, iv. 90 ; nr. M. 

Jiuiu Chriit lUlnded to, ir. 53; 

Lnoca, iviii 122 ; xxL 38 ; uiiii 

iiiiv. H5. 


JewB, iiiiL123; nvil 87. 

LucU. a 97, 100. 


Luoitur, 3t«i. 143 ; noiv. 89. 

Indi., xiv. 3a 

Luoretui, iv. 128. 

latanninei, Altsiio, tviiL 122. 

Jolm, Evangelkt, lii. 106. 

Muccuboea, lix. R<i. 

Biptiat, liiL 143 ; xix. 74. 

Jo«ph, tii. 97. 


JoTe,iir.S2: xiiL 415,02. 

Mfthomot, xiviiL 31 do. 

IM^ Patrinrch, iv. 69. 

Majoroa, xxviiL 82. 

It»ly.tl06;ut.U4; xt 61. 

ladtM tflouiot, U. 27; sii. 9S ; 

MJ»te«»di Siniini, xivii.4a. 

iuL143;iiiiT. 62. 

Giueiotti and Paolo, v. 

Judeoia, iixiT. 117. 

Maltertino. iiviiL 85. 

JnUi, i». 128. 

Milebolgc, xviii. 1 ; vay. .17 ; 

Juno, ux. L 

nv. 5 i uix. 41. 

Limlwrti de', Mo«ja, uriii. 106. 

Ualebreocbe, isni. 23 kc 

Luuone, river, xxviL 4!^. 

Manfredi, All^rigo, uxiii Ua 

Lftnoelot. V. 128. 

TribaldoUo, ma 122. 

lAofrftnobi, TTTiti. 32. 

Hanto, II. fiS&o. 

Lnno, xjii. 120. 

lUntim, II. 93. 

Latenui, nYiL 86. 

MAutnuni, i. 119 ; ii. 58. 

Lktiuw (ItalianB), xiii. 65 ; mviL 

MoroubA, castle, Iiviii 75. 

33; nut. 88, 9L 

Latini, Brnniitto, ir. 30 Jw. 

Man, jdlL 144 i iii».146; mt 

lAtiaua, King, iv. 129. 


latium, iiviL 27 ; uvUL 71. 

M.rtia, iv. 128. 

lAvinia, iv. 126. 

Lwnihiu, xzi. ^ la 

lUHbaw, ApostlB, xix. 94. 

Leam«^ iiU, rriii. Sa 

Mtcl«, iviii. 90. 

_ Lethe, ur. 131, 136. 


L Libioodco, «i 121; nU. 70. 

Modott, ii. 63. 

1 libjt, ixiv. BS. 

Megwn. ii. 46. ^^^_ 

1 Limbo, iv. 45 Jic 

1 LivT.iy.lU; uviiL 13. 

■ Lodeiioso. Friar, uiiL 101 

Mioluel Soot, ix. ll^^^^^^^^^M 


Hiebele Znnabe, xxiL S8; xixiii 

\S. ^^^^M 


Paol, Apcwtle, ii 32. ^^H 

Mincio. river, n. 77. 

Pazii,rii.l37; 3[ndL68. 

MiiH-, T. 4 ; riii. 96 ; XX. 36 ; 

pBlem. iiKi. 6. 

iiTu. 124 ; nil. 120. 

Penelope, Hvi 96. 


Penertrino, nvu. 102. 

MontAtfTui pBTcitati, xiviL 47. 

PeriUuB. u™. 7. 

Po«MBra, n. 70. 

Pator, Saint, L 134 ; ii. 3* ; rf« 

Montone, river, ivi 94. 


Motdrec, luiL 6L 

Phaeton. xiriL 107. 

Mow. lie' Lainberti, xxviii. 106. 

PhfJuri.. xiviL 7. 

Mo«». IT. 57. 

Phoriuem uiiL 116: uvfi. ffi. 

Mom do'. Andrea, rv. U2. 

Philip the Fur. xit 86. 

— Roooo. liiL 143. 

Myrrha, xu. 38. 

Phlegyw, viiL m. 34. 

Phtwiii, xiiv. 107. 

NareiMiu. iix. 128. 


N&aidiiu, uv. 95. 

Photiniu. ii. & 

NaTirre, uii 48. 

Piceno-B field, uIt. 128, 

Neptune, uviii. f«. 

Pier da Medirina, nriiL 73. 

Neri, ™t. 143. 


Neuun. CenUDT, liL 67 ±0. 

Niccolft de-Boniignori. ixii. 127. 

Piniuuouto. IX. 9S. 

Nioholo* IIL, Pope, rii. 31 Ao. 

PiBa. xxxiiL 70. 


Piauu, xxxiU. 30. 

Nimrod, uii 77. 

ri«toiA, xxiv. 1S6, 143: ur. 10. 


Plato, iv. 134. 

Nians, i. 108. 

Platui, vl 115 ; viL 2. 

Novareie, xrviiL 69. 

Po.», 98;xx.78. 

ObUio d' Eite, liL U7; iviii 

PdIa, oit;, ii. lia 


Polont»,T. UG;iivii.«. 

OrdeUffi. uriL 46. 

Polydonu, XIX. 17. 

OrUndo. xut 17. 

Polynloe*. xxvL 64. 

Orphem. iv. 140. 

Folrieu, iix. 17. 

Oniai, rii. 7a 

Pmto, town, iri a 

Orid, iv. 90 ; HV. 97. 


F>duuii.xT.7; iviiL67. 

Priiwi«n, IV. 109. 

Pagano, Muhiuirda. mril 5a 

Pklkdinm, xiTi. S3. 

Ptftlonue*, xxxiii. 124. 





1 PjTThuB, jdL !3.i. 

SiBLfl, ndx. 109, 129. 

1 Quinuiro, gulf. ii. 113. 

Sienese, uii. 122. 

1 B«l.el,iL102:i..6O. 

Savertro, Pope, xli. 117; urii. 

P RAvenno, v. 07 ; xirJL 4a 


BedSe»,iiiv. 90. 

SimoQ UigQi, idi. 1. 

Beno, river, iviii. 6L 

SinoB, III. 98 ko. 

Khai, xiT. 100. 

Sinaondi, Xliiii. 32. 

Ehono, UTiii S6. 

Hinier da Oomato, la. 137. 

Sodom, li. W. 

Pa«Hi. lii 137. 

SolOiuiec, GUnni del, tixU. 121. 

Bob*rt OuLward. ariU. Ut 

Soraote, monnt, xivii, 96. 

Bonugnk, uviL 37; nxUL LM. 

Stricca, xrix. 135. 

EomMM, K». 77 ; K-riU. 28; ixtL 

Styi, viilOe; U. 81; «t. 116. 

00 ; xiviii. 10. 

Home. L 71; ii. 30; tiv. 105; 

Tagliacotjm, plun, xxriiL 18^ 


Tarquin, iv, 127. 

Rotuena, cHtle, in. 73. 

Tartan, ivii 17. 

T^hiaio, vi. 79 ; ivL 41. 

Ru8li<mooi,vi80; iri. «. 

Thai., uviiL 133. 

Sabellui, xiT. OS. 

Thalea. iv. 137. 

Thames lu. 120. 

Suttenia, river, ixvli 49. 

Tbebani, ii. 32; ixx. 2; 

Tliobea, lir. 69 ; n. 69 ; ixv. 

IG; XXX. 22; uxiL 11; mJii, 


BaUn, va 1. Sea Dto. 

Theieiu. U. M. 

Sttum, XiT. 90. 

TWbault, King, ixiL 52. 

Saveiu, rimr, iriii BL 

Tibor, xiriL SO. 

Sario, riTer, uciL 52. 

Tiroiai, II. 4a 

Tirirhone, ii. 48. 

Bohicehi, GJuml, m. 32, 44. 

TityM, liiL 124. 


Toppo, joiuta of, liiL 121. 

^ Scot, Michael, IX. lis. 

TrBnt. ni 6 ; xj. 67. 

■ Bemele, ux. 3. 

TribaldeUo, uxiL 122. 

Trirtan, *. 87. 

^L fiaDwa, i*. 141. 

Troy. L 74 ; ixi. M 4a 

^n>«<U4 tirer, ui. 49. 

■Mlj. It. 14L 

^Kilftfi^xz. 126; xxn. 110. 

Tnrlra, xriL 17. 



■^ BdliMn Bull, ixviL 7. 

Tueati, xiiL 9S; iiiiL TO, 91 i 

■ Bid^, ziL 108. 




Tuscany, xxiv. 122. 
TydeuB, xxxii. 130. 
Typhon, xxxi. 124. 
Tyrol, XX. 63. 

Ubaldiiii degli, Ottaviano, x. 

Bnggieii, tttiii. 14. 

Ubbriachi, xviL 62. 
Uberti, xxiii 108. 

Farinata, vi 79 ; x. 32. 

Ugolino, xxxiL 125 ; xxx. 1 &c. 
Uguccione, xxxiiL 89. 
Ulysses, xxvi 56 &c 
Urbino, xxvii 29. 
Val Camonioa, xx. 65. 

Valdichiana, xxix. 47. 
Valdimagra, xxiv. 145. 
Vanni della Nona, xxiv. 139. 
Yanni Fuooi, xxiv. 125. 
Venetians, xxi 7. 
Vercelli, xxviiL 75. 
Verona, xv. 122. 
Veronese, xx. 68. 
Verucchio, castle, xxviL 46. 
Viflo, mount, xvi 95. 
Vigne, Pier delle, xiiL 58w 
2anche, Michele, xxii. 88 ; ^^^111 

Zeno, iv. 138. 
Zita, Santa, xxi 38. 


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